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. OAPPS, Ph.D., LL.D. T. E. PAGE, Lirr.D. W. H. D. BOUSE, Litt.D. 






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F.B.A., F.R.S. 





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Ooiv. UDrory^ uruv. s.^iu.^ :>oncQ Cn^ 

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BOOK II 127 


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Vol. L 
P, 73 For " Thestius " read ** Agrius." 

Vol. II. 
P. 54. For "later version" retid "earlier version." 

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I. — ^Thk Author and His Book. 

Nothing is positively known, and little can be 
conjectured with any degree of probability, con- 
cerning the author of the Library, Writing in the 
ninth century of our era the patriarch Photius calls 
bim Apollodorus the Grammarian,^ and in the manu- 
scripts of his book he is described as Apollodorus 
the Athenian, Grammarian. Hence we may con- 
clude that Photius and the copyists identified our 
author with the eminent Athenian gramn\arian of 
that name, who flourished about 140 b.c. and wrote 
a number of learned works, now lost, including an 
elaborate treatise On the Gods in twenty-four books, 
and a poetical, or at all events versified. Chronicle in 
four books.* But in modern times good reasons 
have been given for rejecting this identification,* 

^ Photius, Bibliotheca, p. 142a, 37 sq.^ ed. Bekker. 

• W. Christ, Oeechichte der griecMachen LUteraJtur (Nord- 
liugen, 1889), pp. 455 aqq, ; Schwartz, in Paul^-Wissowa, 
R^U-Encydopdaie der claasichen Alteriumawisaenachafl^ 
i. 2855 aqq. The fragments of Apollodorus are collected 
in C. Miiiler's Fragmenta Hiatoricorum Oraecorum, i. 428 aqq, 

• This was first fully done by Professor 0. Robert in his 
learned and able dissertation De ApoUodari Bibliotheca 
(Berlin, 1873). In what follows I accept in the main his 
arguments and conclusions. 

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and the attribution of the Library to the Athenian 
grammarian is now generally abandoned. For the 
treatise On the Gods appears^ from the surviving 
fragments and references, to have differed entirely 
in scope and method from the existing Uhrary, 
The aim of the author of the book On the Gods seems 
to have been to explain the nature of the deities on 
rationalistic principles, resolving them either into 
personified powers of nature ^ or into dead men and 
women,* and in his dissections of the divine nature 
he appears to have operated freely with the very 
flexible instrument of etymology. Nothing could 
well be further from the spirit and method of the 
mythographer, who in the Library has given us a 
convenient summary of the traditional Greek myth- 
ology without making the smallest attempt either to 
explain 'or to criticize it. And apart from this 
general dissimilarity between the works of the 
grammarian and of the mythographer, it is possible 
from the surviving fragments of Apollodorus the 
Grammarian to point to many discrepancies and 
contradictions in detail. ^ 

Another argument against the identification of 
the mythographer with the grammarian is that the 
author of the Library quotes the chronicler Castor ; * 

1 Joannes Lydus, De Mensibus, iv. 27 ; Fragmenta 
Historicorum Uraecontm, iv. 649. 

^ Athenagoras, Supplicatio pro Ohrisiianis, 28, p. 150, ed. 
Otto; Fragmenta Htstoricorum Qraecorwn, i. 431, frag. 12. 

* See O. Robert, De ApoUodori Bibliotheca, pp. 12 sqq. 

* Apollodorus, BiblwAeca^ ii. 1. 3. ' 

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for this Castor is supposed to be a contemporary of 
Cicero and the author of a history which he brought 
down to the year 61 b.c.^ If the chronicler's date is 
thus correctly fixed, and our author really quoted 
him, it follows that the Labrary is not a work of the 
Athenian grammarian Apollodorus, since it cannot 
have been composed earlier than about the middle 
of the first century b.c. But there seems to be no 
good ground for disputing either the date of the 
chronicler or the genuineness of our author's re- 
ference to him; hence we may take it as fairly 
certain that the middle of the first century b.c. is 
the earliest possible date that can be assigned to the 
composition of the Library. 

Further than this we cannot go with any 
reasonable certainty in attempting to date the work. 
The author gives no account of himself and never 
refers to contemporary events : indeed the latest oc- 
currences recorded by him are the death of Ulysses 
and the return of the Heraclids. Even Rome and 
the Romans are not once mentioned or alluded to 
by him. For all he says. about them, he might have 
lived before Romulus and Remus had built the future 
capital of the world on the Se^en Hills. 

^ Suidas, 8,v, Kdcrrap ; Strabo, xii. 5. 3, p. 568 ; W. Christ, 
OeachicJUe der griechtachen Litteratur, p. 430. He married 
the daughter of King Deiotarus, whom Cicero defended in 
his speech Pro rege D&iotaro, but he was murdered, together 
with his wife, by his royal father-in-law. Among his 
writings, enumerated by Suidas, was a work XpoviKh ikyvoii- 


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And his silence on this head is all the more 
remarkable because the course of his work would 
naturally have led him more than once to touch 
on Roman legends. Thus he describes how Her- 
cules traversed Italy with the cattle of Geryon 
from Liguria in the north to Rhegium in the 
souths and how from Rhegium he crossed the 
straits to Sicily.^ Yet in this narrative he does not 
so much as mention Rome and Latium^ far less tell 
the story of the hero's famous adventures in the 
eternal city. Again^ after relating the capture and 
sack of Troy he devotes some space to describing 
the dispersal of the heroes and their settlement in 
many widely separated countries, including Italy 
and Sicily. But while he mentions the coming of 
Philoctetes to Campania,^ and apparently recoimted 
in some detail his wars and settlement in Southern 
Italy,3 he does not refer to the arrival of Aeneas in 
Latium, though he had told the familiar stories, so 
dear to Roman antiquaries, of that hero's birth from 
Aphrodite * and his escape from Troy with his father 
Anchises on his back.^ From this remarkable silence 
we can hardly draw any other inference than that 
the writer was either unaware of the existence of 
Rome or deliberately resolved to ignore it. He 

^ The Library, ii. 6. 10. 2 Epitome^ vi. 15. 

• Epitome, vi. 156. It is to be noted, however, that this 
passage is not found in our manuscripts of Apollodorus but 
has been conjecturally restored to his text from the Scholia 
on Lycophron of Tzetzes. 

* The Library, iii. 12. 2. » Epitome, iii. 21. 


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cannot have been unaware of it if he wrote, as is 
now generally believed, under the Roman Empire. 
It remains to suppose that, living with the evidence 
of Roman power all around him, and familiar as he 
must have been with the claims which the Romans 
set up to Trojan descent,^ he carefully abstained from 
noticing these claims, though the mention of them 
was naturally invited by the scope and tenor of his 
work. It must be confessed that such an obstinate 
refusal to recognize the masters of the world is 
somewhat puzzling, and that it presents a serious 
difficulty to the now prevalent view that the author 
was a citizen of the Roman empire. On the other 
hand it would be intelligible enough if he wrote in 
some quiet corner of the Greek world at a time 
when Rome was still a purely Italian power, when 
rumours of her wars had hardly begun to trickle 
across the Adriatic, and when Roman sails had not 
yet shown themselves in the Aegean. 

As Apollodorus ignored his contemporaries, so 
apparently was he ignored by them and by posterity 
for many generations. The first known writer to 
quote him is Photius in the ninth century a.d., and 
the next are John and Isaac Tzetzes, the learned 
Byzantine grammarians of the twelfth century, who 
made much use of his book and often cite him by 

^ Juvenal repeatedly speaks of the old Roman nobility 
as Troiugenae (i. 100, viii. 181, xi. 95); and the same term 
is used by SiUus Italicus {Punic, xiv. 117, xvi. 658) as 
equivalent to Romans. 

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name.^ Our author is named and quoted by scholiasts 
on Homer,^ Sophocles,* and Euripides.^ Further, 
many passages of his work have been interpolated, 
though without the mention of their author's name, in 
the collection of proverbs which Zenobius composed 
in the time of Hadrian.^ But as we do not know 
when the scholiasts and the interpolator lived, their 
quotations furnish us with no clue for dating the 

Thus, so far as the external evidence goes, our 
author may have written at any time between the 
middle of the first century b.c. and the beginning of 
the ninth century a.d. When we turn to the in- 
ternal evidence furnished by his language, which is 
the only remaining test open to us, we shall be 
disposed to place his book much nearer to the earlier 
than to the later of these dates. For his Greek 
style, apart from a few inaccuracies or solecisms, is 
fairly correct and such as might not discredit a 
writer of the first or second century of our era. 
Even turns or phrases, which at first sight strike 
the reader as undoubted sjrmptoms of a late or 
degenerate Greek, may occasionally be defended by 
the example of earlier writers. For example, he 

^ See e.g, Tzetzes, Scholia on Lycophron, 178, 355, 440, 
1327 ; id., ChUiades, i. 557. 

« Scholiast on Homer, II, i. 42, 126, 195 ; ii. 103, 494. 

* Scholiast on Sophocles, AnjUgone, 981, ravra 8* hrop^T 

* Scholiast on JBuripides, Alcestia, 1. 

* As to the date of Zenobius, see Suidas, 8,v, Zriy6fiios, 

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once uses the phrase raU hXrf$€tcu^ in the sense of 
" in very truth." ^ Unquestionably this use of the 
plural is common enough in late writers,* but it is 
not unknown in earlier writers, such as Polybius,' 
Alcidamas/ and even Isocrates.^ It occurs in some 
verses on the unity of God, which are attributed to 
Sophocles, but which appear to be undoubtedly 
spurious.^ More conclusive evidence of a late date 
is furnished by our author s use of the subjunc- 
tive with tva, where more correct writers would 
have employed the infinitive;^ and by his occasional 
employment of rare words or words used in an 
unusual sense.^ But such blemishes are comparatively 
rare. On the whole we may say that the style of 
ApK)llodorus is generally pure and always clear, 

» ii. 7. 7. 

• For examples see Babrius, Ixxv. 19, with Rutherford's 
note ; Tzetzes, 8choL on Lycophnm^ 522 ; Scholiast on 
Homer, IL ix. 557 ; Scholiast on ApoUonius Rhodius, ii. 178, 
iv. 815. » Polvbius, x. 40. 5, ed. Dindorf. 

^ Alcidamas, OdyaaeuSy 13, p. 179 in Blass's edition of 
Antiphon. However the genuineness of the Odyaaeua is 
much disputed. See Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encyclopddie der 
classichen AUertumswissetischafi, i. 1536. 

• Isocrates, xv. 283, vol. ii. p. 168, ed. Benseler. 

• TA« FragmerUa of Sophocles, edited by A. C. Pearson 
(Cambridge, 1917), vol. iii. p. 172, frag. 1126, with Jebb's 
note, p. 174, 

^ i. 4. 2, avv$€fi4vwif 8c ahruv Kva . . . Sta^ : i. 9. 15, j^r^craTo 
waph {JLOipStv %va . . . &iroAv^ : iii. 12. 6, ifoiiiffafiivov tbx^f 
*HpaK\4ovs Iva avr^ irais yiyrirai: Epitomey v. 17, S6^av bI 
roTs woWois tva airrhv idtrcoffi. 

• For ex&mple iKrpox<I^C*tt^9 "to run out'* (ii. 7. 3), Trpoa- 
avix^ip, **to favour" (ii. 8. 4). For more instances see 
C. Robert, De ApoUodori Bibliotheca, pp. 42 «gg. 


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simple^ and unaffected, except in the very rare 
instances where he spangles his plain prose with a 
tag from one of his poetical sources.^ But with all 
his simplicity and directness he is not an elegant 
writer. In particular the accumulation of participles, 
to which he is partial, loads and clogs the march of 
his sentences. 

From a consideration of his style, and of all 
the other evidence. Professor C. Robert inclines 
to conclude that the author of the Ldbrary was a 
contemporary of Hadrian and lived in the earlier 
part of the first century a.d.^ Another modern 
scholar, W. Christ, even suggested so late a date 
for the composition of the work as the reign of 
Alexander Severus in the third century a.d.* To 
me it seems that we cannot safely say more than 
that the Library was probably written at some time 
in either the first or the second century of our era. 
Whether the author s name was really Apollodorus, 
or whether that name was foisted on him by the 
error or fraud of scribes, who mistook him or desired 
to palm him off on the public for the famous 
Athenian grammarian, we have no means of de- 
ciding. Nor, apart from the description of him by 
the copyists as '^ Apollodorus the Athenian," have 

* See for example his description of the Cretan labyrinth 
as olierifia Kaixwais iro\v'irK6KOis tcXtkvStp r^v t^oZov (ill. 1. 3, 
compare iii. 15. 8) ; and his description of Typhon breathing 
fire, iroW^iv h\ ix rod trrifAoros irupbi i^ifipturfft (dXriP (i. 6. 3). 

^ C. Robert, De ApoUodori BibUotheca, pp. 40 aq. 

' W. Christ, Oeschichte der griechiachen lAUeraiur, p. 571. 


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we anj clue to the land of his birth. He himself is 
silent on that as on every other topic concerning 
himself. But from some exceedingly slight indi- 
cations Professor C. Robert conjectures that he was 
indeed an Athenian.^ 
y Turning now from the author to his book^ we may 
describe the IJbrary as a plain unvarnished sunmiary 
of Greek myths and heroic legends^ as these were 
recorded in literature ; for the writer makes no 
claim to draw on oral tradition^ nor is there the least 
evidence or probability that he did so : it may be 
taken as certain that he derived all his information 
^m books al(me. But he used excellent authorities 
»nd followed them faithfully^ reporting, but seldom 
or never attempting to explain or reconcile, their 
discrepancies and contradictions.' Hence his book 
possesses documentary value as an accurate record 
of what the Greeks in general believed about the 
origin and early history of the world and of their 
race. The very defects of the writer are in a sense 
advantages which he possessed for the execution 
of the work he had taken in hand. He was neither 
a philosopher nor a rhetorician, and therefore lay 
Under no temptation either to recast his materials 
under the influence of theory or to embellish them 

^ C. Robert, De ApoUodori Bibliotheca, pp. Hag. Amongst 
these indications is tne author's acquaintance with the ** sea 
of Erechtheus " and the sacred olive-tree on the Acropolis of 
Athens. See ApoUodorus, iii. 14. 1. 

* This is recognized by Professor 0. Robert, Dt Apollodori 
BibUoiheca, p. 54. 


VOL. I. b 

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for the sake of literary effect. He was a ccnnmon 
man^ who accepted the traditions of his coantrj in 
their plain literal sense, apparently without any 
doubt or misgiving. Only twice, among the many 
discrepant or contradictory views which he reports 
without wincing, does he venture to express a pre- 
ference for one over the other. The apples of the Hes- 
perides, he says, were not, as some people supposed, 
in Libya but in the far north, in the land of the 
Hyperboreans ; but of the existence of the wondrous 
fruit, and of the hundred-headed dragon which 
guarded them, he seemingly entertained no manner 
of doubt.^ Again, he tells us that in the famous 
dispute between Poseidon and Athena for tlie 
possession of Attica, the judges whom Zeus appointed 
to adjudicate on the case were not, as some people 
said, Cecrops and Cranaus, nor yet Erysichthon, but 
the twelve gods in person.* 

How closely Apollodorus followed his authorities 
may be seen by a comparison of his narratives with 
the extant originals from which he drew them, such 
as the Oedipus Tyranntts of Sophocles,* the Alcestis * 
and Medea ^ of Euripides, the Odyssey ^^ and above 
all the Argonautica of Apollonius RhodiusJ The 

* Apollodorus, ii. 5. 11. ■ Apollodorus, iii. 14. 1. 
" Apollodorus, iii. 3. 5. 7 aqq, * Apollodorus, i. 9. 15. 

• Apollodorus, i. 9. 28. • Apollodorus, Epitome, vii. 

' Apollodorus, it. 9. 16-26. Howerer, Apollodorus allowed 
himself occasionally to depart from the authority of Apollonius, 
for example, in regard to the death of Apsyrtus. See i. 
19. 24 M'ith the note ; and for other variations, see 0. Robert, 
D« ApoUodori Bibliotheca, pp. 80 sqq. 

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fidelity with which he reproduced or summarized the 
accounts of writers whose works are accessible to 
us inspires us with confidence in accepting his 
statements concerning others whose writings are 
lost. Among these, perhaps, the most important 
was Pherecydes of Leros, who lived at Athens in the 
first half of the fifth century b.c. and composed a 
long prose work on Greek myth and legend, which 
more than any other would seem to have served as 
the model and foundation for the Library of 
Apollodorus. It is unfortunate that the writings of 
Pherecydes have perished, for, if we may judge 
of them by the few fragments which survive, 
they appear to have been a treasure-house of Greek 
mythical and legendary lore, set forth with that 
air of simplicity and sincerity which charm us in 
Herodotus. The ground which he covered, and the 
method which he pursued in cultivating it, coincided 
to a large extent with those of our author. Thus 
he treated of the theogony, of the war of the gods 
and the giants, of Prometheus, of Hercules, of the 
Argive and the Cretan sagas, of the voyage of the 
Argo, and of the tribal or family legends of Arcadia, 
Laconia, and Attica ; and like Apollodorus he 
seems to have paid great attention to genealogies.^ 
Apollodorus often cites his opinion, and we cannot 
doubt that he owed much to the writings of his 

* See W. Christ, Qeachichte der ffriechiechen Litteratur 
p. 249 ; Fragmenia Hiatorieorum Oraeeorum, ed. C. Midler, 
1. 70 aqq. 


b 2 

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learned predecessor.^ Other lost writers whom our 
author cites, and from whose works he derived 
materials for his book, are the early Boeotian 
genealogist Acusilaus, who seems to have lived 
about 500 B.C., and Asclepiades of Tragilus, a pupil 
of Isocrates, in the fourth century B.C., who com- 
posed a treatise on the themes of Greek tragedies.* 

Compiled faithfully, if uncritically, from the best 
literary sources open to him, the Ubrary of Apollo- 
dorus presents us with a history of the world, as 
it was conceived by the Greeks, from the dark 
beginning down to a time when the mists of 
fable began to lift and to disclose the real actors 
on the scene. In other words, Apollodorus conducts 
us from the purely mythical ages, which lie far 
beyond the reach of human memory, down to the 
borderland of history. For I see no reason to doubt 
that many, perhaps most, of the legendary persons 
recorded by him were not fabulous beings, but 
men of flesh and blood, the memory of whose 
fortunes and family relationships survived in oral 

^ As to the obligations of Apollodorus to Pherecydes, see 
C. Robert, De ApoUodori Bibhotheca, pp. 66 sqq. 

* For the fragments of Acusilaus and Asclepiades, see 
Fragmenta Historicorum Oraecorumy ed. C. Miiller, i. 
101 sqq,f iii. 301 aqq. Another passage of Acusilaus, with 
which Apollodorus would seem to have been acquainted, has 
lately been discovered in an Egyptian papyrus. See The 
Oxyrhynchtis Papyri^ Part XIII, edited by B. P. Grenfell and 
A. S. Hunt (London, 1919), p. 133 ; and my note on Apollo- 
dorus, Epitome^ i. 22, rol. ii. p. 151. As to the obligations 
of Apollodorus to Acusilaus and Asclepiades, see C. Robert, 
De Apollodori BibUoiheca, pp. 68 sqq., 72 aqq. 

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tradition until they were embalmed in Greek liter- 
ature. It is true that in his book^ as in legend 
generally, the real and the fabulous elements blend 
so intimately with each other that it is often difficult 
or impossible to distinguish them. For example, 
while it seems tolerably certain that the tradition 
of the return of the Heraclids to Peloponnese is 
substantially correct, their ancestor Hercules a few 
generations earlier looms still so dim through the 
fog of {Me and romance that we can hardly say 
whether any part of his gigantic figure is solid, in 
other words, whether the stories told of him refer to 
a real man at all or only to a creature of fairyland.^ 

^ In favour of the view that Hercules was a man of flesh 
and blood, a native of Thebes, might be cited the annual 
sacrifice and funeral games celebrated by the Thebans at one 
of the gates of the city in honour of the children of Hercules 
(Pindar, Isthm. iv. 61 (104) aqq,, with the Scholiast) ; the 
statement of Herodotus (v. 59) that he had seen in the 
sanctuary of the Ismenian Apollo at Thebes a tripod bearing 
an inscription in '^Cadmean letters" which set forth that 
the tripod had been dedicated by Amphitryon, the human 
father of Hercules ; and again the statement of Plutarch 
(De genio SocraUs, 5 ; compare id. Lyaander^ 28) that the 
grave of Alcmena, mother of Hercules, at Haliartus had been 
opened by the Spartans and found to contain a small bronze 
armlet, two jars with petrified earth, and an inscription in 
strange and very ancient characters on a bronze tablet, which 
A^esilaus sent to the king of Egypt to be read by the 
priests, because the form of the inscription was supposed to 
be Egyptian. The kernel round whicn the Theban saga of 
Hercules gathered may perhaps have been the delivery of 
ThebcM from the yoke of the Minyans of Orchomenus ; for 
according to tradition Thebes formerly paid tribute to that 
ancient and once powerful people, and it was Hercules who 
not only freed his people from that badge of servitude, but 

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Again^ though the record of the old wars of Thebes 
and Troy is embellished or defaced by many mythical 
episodes and incidents^ we need not scruple to be- 
lieve that its broad outlines are true^ and that the 
principal heroes and heroines of the Theban and 
Trojan legends were real and not mythical beings. 

Of late years it has been supposed that the heroes 
and heroines of Greek legend are ^' faded gods/' that 
is, purely imaginary beings^ who have been first ex- 
alted to the dignity of deities^ and then degraded to a 
rank not much above that of common humanity. So 
far as I can judge^ this theory is actually an inversion 

gained so decisive a victory over the enemy that he reversed 
the relations between the two cities by imposing a heavy 
tribute on Orchomenus. There is nothing impossible or even 
improbable in the tradition as recorded by ApoUodorns 
(ii. 4. 11). Viewed in this light, the delivery of the Thebans 
from the Orchomenians resembles the delivery of the Israelites 
from the Philistines, and Hercules may well have been the 
Greek counterpart of Samson, whose historical existence has 
been similarly dimmed by fable. Again, the story that after 
the battle Hercules committed a murder and went to serve 
Eurystheus as an exile at Tiryns (ApoUodorus, ii. 4. 12) 
tallies perfectly with the usage of what is called the heroic 
age of Greece. The work of ApoUodorus contains many 
instances of banishment and servitude imposed as a penalty 
on homicides. The most famous example is the period of 
servitude which the great god Apollo himself had to undergo 
as an expiation for his slaughter of the Cyclopes, (^e 
ApoUodorus, iii. 10. 4.) A homicide had regularly to submit 
to a ceremony of purification before he was free to associate 
with his fellows, and apparently the ceremony was always 
performed by a foreigner in a country other than that in 
which the crime had l^en committed. This of itself entailed 
at least temporary banishment on the homicide. (See Index, 
a.w. " Exile" and " Purification.") 


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of the truth. Instead of the heroes being gods on the 
downward road to humanity^ they are men on the up- 
ward road to divinity ; in other words^ they are men 
of flesh and bloody about whom after their death fancy 
spun her ghttering cobwebs till their real humanity 
was hardly recognizable^ and they partook more and 
more of the character of deities. When we consider 
the divine or semi-divine honours paid in historical 
times to men like Miltiades,^ Brasidas,* Sophocles,* 
Dion,* Aratus,* and Phildpoemen,* whose real exis- 
tence is incontestable, it seems impossible to deny 
that the tendency to deify ordinary mortals was an 

* Herodotus, vi. 38. 2 Thucydides,^ v. 11. 

' Etymologicum Magnum, s.v. At^luv, p. 256. 6 ; Istrus,^ 
Quoted in a life of Sophocles, Vitarum Scriptorea Oraeci 
Minores, ed. A. Westermann (Brunswick, 1845), p. 131 ; 
Fragmenia Historicorum Qtaecorum, ed. C. Miiller, i. 42d. 
The poet was worshipped under the title of Dexion, and *' the 
sanctuary of Dexion" is mentioned in an Athenian inscription 
of the fourth century b.c. See Ch. Michel, RecueU d' In- 
scriptions Orecques (Brussels, 1920), No. 966, pp. 761 sq.t 
G. Dittenberger, Sylloge Inscriptionum Qraecarurrfi, No. 1096 
(vol. iii. pp. 247 sq.). Compare P. Foucart, Le cuUe des HiroS 
chez les Orecs (Paris, 1918), pp. 121 sqq, (from the Mdmoires 
de VAcadimie des Inscriptions tt BeUes-LettreSy tome xlii.). 
In this valuable memoir the veteran French scholar has 
treated of the worship of heroes among the Greeks with 
equal judgment and learning. With his treatment of the 
subject and his general conclusions I am happy to find myself 
in agreement. ^ Diodorus Siculus, xvi. 20. 

* Polybius, viii. 14 ; Plutarch, Aratua, 53 ; Pausanias, 
ii. 8. 1, ii. 9. 4 and 6. 

* Diodorus Siculus, xxix. 18, ed. L. Dindorf ; Livy, xxxix. 
50. Heroic or divine honours are not mentioned by Plutarch 
in his impressive description of the funeral of Philopoemen 
{Philopoemen, 21) ; but he says that the Messenian prisoners 
were stoned to death at the tomb. 


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operative principle in ancient Greek religion^ and 
that the seeds of divinity which it sowed were pro- 
bably still more prolific in earlier and less enlightened 
ages ; for it appears to be a law of theological evolu- 
tion that the number of deities in existence at any 
moment varies inversely with the state of knowledge 
of the period^ multiplying or dwindling as the 
boundaries of ignorance advance or recede. Even in 
the historical age of Greece the ranks of the celestial 
hierarchy were sometimes recruited, not by the slow 
process of individual canonization, as we may call it, 
but by a levy in mass ; as when all the gallant men 
who died far the freedom of Greece at MaratluKi and 
Plataea received the first step of promotion on the 
heavenly ladder by being accorded heroic honours, 
which they enjoyed down to the second century of 
our era.i 

' Yet it would be an error to suppose that all Greek 
heroes and heroines had once been live men and 
women. Many of them were doubtless purely 

^ Aa to the heroic honours accorded to the dead at Mara- 
thon, see Paosanias, i. 32. 4 ; Corpus JnscripUonum AtU- 
0€urum, iL No. 471. Remains of the sacrifices offered to the 
dead soldiers have come to light at MaratkoB in modem tnses. 
See my commentary on Pausanias, vol. iL 433 «g. As to the 
heroic honours enjoyed by the dead at Plataea, see Thney- 
dides, iii. 58 ; Plutarch, Aristides, 21 ; G. Kaibel, Epigram- 
mata Oraeca ex lapidibua conlecta (Berlin, 1878), No. 461, p. 
183 ; Inaoriptiones Chrtecae Megaridis Oropitte Bowtiae, ed. 
G. Dittenberger (Berlin, 1892), No. 53, pp. 31 5f. in the 
iascriptioB the dead are definitelv styled *'kcroo," aad it 
is mentioned that the bull was still sacrificed to them by the 
city **down to our time" (/tcxpU ^' ^/u»f). 

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fictitious beings^ created on the model of the others 
to satisfy the popular craving for supernatural 
patronage. Such in particular were many of the so- 
called eponymous heroes^ who figured as the ancestors 
of families and of tribes^ as the founders of cities^ 
and as the patrons of corporations and trade guilds. 
The receipt for making a hero of this pattern was 
simple. You took the name of the family^ tribe^ 
city^ corporation^ or guilds as the case might be^ 
clapped on a masculine termination^ and the thing 
was done. If you were scrupulous or a stickler for 
form^ you might apply to the fount of wisdom at 
Delphi^ which would send you a brevet on payment^ 
doubtless^ of the usual fee. Thus when Clisthenes 
had created the ten Attic tribes^ and the indispens- 
able heroes were wanted to serve as figure-heads, 
the Athenians submitted a " long leet '' of a hundred 
candidates to the god at Delphi, and he pricked the 
names often, who entered on their office accordingly.^ 
Sometimes the fictitious hero might even receive 
offerings of real bloody as happened to Phocus^ the 
nominal ancestor of the Phocians^ who got a libation 
of blood poured into* his grave every day,^ being 
much luckier than another hero, real or fictitious, at 
Phasells in Lycia, who was kept on a low diet of fish 

* Aristotle, ConaUUtUon of Athens, 21 ; Etymologicum 
Moffnum, s.v, 'EirdvvfjuH ; Scholiast on Aristides, Panathen,, 
voL iii. p. 3^1, ed. G. Dindorf (where for KaKKtffO^yris we 
most read KXturBtyris). As to the fictitious heroes, see 
P. Foucart, Le culte des Hiros chez lea Oreca, pp. 47 aqq, 

* Pausanias, x. 4. 10. As to Phocus in his character of 
eponymous hero of Phocis, see Pausanias, x. 1. 1. 

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and had his rations served out to him only once a 
year.^ It is difficult to conceive how on such a scale 
of remuneration the poor hero contrived to subsist 
from one year's end to the other. 

The system of Euhemerus^ which resolves the gods 
into dead men, unquestionably suffers from the vice 
inherent in all systems which would explain the in- 
finite multiplicity and diversity of phenomena by a 
single simple principle, as if a single clue, like 
Ariadne's thread, could guide us to the heart of this 
labyrinthine universe; nevertheless the theory of 
the old Greek thinker contains a substantial element 
of truth, for deep down in human nature is the 
tendency, powerful for good as well as for evil, to 
glorify and worship our fellow-men, crowning their 
mortal brows with the aureole as well as the bay. 
While many of the Greek gods, as Ouranos and Ge, 
Helios and Selene, the Naiads, the Dryads, and so 
on, are direct and transparent personifications of 
natural powers; and while others, such as Nike, 
Hygieia, and Tyche, are equally direct and trans- 
parent personifications of abstract ideas,^ it is possible 

* Athenaeua, vii. 51, pp. 297b-298a. 

^ The personification and deification of abstract ideas in 
Greek and Roman religion are illustrated, with a great 
wealth of learning, by L. Deubner in W. H. Roscher's 
Lexikon der griechiachen und romischen Mythologie, iii. 
2068 sqq. What Juvenal says (x. 365 aq.) of the goddess of 
Fortune, one of the most popular of these deified abstractions,, 
might be said with equal truth of many other gods and 
goddesses : 

No8 fadmua, Foriuna, deam caeloque locamus. 
XX vi 

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and even probable that some members of the 
pantheon set out on their career of glory as plain 
men and women, though we can no longer trace 
their pedigree back through the mists of fable to 
their humble origin. In the Iieroes and heroines 
of Greek legend and history we see these gorgeous 
beings in the chrysalis or incubatory stage^ before 
they have learned to burst the integuments of earth 
and to flaunt their gaudy wings in the sunshine of 
heaven. The cerements still cling to their wasted 
frames, but will soon be exchanged for a gayer garb 
in their passage from the tomb to the temple. 

But besides the mythical and legendary narratives 
which compose the bulk of the Library, we may 
detect another element in the work of our author 
which ought not to be overlooked, and that is the 
element of folk-tale. As the distinction between 
myth, legend, and folk-tale is not always clearly 
apprehended or uniformly observed, it may be well 
to define the sense in which I employ these terms. 

By myths I understand mistaken explanations of 
phenomena, whether of human life or of external 
nature. Such explanations originate in that in- 
stinctive curiosity concerning the causes of things 
which at a more advanced stage of knowledge seeks 
satisfaction in philosophy and science, but being 
founded on ignorance and misapprehension they are 
always false, for were they true they would cease to 
be myths. The subjects of myths are as numerous 
as the objects which present themselves to the mind 

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of man ; for everjrthing excites his curiosity, and of 
eyerything he desires to learn the cause. Among 
the larger questions which many peoples have 
attempted to answer by myths are those which 
concern the origin of the world and of man, the 
apparent motions of the heavenly bodies, the regular 
recurrence of the seasons, the growth and decay 
of vegetation, the fall of rain, the phenomena of 
thunder and lightning, of eclipses and earthquakes, 
the discovery of fire, the invention of the useful arts, 
the beginnings of society, and the mystery of death. 
In short, the range of myths is as wide as the world, 
being coextensive with the curiosity and the igno- 
rance of man.^ 

By legends I understand traditions, whether oral 
or written, which relate the fortunes of real people 
in the past, or which describe events, not necessarily 

^ By a curious limitation of view some modern writers 
would restrict the scope of myths to ritual, as if nothing but 
ritual were fitted to set men wondering and meditating on the 
causes of things. As a recent writer has put it concisely, 
^^Le$ muihea aont les expUcoHona des rites" (F. Sartiaux, 
'* La philosophic de I'histoire des religions et les orieines du 
Christianisme dans le dernier ouvrage de M. Loisy, Revue 
du Mots, Septembre-Octobre, 1920, p. 15 of the separate 
reprint). It might have been thought that merely to open 
such familiar collections of myths as the Theogony of 
Hesiod, the Library of Apollodorus, or the MetamorphoBes 
of Ovid, would have sufficed to dissipate so erroneous a con- 
ception ; for how small is the attention paid to ritual in 
these works ! No doubt some myths have been devised to 
explain rites of which the true origin was forgotten ; but 
the number of such myths is small, probably almost infini- 
tesimally small, bv comparison with myths which deal with 
other subjects and have had another origin, 

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human^ that are said to have occurred at real places. 
Such legends contain a mixture of truth and false- 
hood^ for were they wholly true, they would not be 
legends but histories. The proportion of truth and 
falsehood naturally varies in different legends ; gene- 
rally, perhaps, falsehood predominates, at least in 
the details, and the element of the marvellous or 
the miraculous often, though not always, enters 
largely into them. 

By folk-tales I understand narratives invented by 
persons unknown and handed down at first by word 
of mouth from generation to generation, narratives 
which, though they profess to describe actual occur- 
rences, are in fact purely imaginary, having no other 
aim than the entertainment of the hearer and making 
no real claim on his credulity. In short, they are 
fictions pure and simple, devised not to instruct or 
edify the listener, but only to amuse him; they 
belong to the region of pure romance. The zealous 
student of myth and ritual, more intent on explain- 
ing than on enjoying the lore of the people, is too 
apt to invade the garden of romance and with a 
sweep of his scjrthe to lay the flowers of fancy in 
the dust. He needs to be reminded occasionally 
that we must not look for a myth or a rite behind 
every tale, like a bull behind every hedge or a canker 
in every rose. The mind delights in a train of 
imagery for its own sake apart from any utility to 
be derived from the visionary scenes that pass before 
her, just as she is charmed by the contemplation of 


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a fair landscape^ adorned with green woods^ shining 
rivers, and far blue hills, without thinking of the 
timber which the woodman's axe will fell in these 
green glades, of the fish which the angler*s line will 
draw from these shining pools, or of the ore which 
the miner's pick may one day hew from the bowels 
of these far blue hills. And just as it is a mistake 
to search for a mythical or magical significance in 
every story which our rude forefathers have be- 
queathed to us by word of mouth, so it is an error to 
interpret in the same sad and serious sense every 
carving and picture with which they decorated the 
walls of their caverns. From early times, while 
some men have told stories for the sheer joy of 
telling them, others have drawn and carved and 
painted for the pure pleasure which the mind takes 
in mimicry, the hand in deft manipulation, and the 
eye in beautiful forms and colour^^ The utilitarian 
creed is good and true only on condition that we 
interpret utility in a large and liberal sense, and do 

* M. Marcellin Boule has lately made some judicious 
observations on the tendency to push too far the magical 
interpretation of prehistoric cave paintings. Without denying 
that magic had its place in these early works of art, he con- 
cludes, with great verisimilitude, that in the beginning " VaH 
fCesi probablement qu'une manifestation partieuU^e Sun 
esprit gSndral cT imitation dijd si d6velopp4 chez lee singes. " 
See his book, Les Hommes FossUes (Paris, 1921), p. 260 note. 
A similar view of the origin of art in emotional impulses 
rather than in the deliberate and purposeful action of magic 
and religion, is expressed by Mr. Sarat Chandra Roy in his 
able work, Printiples and Methods of Physical Anlhro- 
pology (Patna, 1920), pp. 87 sq. 


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not restrict it to the bare satisfaction of those bodily 
instincts on which ultimately depends the continu- 
ance both of the individual and of the species. 

If these definitions be accepted, we may say that 
myth has its source in reason, legend in memory, 
and folk-tale in imagination; and that the three 
riper products of the human mind which correspond 
to these its crude creations are science, history, and 

But while educated and reflective men can clearly 
distinguish between m3rths, legends, and folk-tales, 
it would be a mistake to suppose that the people, 
among whom these various narratives commonly cir- 
culate, and whose intellectual cravings they satisfy, 
can always or habitually discriminate between them. 
For the most part, perhaps, the three sorts of narra- 
tives are accepted by the folk as all equally true or 
at least equally probable. To take ApoUodorus, for 
example, as a type of the common man, there is not 
the least indication that he drew any distinction in 
respect of truth or probability between the very 
different kinds of narrative which he included in 
the Library, To him they seem to have been all 
equally credible ; or if he entertained any doubts as 
to their credibility, he carefully suppressed them. 

Among the specimens, or rather morsels, of popu- 
lar fiction which meet us in his pages we may instance 
the tales of Meleager, Melampus, Medea, Glaucus, 
Perseus, Peleus, and Thetis, which all bear traces 
of the story-teller's art, as appears plainly enough 


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when we compare them with sunilar incidents in 
undoubted folk- tales. To some of these stories^ 
with the comparisons which they invite, I have 
called attention in the notes and Appendix, but 
their number might no doubt easily be enlarged. 
It seems not improbable that the element of folk- 
tale bulks larger in Greek tradition than has com- 
monly been suspected. When the study of folk-lore 
is mofe complete and exact than at present, it may 
be possible to trace to their sources many rivulets of 
popular fiction which contributed to swell the broad 
and stately tide of ancient literature.* 

In some respects the Library of Apollodorus re- 
sembles the book of Genesis. Both works profess 
to record the history of the world from the creation, 
or at all events from the ordering of the material 
universe, down to the time when the ancestors of 
the author's people emerged in the land which was 
to be the home of their race and the scene of their 

^ Among recent works which mark a distinct advance 
in the study of folk -tales I would particularly mention 
the modestly named Anmerhungen zu den Kinder- und 
Hauam&rchen der BrUder Grimm by Johannes Bolte and 
Georg Polivka, published in three octavo volumes, Leipsic, 
1913-1918. A fourth volume, containing an index and a 
survey of the folk-tales of other peoples, is promised and 
will add greatly to the utility of this very learned work, 
which does honour to German scholarship. E\en as 
it is, though it deals only with the German stories 
collected by the two Grimms, the book contains the fullest 
bibliography of folk-tales with which I am acquainted. I 
regret that it did not reach me until all my notes were 
passed for the press, but I have been able to make some use 
of it in the Appendix. 


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glory. In both works the mutations of nature and 
the vicissitudes of man are seen through the glamour^ 
and distorted or magnified by the haze^ of myth and 
legend. Both works are composite^ being pieced 
together by a comparatively late redactor, who 
combined materials drawn from a variety of docu- 
ments, without always taking pains to explain their 
differences or to harmonize their discrepancies. But 
there the resemblance between them ends. For 
whereas the book of Genesis is a masterpiece of 
literary genius, the Uhrary of ApoUodorus is the dull 
compilation of a commonplace man, who relates 
without one touch of imagination or one spark of 
enthusiasm the long series of fables and legends 
which inspired the immortal productions of Gr^k 
poetry and the splendid creations of Greek art. 
Yet we may be grateful to him for saving for us 
from the wreck of ancient literature some waifs 
and strays which, but for his humble labours, might 
have sunk irretrievably with so many golden argosies 
in the fathomless ocean of the past. 

II. — Manuscripts and Editions. 

1. Manugcriptg.^ A fair number of manuscripts of 
the Uhrary are known to exist, but they are all late 
and of little value. All are incomplete, ending 

^ This account of the manuscripts is derived from Mr. R. 
Wagner's preface to his critical edition of the text (Teubner, 
Leipsic, 1894). 


VOL. I. c 

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abruptly in the middle of Theseus's adventures on 
his first journey to Athens. This of itself raises a 
presumption that all are copies of one defective 
original. The latest editor, Mr. Richard Wagner, 
enumerates fourteen manuscripts, of which he has 
employed ten for his recension of the text. Among 
them he singles out one as the archetype from which 
all the other extant manuscripts are derived. It is 
a fourteenth century manuscript in the National 
Library at Paris and bears the number 2722. Mr. 
Wagner designates it by the symbol R. The other 
nine manuscripts employed by him he arranges in 
three classes, as follows :— 

The first class comprises two manuscripts, namely 
oiffe of the fifteenth century in the Bodleian Library 
at Oxford (Laudianus 55), and one of the fifteenth 
or sixteenth century at Paris (numbered 2967). 
Mr. Wagner designates the Oxford manuscript by 
the symbol O and the Paris manuscript by the 
symbol R*. 

The second class, designated by the symbol B, 
comprises three manuscripts, namely a Palatine- 
Vatican manuscript of the sixteenth century, num- 
bered 52 (symbol P); a Paris manuscript of the 
sixteenth century, numbered 1653 (symbol R**), and 
another Paris manuscript of the fifteenth century, 
numbered 1658 (symbol R*'). 

The third class, designated by the symbol C, com- 
prises four manuscripts, namely a Vatican manuscript 
of the fifteenth century, numbered 1017 (symbol V); 

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a manuscript of the fiflieenth century in the Lauren- 
tian Library at Florence, numbered LX. 29 (symbol 
L) ; a manuscript of the fifteenth century at Naples, 
numbered III. A 1 (symbol N) ; and a manuscript of 
the fifteenth century at Turin numbered C II. 11 
(symbol T). 

Besides these, Mr. Wagner mentions four manu- 
scripts which appear not to have been accurately 
collated. They are : a manuscript of the sixteenth 
century in the Bodleian Library at Oxford (d'Orvil- 
lianus X. I. 1, 1); a manuscript of the sixteenth 
century in the British Museum (Harleianus 5732) ; 
a manuscript of the sixteenth century at Turin 
(B IV. 5) ; and a manuscript of the sixteenth century 
in the Barberini palace at Rome (T 122). Of these 
the British Museum manuscript is reported to be 
well written, and the two Italian manuscripts to be 
very bad. 

Such were the materials wliich existed for estab- 
lishing the text of the Library down to 1885, when 
Mr. R. Wagner, examining some mythological works 
in the Vatican Library at Rome, was so fortunate as 
to discover a Greek manuscript (No. 950), of the end 
of the fourteenth century, which contains an epitome 
of the Library, including the greater part of the 
portion at tlie end wliich had long been lost. Two 
years later Mr. A. Papadopulos-Kerameus discovered 
fragments of a similar epitome in a Greek manuscript 
at Jerusalem. The manuscript formerly belonged to 
the monastery (laura) of St. Sabbas and hence is 


c 2 

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known as the Codea SabbaiUcus. It is now preserved 
in the library of the patriarch at Jerusalem and bears 
the number 366. By a curious coincidence the 
discoverers published the two epitomes almost simul- 
taneously^ but without any knowledge of each other.^ 
The text of the two epitomes^ though in general 
agreement^ does not always coincide exactly. Where 
the text of the Vatican epitome differs from the 
Sabbaitic^ it sometimes agrees with the text of 
Apollodorus as quoted by Tzetzes^ and this agree- 
ment has led Mr. Wagner to conclude that Tzetzes 
is the author of the Vatican epitome. Certainly 
Tzetzes was well acquainted with the Hhrary of 
Apollodorus and drew upon it largely in his learned 
commentary on Lycophron. It would not, therefore, 
be surprising if he had made an abridgment of it for 
his own use or that of his pupils. The hypothesis 
of his authorship is confirmed by the observation that 
the same manuscript, which contains the Vatican 
epitome, contains also part of Tzetzes's commentary 
on Lycophron. 

* The Vatican epitome was published by Mr. R. Wagner 
in a separate volume, with Latin notes and dissertations, at 
Leipsic in 1891, under the title Epitoma VaHcana ex Apol- 
lodori Bibliotheca, edidit Richardus Wagner, Accedunt Curae 
Mythographae de ApdUodori fontibus. The Sabbaitic frag- 
ments of the epitome were published by Mr. A. Papado- 
pulos-Kerameus in RheMUachea Museum, N.F. xlvi. (1891), 
pp. 161-192 under the title Apollodori Bibliothecae fragmenki 
Sabbaiiica. The Sabbaitic manuscript was examined again 
by Mr. H. Achelis, and some corrected readings which he 
reported were published by Professor Hermann Diels in the 
same volume of the Rheinisches Museum, pp. 617 sq. 

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2. Editions. The fu*st edition of the Ubraiy was 
published by Benedietus Aegius at Rome in 1555. 
In it the Greek text is accompanied by a Latin 
translation and followed by some notes. The second 
edition was prepared by the scholar and printer 
Hieronymus Commelinus and published posthumously 
at his press in Heidelberg in 1599. It contains the 
Latin version of Aegius as well as the Greek text, 
and prefixed to it are a few critical notes by Com- 
melinus, chiefly recording the readings of the Palatine 
manuscript. The next edition was brought out by 
Tanaquil Faber (Salmurii, 1661). I have not seen it, 
but according to Heyne it contains some slight and 
hasty notes not unworthy of a scholar. The next 
editor was the learned English scholar Thomas Gale, 
Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Regius 
Professor of Greek in the University. He edited 
Apollodorus along with the mythological treatises of 
Conon, Ptolemaeus Hephaestionis, Parthenius, and 
Anjtoninus Liberalis, in a volume entitled Historiae 
Poeticae Scriptores AtUiqni, which was published, or at 
all events printed, at Paris in 1675. For his recen- 
sion of Apollodorus he used the readings of at least 
one Oxford manuscript, but according to Heyne he 
was not very diligent in consulting it. His text of 
Apollodorus and the other mythographers is accom- 
panied by a Latin translation and followed by critical 
and exegetical notes. 

All previous editions of Apollodorus were super- 
seded by the one which the illustrious German 

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scholar C. G. Heyne published with a copious critical 
and exegetical commentary. It appeared in two 
volumes^ first in 1782 and 1783, and afterwards, 
revised and improved, at Gottingen in 1803.^ Though 
he did not himself consult any manuscripts, he used 
the collations of several manuscripts, including the 
Palatine, Vatican, Medicean, and two in the Royal 
Library at Paris, which had been made many years 
before by a young scholar, Gerard Jacob van 
Swinden, for an edition of Apollodorus which he 
had planned. Heyne also made use of some extracts 
from a third manuscript in the Royal Library at 
Paris, which were procured for him by J. Schweig- 
hauser. With the help of these collations and his 
own admirable critical sagacity, Heyne was able to 
restore the text of Apollodorus in many places, and 
to purge it of many alien words or sentences which 
had been interpolated from scholia or other sources 
by the first editor, Aegius, and retained by later 
editors. His commentary bears ample witness to 
his learning, acumen, and good sense, and fully 
sustains his high reputation as a scholar. 

A new edition of Apollodorus was published in 
two volumes, with a French translation and notes by 
E. Clavier, at Paris in 1805, and another with notes, 

^ This second edition was issued in two forms, one in 
octavo, the other in smaller volumes. I have used the 
octavo edition. The first volume contains the Greek text 
with introduction and critical notes, but no translation. 
The second volume contains the exegetical commentary. 


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apparently in Latin^ by Chr. L. Sommer at Rudol- 
stadt in 1822. These two editions^ like the early 
one of Faber, I have not seen and know them only 
by report. In the first volume of his great edition 
of the fragments of the Greek historians^^ C. Muller 
included the text of Apollodorus with a Latin trans- 
lation. He had the advantage of using for the first 
time a collation of the Paris manuscript 2722, which, 
as we have seen, is now believed to be the archetype 
of all the extant manuscripts of Apollodorus. The 
text of Apollodorus was edited, with critical notes, 
by A. Westermann in his collection of ancient Greek 
mythologists * (Scripiores Poeticae Historiae Graeci, 
Brunswick, 1843), but he collated no manuscripts 
for the purpose. And contrary to his usual practice 
the great scholar Immanuel Bekker also collated no 
manuscripts for the edition of Apollodorus which he 
published (Teubner, Leipsic, 1854). Nevertheless, 
relying on his own excellent judgment, profound 
knowledge of Greek, and long experience of the 
ways of copyists, he produced a sound text, cor- 
rected in places by his conjectures. The edition of 
R. Hercher which followed (Weidmann, Berlin, 
1874) is characterized by the introduction of many 
conjectural readings, a few of them plausible or 
probable, and by such copious excisions that this 

^ Fragmenta Historicorum Oraecorum, five volumes, Paris. 
The preface to the first volume is dated February, 1841 ; 
the preface to the fifth volume is dated November, 1869. 

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slashing critic may almost be said .to have mangled 
rather than emended his author. 

Lastly^ the text of Apollodorus^ supplemented for 
the first time by the Vatican and Sabbaitic epitomes, 
was edited with a concise critical apparatus and 
indices by Mr. Richard Wagner (Teubner, Leipsic, 
1894). By means of his extensive collation of 
manuscripts, and particularly by a comparison of the 
Vatican and Sabbaitic epitomes, which are clearly 
independent of our other manuscripts and often 
contain better readings, Mr. Wagner succeeded in 
restoring the true text in many places. He has 
earned the gratitude of all students,' not only ot 
ApoUodorus but of Greek mythology, by his fortunate 
discovery of the Vatican epitome and by his careful 
and judicious recension of the text. 

In the present edition the text is based on that of 
Mr. Wagner, but in doubtful passages I have com- 
pared the editions of Heyne, Miiller, Westermann, 
Bekker, and Hercher, and occasionally the older 
editions of Aegius, Commelinus, and Gale ; and I 
have exercised my own judgmept in the selection of 
the readings. All variations from Mr. Wagner's 
text are recorded in the footnotes. I have collated 
no manuscripts, and my references to their readings 
are, without exception, derived from my predecessors, 
almost all from the critical apparatus of Mr. Wagner, 
whose symbols I have used to designate the manu- 
scripts. Conjectural emendations of my own have 
been very rarely admitted, but in this respect I have 
xl . 

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allowed myself a somewhat greater latitude in 
dealing with the text of the Epitome, which rests on 
the authority of only two manuscripts and has not> 
like the rest of the Ubrary, been subjected to the 
scrutiny of many generations of scholars* 

In printing the Ejntame, or rather that portion of 
it only which begins where the manuscripts of the 
unabridged work break off^ I have departed from 
Mr. Wagner s arrangement. He has printed the 
Vatican and the Sabbaitic versions in full^ arranging 
the two in parallel columns. This arrangement has 
the advantage of presenting the whole of the manu- 
script evidence at a glance to the eye of the reader, 
but it has the disadvantage of frequently compelling 
him^ for the sake of the comparison, to read the same 
story twice over in words which differ little or not 
at all from each other. To avoid this repetition, 
wherever the two versions present us with duplicate 
accounts of the same story, I have printed only one 
of them in the text, correcting it, where necessary, 
by the other and indicating in the footnotes the 
variations between the two versions. In this way 
the text of the Epitome, like that of the rest of the 
Uhrary, flows in a single stream instead of being 
diverted in many places into two parallel channels. 
I venture to believe that this arrangement will 
prove more convenient to the ordinary reader, 
while at the same time it will sufficiently meet the 
requirements of the critical scholar. The differ- 
ences between the Vatican and the Sabbaitic 


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versions are often so slight that it was not always 
easy to decide which to print in the text and which 
to relegate to the footnotes. I have endeavoured to 
give the preference in every case to the fuller and 
better version, and where the considerations on each 
side were very evenly balanced, I have generally, I 
believe, selected the Vatican version, because on 
the whole its Greek style seems somewhat purer 
and therefore more likely to correspond with the 

As the Hhrary is no doubtr chiefly used as a work 
of reference by scholars who desire to refresh their 
memory with the details of a myth, or legend or to 
trace some tale to its source, I have sought to consult 
their convenience by referring in the notes to the 
principal passages of other ancient writers where 
each particular story is told, and have often, though 
not always, briefly indicated how far Apollodorus 
agrees with or differs from them. Further, in 
commenting on my author I have illustrated some 
points of folk-lore by parallels drawn from other 
peoples, but I have abstained from discussing at 
length their origin and significance, because such 
discussions would be foreign to the scope of the 
series to which this edition of Apollodorus belongs. 
For the same reason 1 have barely alluded to the 
monumental evidence, which would form an indis- 
pensable part of a regular commentary on Apollo- 
dorus. Many of the monuments have already been 
described and discussed by me in my commentary 

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on Pausanias^ and in order to avoid repetition, and 
to save space, I have allowed myself not infrequently 
to refer my readers to that work. Even so, 1 fear I 
have considerably transgressed the limits usually set 
to annotation in this series ; and I desire to thank 
the General Editors for the kind indulgence which 
has permitted and pardoned the transgression. 


1, Brick Court, Temple, 
5th April, 1921. 


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I. — Theogony. 
Book I., Chaps, i.-vi. 

Offspring of Sky and Earth : the Hundred-handed, 
Cyclopes, Titans, i. 1-3. The Titans attack and mutilate 
Sky, origin of the Furies, i. 4. The children of Cronus 
and Rhea, the birth of Zeus, i. 5-7. Zeus conquers the 
Titans and divides the kingdom with his brothers, ii. 1. 
Ofispring of the Titans, ii. 2-5. Ofifspring of Sea and 
Earth, ii. 6-7. 

Children of Zeus by Hera, Themis, Dione, Eurynome, 
Styx and Memory (the Muses), iii. 1. Children of the 
Muses : Calliope's children Linus and Orpheus, iii. 2, 
Clio's child Hyacinth (TJiamyris), iii. 3, Euterpe's child 
Rhesus, Thalia's children the Corybantes, Melpomene's 
children the Sirens, iii. 4. Hephaestus, iii. 5. The 
birth of Athena, iii. 6. Asteria, Latona, the birth of 
Artemis and Apollo. Apollo slays the Python, iv. 1, 
Tityus, iv. 1, and Marsyas, iv. 2. Artemis slays Orion, 
iv. 3-5. 

Children of Poseidon and Amphitrite, iv. 6. 

Pluto carries off Persephone. Demeter comes to 
Eleusis (Triptolemus). Persephone remains with Pluto 
(Ascalaphus;, v. 

Battle of the gods and giants, vi. 1-2. Typhon, vi. 3. 

* Translated, with some modifications, from the Aryu- 
menUim prefixed to R. Wagner's edition of ApoUodorus. 


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II.— The Family op Deucalion. 
Book I., Chaps, vii.-ix. 

Prometheus creates men, and for the theft of fire is 
nailed to the Caucasus, vil 1. Deucalion and .Pyrrha 
saved from the flood, vii. 1-2. Deucalion's children. 
Hellen's sons Dorus, Xuthus, Aeolus and their children, 
vii. 2-3. 

Aeolus's daughters and their offspring : Perimede, 
Pisidice, Alcyone, vii. 3-4. Canace (the Aloads), vii. 4. 
Calyce, Endymion, Aetolus, Pleuron and Calydon and 
their children (Marpessa), vii. 5-10. Oeneus, grandson 
of Pleuron, father of Deianira and Meleager, viiL 1-2. 
The hunting of the Oalydonian boar (list of the hunters, 
viii. 2), death of Meleager, viii. 2-3. Tydeus, son of 
Oeneus. Death of Oeneus, viii. 4-6. 

Aeolus's sons and their offspring : Athamas, father of 
Phrixus and Helle (the Golden Fleece), ix. 1. The 
deaths of Athamas and Ino, ix. 2. Sisyphus and his 
stone, ix. 3. Deion, ix. 4. Perieres, ix. 6. Magnes, 
ix. 6. Salmoneus and his mock thunder, ix. 7. Ty^^^j 
daughter of Salmoneus, mother of Neleus and Pelias, 
ix. 8-10. Cretheus, husband of Tyro. His grandsons 
Bias and the seer Melampus (the kine of Phylacus), 
ix. 11-13. Admetus, son of Pheres (son of Cretheus), 
and husband of Alcestis, ix. 14-16. Jason, son of Aeson 
(son of Cretheus), sent by Pelias to fetch the Golden 
Fleece, ix. 16. 

Hie Argonauts^ — The building of the ship Argo. List 
of the Argonauts, ix. 16. The Argonauts put in at the 
island of Lemnos, ix. 17, they kill Cyzicus, king of the 
Doliones, by mistake, ix. 18, they leave Hercules and 
Polyphemus in Mysia (Hylas), ix. 19, Pollux conquers 
Amycus, king of the Bebryces, ix. 20, at Salmydessus 
they rid Phineus of the Harpies, ix. 21, they pass 
through the Symplegades, ix. 22, they are received by 
Lycus, king of the Mariandynians, ix. 23, they arrive in 
Colchis. Jason, with the help of Medea, tames the bulls, 


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conquers the earth-bom men, and carries off the €k>lden 
Fleece. The Argonauts set out with Medea (the murder 
of Apsyrtus), ix. 23-24. As they sail past the Eridanus, 
Zeus causes them to wander ; (bey are purified for the 
murder of Apsyrtus by Circe, ix. 24, sailing past the 
Sirens, Scylla, and Charybdis, they come to the Phaea- 
cians, ix. 25, they dedicate an altar to Radiant Apollo, 
they destroy Talus, the bronze guardian of the island 
of Crete, ix. 26. Return of the Argonauts. Death 
of Pelias, ix. 26-27. Jason and Medea fly to Corinth. 
Medea murders Glauce, the bride of Jason, and her 
own children, takes refuge with Aegeus at Athens, has 
by him a son, Medus, and finally returns to her own 
country, ix. 28. 

III. — The Family of Inachus (Belus). 
Book II., Chaps, i.-viii. 

Inachus's sons Aegialeus and Phoroneus, and 
Phoroneus's children. Argus and Pelasgus. Argus 
of the many eyes, i. 1. lo's wanderings, i. 2-4. Her 
great-grandsons Agenor (compare iii. 1-7) and Belus, i. 4. 

Belus's offspring : Danaus and Egyptus, i. 4. Marriage 
of the sons of Egyptus with the daughters of Danaus (list, 
i. 6), i. 4-5. Nauplius the wrecker, son of Amymone, 
I 5. 

Acrisius and Proetus, grandsons of Lynceus and 
Hypermnestra, ii. 1. The daughters of Proetus are 
cured of their madness by Melampus, ii. 2. Bellerophon 
kills the Chimaera, iii. 1-2. Danae, daughter of Acrisius, 
with her infant son Perseus, floats to Seriphos, iv. 1. 
Perseus, sent by Polydectes, comes to the Phorcides 
and the nymphs, slays Medusa (birth of Pegasus), 
iv. 2, frees Andromeda, punishes Polydectes, iv. 3, 
and returning to his country kills Acrisius accidentally, 
iv. 4. The family of Perseus. Birth of Eurystheus, 
grandson of Perseus, iv. 6. War of Electryon, son of 


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Perseus, against the Teleboans. Amphitryon, grandson 
of Perseus, accidentally kills Electryon, iv, 6. Amphitryon 
goes with Alcmena to Thebes, kills the Cadmean vixen, 
and wages war on the Ti^hians : Pterelaus of the golden 
hair killed by his daughter, iv. 6-7. 

Hercvles^ son of Zeus and Alcmena, kills the serpents 
sent by Hera, iv. 8. The education of Hercules (Linus), 
iv. 9. Hercules kills the lion of Cithaeron (the daughters 
of Thespius), iv. 9-10, conquers the Minyans, marries 
Megara, receives arms from the gods, iv. 11, goes 
mad, murders his children, and is sent by Apollo to 
Eurystheus, iv. 12. 

The twelve (ten, see iv. 12 and v. 11) labours of 
Hercules, v. 

1. He strangles the Nemean lion and is entertained by 
Molorchus, v. 1. 

2. With lolaus he destroys the Lernaean hydra and 
kills the crab, v. 2. 

3. He wounds and captures the Cerynitian hind, v. 3. 

4. He captures the Erymanthian boar, he kills the 
Centaurs (Pholus, Chiron), v. 4. 

6. He cleanses the stable of Augeas (the testimony of 
Phyleus), v. 5. 

6. He shoots the Stymphalian birds, v. 6. 

7. He brings the Cretan bull to Eurystheus, v. 7. 

8. He carries off the mares of Diomedes the Thracian 
(death of Abderus and foundation of Abdera), v. 8. 

9. He wins the belt of Hippolyta (the sons of Andro- 
geus in Pares ; Mygdon ; rescue of Hesione ; Sarpedon ; 
Thasos ; the sons of Proteus), v. 9. 

10. He drives away the kine of Geryon from Erythia 
(the pillars of Hercules ; the golden goblet of the Sun : 
lalebion and Dercynus, Eryx, Strymon), v. 10. 

11. He brings the apples of the Hesperides from the 
Hyperboreans to Mycenae (Cycnus, Nereus, Antaeus, 
Busiris, Emathion, Prometheus, Atlas), v. 11. 

12. He carries off Cerberus from the nether world 
(the Eleusinian mysteries, the Gorgon's ghost, Theseus 
and Pirithous, Ascalaphus, Menoetes), v. 12. 


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Hercules woos in vain lole, daughter of Eurytus, and 
in a fit of madness kills Iphitus, vi. 1-2, fights with 
Apollo for the Delphic tripod, and serves Omphale for 
three years (Cecropes, Syleus ; the burial of Icarus), 
vi. 2-3. Along with Telamon he captures Troy (Hesione, 
Priam), vi. 4. He ravages the island of Cos, vii. 1. He 
conquers Augeas (Eurytus and Cteatus ; foundations at 
Olympia), vii. 2, captures Pylus, makes war on the 
Lacedaemonians (Cepheus, Sterope, and the Gorgon's 
tress), vii. 3, and forces Auge (exposuie of Telephus), 
vii. 4. He marries Deianira (the wrestling with Ache- 
lous, the horn of Amalthea\ vii. 5, fights for the Caly- 
donians against the Thesprotians (Astyoche, Tlepolemus), 
sends his sons to Sardinia, kills Eunomus at a feast, 
sets out with Deianira for Trachis, kills Nessus at the 
ford, vii. 6, slaughters an ox of Thiodamas, fights for 
Aegimius against the Lapiths (Ooronus, Laogoras), slays 
Oycnus and Amyntor. He captures Oechalia and carries 
off lole ; infected by the poisoned robe which he received 
from Deianira, he bums himself on a pyre on Mount 
Oeta (Poeas),*and ascending to heaven he marries Hebe, 
vii. 7. 

List of the children of Hercules, vii. 8. 

The Heraclids fly to Ceyx, and then to the Athenians, 
with whose help they vanquish Eurystheus, viii. 1. They 
occupy and then abandon Peloponnese. Tlepolemus 
goes to Rhodes. Through misunderstanding an oracle 
the Heraclids make a second fruitless attempt to conquer 
Peloponnese, viii. 2. In the third generation afterwards 
Temenus, Cresphontes, and Aristodemus build ships 
and again prepare to attack Peloponnese, but having 
slain a soothsayer they fail in the enterprise, viii. 2-3. 
Ten years afterwards the Heraclids under the leadership 
of Oxylus conquer Peloponnese and divide it among 
themselves by lot, viii. 3-5. The. deaths of Temenus 
and Cresphontes, viii. 5. 

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IV. — The Family of Aoenor (Eubopa). 
Book III., Chaps, i. l-iii. 2. 

Agenor's children. Europa is carried oflf by Zeus ; 
and Phoenix, Cilix, Cadmus, and Thasus, being sent to 
fetch her back, settle in Phoenicia, Cilicia, Thrace, and 
Thasos, i. 1. Europa's children : Minos, Sarpedon, 
Rhadamanthys (Miletus), i. 2. On the death of Asterius, 
husband of Europa, Minos succeeds to the kingdom of 
Crete. Inflamed with love for a bull, which Poseidon 
had sent from the sea, Pasiphae gives birth to the 
Minotaur, i. 3. Althaemenes, grandson of Minos, settles 
with his sister Apemosyne in Rhodes, and involuntarily 
kills his father Catreus, ii. Glaucus, son of Minos, his 
death and resurrection (the seer Polyidus), iii. 1-2. 

v.— The Family of Aqenob (Cadmus). 
Book III., Chaps, iv. 1-vii. 7« 

Cadmus, following a cow, founds Thebes, slays the 
dragon of Ares, and overcomes the earthbom brothers, 
iv. 1-2. Children of Cadmus and Harmonia : Autonoe, 
Ino, Semele, Agave, Polydorus. Semele and Zeus. Birth 
and upbringing of Dionysus (Athamas, Ino^ and Meli- 
certes), iv. 2-3. Actaeon, son of Autonoe, and his dogs, 
iv. 4. The travels of Dionysus (deaths of Lycurgus and 
Pentheus, adventure with the pirates), v. 1-3. The end 
of Cadmus and Harmonia in lUyria, v. 4. The offspring 
of Polydorus : Labdacus, Laius. Lycus and Dirce are 
slain by Zethus and Amphion, the sons of Antiope by 
Zeus, V. 6. Niobe and her children, the weeping stone, 
V. 6. Oedipus, his birth and exposure, his parricide, 
the riddle of the Sphinx, his incest, his exile and death 
in Attica, v. 7-9. 

Expedition of the Seven against Thebes, vi. 1-vii. 1. 
Polynices, expelled by Eteocles, marries the daughter of 
Adrastus (Tydeus), vi. 1. Eriphyle, bribed by Polynices 


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with the golden necklace, induces Amphiaraus to join in 
the war, vi. 2. List of the leaders, vi. 3. On the death 
of Opheltes they institute the Nemean games, vi. 4, they 
send Tydeus on an embtissy to Thebes, vi. 5, attack the 
city (account of the seer Tiresias, vi. 7), and are defeated 
by the Thebans (Capaneus, Eteocles and Polynices, 
Tydeus, Amphiaraus), vi. 6-8. Heroism and death of 
Antigone. The bodies of the leaders are buried by 
Theseus, death of Evadne on the pyre, vii. 1. 

The Epigoni (list, vii. 2) capture Thebes ; death of 
Tiresias, vii. 2-4. Alcmaeon, his matricide, madness, 
wanderings and death ; his wife Callirrhoe, and his 
children Amphilochus and Tisiphone, vii. 5-7. 

VI.— The Family of Pelasgus. 
Book III., Chaps, viii.-ix. 

Lycaon, son of Pelasgus, and his sons (list viii. 1), 
except the youngest, Nyctimus, are killed for their 
impiety by Zeus with thunderbolts, viii. 1-2. Callisto, 
daughter of Lycaon, mother of Areas, transformed into 
a bear, viii. 2. The ofGspring of Areas. Auge, mother 
of Telephus, ix. 1. Atalanta and her suitors, Milanion 
and the golden apples, ix. 2. 

VII. — The Family of Atlas. 
Booh III., Ghaps. x. 1-xii. 6. 

The Pleiades, x. 1, Hermes, son of Maia, his youth- 
ful exploits, X. 2. The offspring of Taygete : Lace- 
daemon, Hyacinth, Lynceus, and Idas. Leucippus's 
daughters, of whom Arsinoe becomes the mother of 
Aesculapius (Coronis). Aesculapius is educated by 
Chiron and thunderstruck by Zeus for his leechcraft. 
Apollo kills the Cyclopes and serves Admetus for a year, 
X. 3-4. Children of Hippocoon, of Icarius, and of 
Tyndareus. Birth of Helen, x. 4-7. Helen is carried • 
off by Theseus, but rescued by Castor and Pollux, x. 7. 

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Helen's suitors and marriage with Menelaus, x. 8-9. 
Menelaus's children, xi. 1. Castor and Pollux, their 
combat with Idas and Lynceus, their elevation to the 
gods, and their alternations between the upper and lower 
worlds, xi. 2. 

Electra, daughter of Atlas, her of&pring, xii. 1-6. 
lasion and Dardanus and his sons Ilus and Erichthonius. 
Tros, son of Erichthonius, and father of Bus, Assaracus, 
and Ganymede,*xil 1-2. Ilus, following a cow, founds 
Troy and receives the Palladium. Origin of the Pal- 
ladium. Laomedon, son of Ilus, father of Tithonus 
and of Priam, xii. 3. Tithonus and the Dawn. Priam's 
children : Aesacus, Hector, Paris, Cassandra, and the 
rest, xii. 4-5. Hector and Andromache. Paris and 
Oenone, xii. 6. 

VIII. — The Fa^uly of Asopus. 
Book III., Ghaps. xii. 6-xin. 8. 

Asopus's children, Ismenus, Pelagon, and twenty 
daughters, of whom Aegina is carried ofif by Zeus, xii. 6. 
Aeacus, son of Aegina, his righteousness, his prayer for 
rain ; father of Peleus and Telamon, who are banished 
for the murder of their brother Phocus. Telamon 
becomes king of Salamis ; father of Ajax and Teucer, 
xii. Q-7. Peleus comes to Phthia ; joining in the hunt 
of the Calydonian boar he accidentally kills Eurytion ; is 
purified by Acastus and maligned by Astydamia, wife of 
Acastus ; hunts on Mount Pelion and is saved from the 
centaurs by Chinm, xiii. 1-3. Marriage of Peleus and 
Thetis, xiii. 4-5. The nurture of Achilles (Thetis, Chiron, 
Lycomedes), xiii. 6-8. Phoenix, Patroclus, xiii. 8. 

IX. — The EliNGs op Athens. 
Book III., Giaps. xiv. 1-xv. 9. 

1. Gecrops, earth-bom. Contest between Athena and 
Poseidon for the guardianship of Athens, xiv. 1. Cecrops's 


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children Erysichthon, Agraulus, Herse, Pandrosus (Halir- 
rhotiiius ; trial and acquittal of Ares at the Areopagus), 
xiv. 2. Oephalus, son of Herse, and ancestor of Oinyras, 
xiv. 3. Adonis, son of Cinyras, loved by Aphrodite, 
killed by a boar, xiv. 3-4. 

2. Cranaus^ earth-born, father of Cranae, Cranaechme, 
and Atthis, xiv. 5. 

3. Amphictyon^ earth-bom or son of Deucalion, xiv. 6. 

4. ErichthoniuSf son of Hephaestus by Atthis or Athena, 
dedicates an image of Athena on the Acropolis and 
institutes the Panathenaic festival, xiv. 6. 

5. Pandion, son of Erichthonius : in his reign Demeter 
comes to Celeus at Eleusis, and Dionysus comes to Icarius 
(death of Erigone), j^v. 7. Pandion's daughters Procne 
and Philomela (Tereus), xiv. 8. 

6. JSrechthens, son of Pandion : his priestly brother 
Butes, his children, xv. 1. Chthonia. Procris and 
Cephalus (Minos), xv. 1. Orithyia and Boreas, xv. 2. 
Cleopatra and Phineus, xv. 3. Eumolpus, son of Chione, 
XV. 4. Erechtheus, in the war with Eleusis, sacrifices one 
of his daughters, and slays Eumolpus, xv. 4-6. 

7. Cecrops, son of Erechtheus, xv. 5. 

8. Pandion, son of Cecrops, is expelled by the sons of 
Metion and flies tq Megara, xv. 6. 

9. Aegciis, son of Pandion, returns to Athens with his 
brotheiTs, xv. 5-6, and begets Theseus by Aethra at 
Troezen, xv. 6-7. He sends Androgeus, son of Minos, 
against the Marathonian bull, xv. 7. Minos makes war 
on Megara (Nisus and Scylla) and on Athens, xv. 7-8. 
Hyacinth's daughters are sacrificed at Athens, xv. 8. 
Minos imposes on the Athenians a tribute of boys and 
girls to be sent annually to the Minotaur (the labyrinth 
built by Daedalus), xv. 8-9. 

10. Thtseus, 

X. — Theseus. 
Book III., Chap, xvi., Epitome, i. 1-24. 

On growing up Theseus quits Troezen for Athens, kills 
Periphetes, Sinis, iii. xvi., the Crommyonian sow, 


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Sciron, Cercyon, and Damastes, Epitome, i. 1-4. Aegeus, 
instigated by Medea, sends Theseus against the Mara- 
thonian bull and oflfers him a cup of poison, 5-6. Theseus, 
with the help of Ariadne, conquers the Minotaur, and 
flying with Ariadne resigns her to Dionysus in Naxos, 
7-9, and on the death of Aegeus succeeds to the kingdom 
of Athens, 10-11. Daedalus and his son Icarus escape 
from the labyrinth : Icarus falls into the sea, but Daedalus 
reaches the court of Cocalus, whose daughters kill Minos, 
12-15. Theseus marries an Amazon, and afterwards 
Phaedra. Death of Hippolytus, 16-19. Ixion and his 
wheel, 20. Battle of the Centaurs and Lapiths, 21 (Zeno- 
bius). Caeneus, 22. Theseus goes down to hell with 
Pirithous, but is freed by Hercules, and being expelled 
from Athens is murdered by Lycomedes, 23-24. 

XI. — The Family of Pelops, 
Epitome, ii. 1-16. 

Tantalus in hell, 1. Broteas^ 2. Pelops, with the 
help of Myrtilus, vanquishes Oenomaus, marries Hippo- 
damia, kills Myrtilus, and takes possession of Peloponnese, 
3-9. Sons of Pelops : Atreus and Thyestes (the golden 
lamb, Aerope, backward journey of the sun, the cannibal 
feast, Aegisthus), 10-14. Agamemnon and Menelaus are 
brought up by Polyphides and Oeneus, 15 (Tzetzes). 
Agamemnon marries Clytaemnestra, and Menelaus marries 
Helen, 16. 

XII. — Antehomerica. 

Epitome, in. 1-35. 

Zeus resolves to stir up war, 1. The Apple of Discord 
awarded by Paris to Aphrodite. Paris carries oflf Helen, 
and, after tarrying in Phoenicia and Cyprus, returns to 
Troy, 2-4. Helen left with Proteus in Egypt, 5. Mene- 
laus and Agamemnon summon the kings of Grreece to war. 
Ulysses feigns madness (death of Palamedes). Cinyras 
sends toy ships. The Wine-growers, 6-10. 


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Catalogue of the ships, 11-14. The portent at Aulis, 
15. A^amemuon and Achilles chosen leaders, 16. The 
Mysian war. Telephus wounded by Achilles. Return of 
the Greeks, 17-18. 

In the tenth year after the rape of Helen the Greeks 
again assemble. Telephus, being healed by Achilles, 
shows them the way, 19-20. Iphigenia sacrificed to 
Artemis at Aulis and transported by the goddess to 
Tauris, 21-22. The Greeks arrive at Tenedos 23. Tenes 
and his stepmother, 24-25. Tenes killed by Achilles, 26. 
Philoctetes, stung by a serpent, is marooned in Lemnos, 
27. Ulysses and Menelaus demand the restoration of 
Helen, 28. The Greeks land at Troy and put the Trojans 
to flight. Death of Protesilaus (Laodamia). Cycnus. 
The Trojans besieged, 29-31. Achilles slays Troilus, 
captures Lycaon, and having slain Mestor drives off the 
herds of Aeneas, 32. List of the towns taken by Achilles, 
33. In the tenth year the Trojans receive the help of 
allies (list), 34-35. 

XIII.— The '^LiAD." 
Epitoine, iv. 1-8. 

The wrath of Achilles. The combat of Menelaus and 
Paris^ 1. Diomedes wounds Aphrodite and meets Glaucus 
in battle. The combat of Ajax and Hector, 2. The 
Greeks, put to flight, send ambassadors to Achilles, 3. 
Ulysses and Diomedes slay Dolon, 4. Hector attacks the 
ships, 5. The death of Patroclus, 6. Achilles receives 
arms from Thetis, puts the Trojans to flight, and slaya 
Hector. The burial of Patroclus. Priam ransoms the 
body of Hector, 7-8. 


Epitome, v. 1-25. 

Penthesilea slain by Achilles. Thersites (death of 
Hippolyte)> 1-2. Achilles slays Memnon, but is shot by 


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Apollo and Paris, 3. His body and his arms are rescued 
by Ajax and Ulysses, 4. The burial of Achilles, 5. 
Comf>etition of Ajax and Ulysses for the arms of Achilles. 
Death and burial of Ajax, 6-7. 

In accordance with a prophecy of Calchas, Ulysses and 
Diomedes fetch Philoctetes, who shoots Paris, 8. Quarrel 
between Deiphobus and Helenus for the hand of Helen. 
By the advice of Calchas, Ulysses captures Helenus on 
Mount Ida, and Helenus prophesies to the Greeks con- 
cerning the fall of Troy, 9-10. By the advice of Helenus, 
the Greeks fetch the bones of Pelops, and Ulysses and 
Phoenix bring Neoptolemus from Scyros. Neoptolemus 
kills Eurypylus, son of Telephus. Ulysses and Diomedes 
steal the Trojan Palladium, 11-13. 

By the advice of Ulysses, Epeus fashions the Wooden 
Horse, in which the leaders ensconce themselves. The 
Greeks leave Sinon behind and depart to Tenedos, 14-15. 
The Trojans drag the Horse into the city, and despite the 
counsels of Laocoon and Cassandra resolve to dedicate it 
to Athena, 16-17. The sons of Laocoon killed by ser- 
pents, 18. On a signal given by Sinon the Greeks return. 
Helen comes to the Horse and calls to the Greek leaders 
(Anticlus), 19. The leaders descend from the Horse and 
open the gates to the Greeks, 20. The sack of Troy : 
Priam, Glaucus, Aeneas, Helena, Aethra, Cassandra, 
21-22. Division of the spoil : the slaughter of Astyanax 
and Polyxena, the fortunes of Cassandra, Andromache, 
and Hecuba (changed into a dog), Laodice swallowed in 
an earthquake. Trial of Ajax for impiety, 23-26. 

XV. — The Returns. 
Epitome, vi. 1-30. 

Quarrel between Agamemnon and Menelaus concerning 
the return. Diomedes, Nestor, and Menelaus set out, 1. 
Amphilochus, Calchas, Leonteus, Polypoetes, and Poda- 
lirius go by land to Colophon, where Calchas is vanquished 
by Mopsus in a contest of skill and is buried by his 
companions, 2-4. 


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The fleet of Agamemnon is dispersed by a storm oft 
Tenos. Shipwreck, death, and burial of Ajax, 5-6. 
Many are shipwrecked and perish through the false lights 
displayed by Nauplius at Cape Caphereus, 7. Nauplius, 
the revenge he takes for the death of his son, 8-11. 
Neoptolemus goes by land to Molossia, and by the way 
he buries Phoenix. Helenus remains with Deiadamia in 
Molossia. Neoptolemus, on the death of Peleus, succeeds, 
to the kingdom of Phthia, wi'ests Hermione from Orestes, 
and is killed at Delphi, 12-14. Wanderings of the 
leaders who escaped shipwreck at Cape Caphereus, 15, 
15a 6c (Tzetzes). 

The loves of Demophon and Phyllis, 16-17 Podalirius 
and the oracle, 18. Amphilochus, 19. Virgins sent by 
the Locrians for a thousand years to Athena at Troy, 

Agamemnon on his return home is murdered by 
Aegisthus and Clytaemnestra, 23. Orestes is brought up 
by Strophius, and with the help of Py lades murders 
Clytaemnestra and Aegisthus. He is tormented by the 
Furies, but acquitted at the Areopagus, 24-25. Orestes 
with the help of Pylades brings back Iphigenia and the 
image of Artemis from Tauris to Greece, 26-27. The 
children of Orestes and his death, 28. 

After many wanderings Mdnelaus arrives in Egypt, 
where he recovers Helen from Proteus, and after eight 
years returns to Sparta. Dying he is received with 
H«len into the Elysian fields, 29-30. 

XVI.— The Wanderings op Ulysses. 
Epitome, vii. 1-40. 

Ulysses variously said to have roamed over Libya, or 
Sicily, or the Ocean, or the Tyrrhenian Sea, 1. 

Ulysses, after setting sail from Troy, fights with the 
Cicones, 2. The Lotus-eaters, 3. Adventures with the 
Cyclops Polyphemus, 4-9. The isle of Aeolus, King of 
the Winds, 10-11. The cannibal Laestrygones, 12-13. 


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The enchantress Circe, 14-16. The descent to the nether 
world, 17. The Sirens, 1&-19. Scylla and Charybdis, 
20-21. The oxen of the Sun. The shipwreck. Charybdis, 
22-23. The island of Calypso. The raft. Alcinous and 
the Phaeacians. The return home, 24-26. The suitors 
of Penelope (list 27-30), 26-31. Eumaeus. Melanthius. 
Irus, 32. The slaughter of the suitors, 33. 

Ulysses in Thesprotia performs the rites enjoined by 
Tiresias and marries the queen Callidice (Po^porthes), 
34-36. Ulysses is killed unwittingly by his son Tele- 
gonus. Telegonus takes his father's body and Penelope 
with him to Circe, who transports them to the Islands of 
the Blest, 36-37. 

Other stories told of Penelope and Ulysses : Penelope 
said to have been debauched by Antinous and therefore 
sent back to her father Icarius ; at Mantinea she gives 
birth to Pan, whom she had by Hermes, 38. Amphi- 
nomus slain by Ulysses, because he was said to have 
seduced Penelope, 39. Ulysses, sentenced by Neoptole- 
mus to banishment for the murder of the suitors, 
emigrates to Aetolia, and having there begotten a son 
Leontophonus by'the daughter of Thoas he dies in old 
age, 40. 


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[Aclopted from B. Wctgner's edition, Leipaic, 1894) 

A = Readings of all or most of the MSS. of The Library. 
JS = Epitoma Yaticana : Vaticanos 950. 
S = Sabbai tic fragments : Sabbaiticus-Hierosolymitanu8 366. 
R = Parisinus 2722 (the archetype). 
R» = Parisinus 2967. 
O = Oxford MS. : Laudiauus 55. 
B = Readings of the MSS. PRt>Rc. 

P = Palatinus-Vaticanus 52. 

Rto = Parisinus 1653. 

Re = Parisinus 1668. 
C = Readings of the MSS. VLTN. 
V = Vaticanus 1017. 
L = Laurentianus plut. LX. 29. 
N = Neapolitanus 204 (IIL A 1). 
T = Taurinensis C IL 11. 

[ ] Passages enclosed in these brackets are probably 

< > Passages enclosed in these brackets are not in the* 
existing manuscripts of ApoUodorus, but were 
probably written by him. 


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VOL. I. 

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I. Ovpavo^ irp&TO^ tov irapro^ iSwdcTevae 
Koafiov. y^fia^ Se Trjv ire/cvayae irpfOTOv^ rov^ 
efcaroyx^tpa^ irpoaayopevOivTa^t^pLapecov TvTfv^ 
KoTTov, ot fieyiOei re avvirip/SXrjTOi /cal Svpdfiei 
fca0€iaTi]fC€(Tav, ;^6tpa9 fiev avcb ifcarbv /c€(f>aXh<; 
I Se dvcb irevrfj/covra €%oin-€9. fierd tovtov^ S^ 
1 yi^p C, schol. Plato, Laws, vii. p. 793 c. 

* According to Hesiod (Theog, 126 aqq.), Sky (Uranus) 
was a son of Earth (Gaia), but afterwards lay with his own 
mother and had by her Cronus, the giants, the Cyclopes, and 
so forth. As to the marriage of Sky and Earth, see the 
fragment of the Chrysippua of Euripides, quoted by Sextus 
Empiricus, p. 751, ed. Bekker ( Tragrtcorwrn Graecorum Frag- 
menta, ed. A. Nauck,^ Leipsic, 1889, p. 633) ; Lucretius i. 
250 «g., ii. 991 sqq, ; Virgil, Georg. ii. 325 sqq. The myth 
of such a marriage is widespread among the lower races. 
See E. B. Tylor, Primitive Cvlturt^ (London, 1873), i. 321 
8qq,y ii. 270 8qq, For example, the Ewe people of Togo-land, 
in West Africa, think that the Earth is the wife of the Sky, 
and that their marriage takes place in the rainy season, 
when the rain causes the seeds to sprout and bear fruit. 
These fruits they regard as the chilaren of Mother Elarth, 
who in their opinion is the mother also of men and of gods, 
see J. Spieth, Die Ewe-Stdmme (Berlin, 1906), pp. 464, 548. 
In the regions of the Senegal and the Niger it is believed 

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I. Sky was the first who ruled over the whole 
world.^ And having wedded Earth, he begat first 
the Hundred-handed, as they are named : Briareus, 
Gyes, Cottus, who were unsurpassed in size and 
might, each of them having a hundred hands and fifty 
heads.* After these. Earth bore him the Cyclopes, 

that thtt Skj-god and the Earth-goddess are the parents of 
the principal spirits who dispense life and death, weal and 
woe, amon^ mankind. See Maurice Delafosse, Haut-S&n4gal- 
Niger (Pans, 1912), iii. 173 aqq. Similarly the Manggerai, a 
people of West Flores, in the Indian Archipelago, personify 
Sky and Earth as husband and wife ; the consummation of 
their marriage is manifested in the rain, which fertilizes 
Mother Earth, so that she gives birth to her children, the 
produce of the fields and the fruits of the trees. The sky is 
called langit ; it is the male power : the earth ia called cUang; 
it is the female power. Together they form a divine couple, 
called Moeri Kra4ng. See H. B. Stapel, **Het Mangg^r- 
aische Volk (West Flores)," Tijdschrift vow Indische Taal- 
Land' en Votkenhindty Ivi. (Batavia and the Hague, 1914), 
p. 163. 

^ Compare Hesiod, Theog, 147 sqq. Instead of Oyes, some 
MSS. of Hesiod read Gygcs, and this form of the name is 
supported by the Scholiast on Plato, Laws, vii. p. 795 c. 
Compare Ovid, Fasti, iv. 593 ; Horace, Od€«, ii. 17. 14, iii. 
4. 69, with the commentators. 

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avT^ T€KVo2 Trj K.vfcXa>7ra^, "Apyrjv ^ Xrepoirriv 
Bpovrrjv, &v e/caaTO^ ^t^cv hfa 6<f>0a\fiov iirl rod 
fierdirov, aXXA tovtov^ fiiv Ovpavb^ S'^aa^ eh 
Tdprapov eppiyfre (totto? Bk o5to9 ioefidSr}^ iariv 
iv ''Aioov, ToaovTOV diro 7^9 ?%6)i' oida-rrj/ia oaov 

I dir ovpavov yrj), re/cvol Sk avOi^ i/c Trj^ iralSa^ 
fi€v T0U9 TtT dva^ irpoa-ayopevOevra^, ^ilxeavov 
K.OLOV ^Tirepiova ILpelov 'laTreroi/ koX vednarov ^ 
airdvTwv Kpovov, uvyarepa^ Si rd^ Kkrideiaa^ 
TiTavLSa^, Trjffifv 'Piav &€fitv Mvrjfioavvrjp Oot- 
firjv ^id>vr)v &€lav, 

[ * Ay avafCTOvaa Be Trj iirl t§ dircoXeia t&v eh 
Tdprapov pL^evrwv * iraiSoyv TreiOei tou9 Tirapai 
eiriOecdat r^ irarpi, koX BiBmaiv dhapuvriv^v 
apirqv K.p6v<p. oi he ^D,/ceavov X^P^^ eiriTLOevrai, 
fcal Kpovov dirorepMv rd alBota rov irarpo^ eh 
Tr}v OdXaaaav d(f)ii]<Tev. €k Be t&v araXajfi&v 
Tou piovTO^ aZ/uiT09 iptvve^ eyhovro, ^KXr}KTo> 
Ti(n<l>6vi] M.eyaipa. rrj^ Bk ^PXV^ ifcfiaXovre^; 

^ "Afyyrjv Heyne : ipirriv EA. 

* vt<&raTov EOR* : ytvvtdnarov BT i yfvvai6Tarov VLN. 

' ^i<f>4vT(av E : ^lipdivTcov A. 

^ CJompare Hesiod, TJieog. 139 sqq, 

" Compare Hesiod, Tkeog. 617 sqq, and for the description 
of Tartarus, 717 sqq. According to Hesiod, a brazen anvil 
would take nine days and niffhts to fall from heaven to earth, 
and nine days and nights to fall from earth to Tartarus. 

' Compare Hesiod, Theog, 132 sqq, who agrees in describ- 
ing Cronus as the youngest of the brood. As Zeus, who 
succeeded ' his father Cronus on the heavenly throne, was 
likewise the youngest of his family (Hesiod, Theog. 453 sqq.), 
we may conjecture that among the ancient Greeks or their 
ancestors inheritance was at one time regulated by the 
custom of ultimogeniture or the succession of the youngest, 
as to which see FclhLort in the Old Testament, i. 429 sqq. 

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THE LIBRARY, I. i. 2-4 

to ¥rit, Arges, Steropes, Brontes,^ of whom each had 
one eye on his forehead. But them Sky bound and 
east into Tartarus, a gloomy place in Hades as far 
distant from earth as earth is distant from the sky.^ 
And again he begat children by Earth, to wit, the 
Titans as they are named : Ocean, Coeus, Hyperion, 
Crius, lapetus, and, youngest of all, Cronus; also 
daughters, the Titanides as they are called : Tethys, 
Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoebe, Dione, Thia.^ 

But Earth, grieved at the destruction of her chil- 
dren, who had been cast into Tartarus, persuaded 
the Titans to attack their father and gave Cronus 
an adamantine sickle. And they, all but Ocean, 
attacked him, and Cronus cut off his father's 
genitals and threw them into the sea; and from 
the drops of the flowing blood were born Furies, 
to wit, Alecto, Tisiphone, and Megaera.* And, 
having dethroned their father, they brought up their 

In the secluded highlands of Arcadia, where ancient customs 
and traditions lingered long, King Lycaon is said to have 
been succeeded by his youngest son. See ApoUodorus, iii. 8. 1. 
* Compare Hesiod, Theog. 156-190. Here ApoUodorus 
follows Hesiod, according to whom the Furies sprang, 
not from the genitals of Sky which were thrown into the 
sea, but from the drops of his blood which fell on Earth 
and impregnated her. The sickle with which Cronus did 
the deed is said to have been flung by him into the 
sea at Cape Drepanum in Achaia (Pausanias, vii. 23. 4). 
The barbarous story of the mutilation of the divine father by 
his divine son shocked the moral sense of later ages. See 
Plato, Republic^ ii. pp. 377k-378a, EhUhyphro, pp. 6b-6a; 
Cicero, De natura deorumy ii. 24. 63 aqq, Andrew Lang 
interpreted the story with some probability as one of a 
worm- wide class of myths intended to explain the separation 
of Earth and Sky. See his Gvstom aivd Myth (London, 1884), 
pp. 45 aqq, ; and as to myths of the forcible separation of 
Sky and Earth, see E. B. Tylor, Primitive Gtdture\ i. 
322 «gg. 


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T0U9 T€ /caTaraprapayOivTa^ ai/7Jyayov aS€\<f>oif^ 
fcal Tffv dpx^v K.p6v(p irapehoaav. 
6 'O Se TovTov<; fiev <ev> r^ Taprdpq) waXiv 
S?;cra9 /caOelp^e, Ttfv Se dS€\(f>rjv *Veav yijfia^, 
iireiBT) Tij re /cal Ovpavo^ iOea-iTKpBovv avT^ 
\iyovT€^ imo 7ratSo<? IBiov rfjv dpyrjv a^aLpeOrj- 
aeadai, KaTeirive ret yevvdofieva, koX TrpcoTrjv fi€v 
y€VPr)d€L(rav 'Fi<niav Kareiriev, elra Aijfirjrpav 
fcal "H/oai/, fieO^ a? UXovTtova /cal HoaeiBoypa, 

6 bpyiaOelaa Bk eVl tovtoi<; 'Pea irapayiverai fiep 
eh Kp'^Tfjv, oTrrfpi/ca top Aia iy/cv/iopovaa irvy- 
%ave, yeppa Be ip aprptp rrj^ ALktt)^ Aia. < koI 
TOVTOP fi€P BiBaxTi Tpe<^ea6ai, Kovprjai re /cal raU 
MeXiaaio)^^ iraial pvfxfjyai^, ^ABpaareia re /cal 

7 ''IBtj. avrat fiep oJrp top iratBa erp€if>op r^ r^ 
^AfiaXOeia^ ydXaKri, ol Bk ILovprjTe^ hfoirXoi ip 

^ M€\i<r<r4<o5 Zenobius, Gent, ii. 48 : fieXiffffeay £A. 

1 Compare Hesiod, Theog. 453-467. 

* According to Hesiod, Rhea gave birth to Zeus in Crete, 
and the infant god was hidden in a cave of Mount Aegeum 
{Theog. 468-480). Diodorus Siculus (v. 70) mentions the 
legend that Zeus was bom at Dicte in Crete, and that the 

fod afterwards founded a city on the site. But according to 
)iodorus, or his authorities, the child was brought up in a 
cave on Mount Ida. The ancients were not agreed as to 
whether the infant god had been reared on Mount Ida or Mount 
Dicte. ApoUodorus declares for Dicte, and he is supported 
by Virgil {Oeorg. iv. 153), Servius (on Virgil, Aen. iii. 104), 
and the Vatican Mythographers (Scriptorea rerum mythi- 
carum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, Cellis, 1834, vol. i. pp. 34, 79, 
First Vatican Mythographer, 104, Second Vatican Mytho- 
srapher, 16). On the other hand the claim of Mount Ida is 
favoured by Callimachus {Hymn^ i. 51), Ovid (Fasti, iv. 207), 
and Lactantius Placidus (on Statins, Theh. iv. 784). The 
wavering of tradition on this point is indicated by ApoUo- 


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THE LIBRARY, I. i. 4-7 

brethren who had been hurled down to Tartarus, 
and committed the sovereignty to Cronus. 

But he again bound and shut them up in Tartarus, 
and wedded his sister Rhea ; and since both Earth and 
Sky foretold him that he would be dethroned by his 
own son, he used to swallow his offspring at birth. 
His first-bom Hestia he swallowed, then Demeter and 
Hera, and after them Pluto and Poseidon.^ Enraged 
at this, Rhea repaired to Crete, when she was big 
with Zeus, and brought him forth in a cave of Dicte.* 
She gave him to the Curetes and to the nymphs 
Adrastia and Ida, daughters of Melisseus, to nurse. 
So these nymphs fed the child on the milk of 
Amalthea;^ and the Curetes in arms guarded the 

doms, who while he calls the mountain Dicte, names one of 
the god's nurses Ida. 

' As to the nurture of Zeus by the nymphs, see Calli- 
roachus, Hymn i. 46 9qq* ; Diodorus Siculus, v. 70. 2 ^g. ; 
Ovid, Fastiy v. Ill sqq, ; Hvginus, Fab. 139 ; id, Astronom, 
ii. 13 ; Servius, on Virgil, Aeti, iii. 104 ; Lactantius Placidus, 
on Statins, Theh. iv. 784; Scriptorea rerum mythicarum 
Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 34, 79 (First Vatican 
Mythographer, 104; Second Vatican Mythographer, 16). 
According to Oallimachus, Amalthea was a goat. Aratua 
also reported, if he did not believe, the story that the 
supreme god had been suckled by a goat (Strabo, viii. 7. 5, 
p. 387), and this would seem to have been the common 
opinion (Diodorus Siculus, v. 70. 3 ; Hyginus, Astronom, ii. 
13 ; Second Vatican Mythographer, 16). According to one 
account, his nurse Amalthea hung him in his cradle on a tree 
" in order that he might be found neither in heaven nor on 
earth nor in the sea " (Hyginus, Fab, 139). Melisseus, the 
father of his nurses Adrastia and Ida, is said to have been a 
Cretan king (Hyginus, Astronom, ii. 13) ; but his name is 
probably due to an attempt to rationalize the story that the 
infant Zeus was fed by bees. See Virgil, Oeorg. i. 149 sqq, 
with the note of Servius on v, 153 ; First Vatican Mytho- 
grapher, 104 ; Second Vatican Mythographer, 16. 

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r& avTpfp TO fipe<f>o<i ^vKdatTOvre^ to?9 Sopcurt 
Ta<; a<r7rtSa9 avve/cpovov, iva fit) T779 rov ircuSo^ 
(fxDVTJ^ 6 Kpovo^ afcovarf, 'Pea Si XLOov airap' 
yavcoaaaa SiScofce Kpovtp Karaineiif a>9 rov 
y€y€vv7)p,ivov iralBa. 

II. ^EireLSrj Se Zev? iyevrjOr)^ TcXeio^, \ap>l3dv€i 
M.rJTiv Tffv ^ilfceavov avvepyov, ^ SiBcocri Kpovtp 
/caraTrielv (fxipp^/cov, v<f>* ov i/celvo^ avay/caaOeU 
irp&TOV fih i^epet rov \l0ov, eircLra tov9 iraiBa^ 
069 /careine' p£0^ &v Zei'9 tov irpo^ K,p6vov fcal 
Ttrava^ i^^vey/ce irokepov. paxop^vcov Se avT&p 

^ As to the Curetes in their capacity of guardians of the 
infant Zeus, see Callimachus, Hymuy i. 52 sqq.; Strabo, x. 
3. 11, p. 468; Diodorus Siculus, v. 70, 2-4; Lucretius, ii. 
633-639 ; Virgil, Oeorg, iii. 150 sq. ; Ovid, Fastiy iv. 207 Bqq.\ 
Hyginus, Fob, 139 ; Servius, on Virgil, Aen. iii. 104 ; Lac- 
tantius Placidus, on Statius, Theh. iv. 784 ; Scriptorta rerum 
mythicarum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 34, 79 (First 
Vatican Mythographer, 104 ; Second Vatican Mythographer, 
16). The story of the way in which they protected the divine 
infant from his inhuman parent by clashing their weapons 
may reflect a real custom, by the observance of which human 
parents endeavoured to guard their infants against the 
assaults of demons. See Folk-lore in the Old Testament, iii. 
472 sqq. 

* As to the trick by which Rhea saved Zeus from the maw 
of his father Cronus, see Hesiod, Theog, 485 aqq. ; Pausanias, 
viii. 36. 3, ix. 2. 7, ix. 41. 6, x. 24. 6 ; Ovid, Fasti, iv. 199- 
206 ; Hyginus, Fab, 139 ; Servius, on Virgil, Aen, iii. 104 ; 
Lactantius Placidus, on Statins, Theb. iv. 784 ; Scriptores 
rerum mythicarum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 34, 79 
(First Vatican Mythographer, 104 ; Second Vatican Mytho- 
grapher, 16). The very stone which Cronus swallowed and 
afterwards spewed out was shown at Delphi down to the 
second century of our era ; oil was daily poured on it, and on 


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THE LIBRARY, I. i. 7-11. i 

babe in the cave, clashing their spears on their 
shields in order that Cronus might not hear the 
child's voice. ^ But Rhea wrapped a stone in swaddling 
clothes and gave it to Cronus to swallow, as if it 
were the new-born child. ^ 

II. But when Zeus was full-grown, he took Metis, 
daughter of Ocean, to help him, and she gave Cronus 
a drug to swallow, which forced him to disgorge first 
the stone and then the children whom he had swal- 
lowed,^ and with their aid Zeus waged the war 
against Cronus and the Titans.* They fought for 

festival days unspun wool was laid on it (Pausanias, x. 24. 6). 
We read that, on the birth of Zeus's elder brother Poseidon, 
his mother Rhea saved the baby in like manner by giving his 
father Cronus a foal to swallow, which the deity seems to 
have found more digestible than the stone, for he is not said 
to have spat it out again (Pausanias, viii. 8. 2). Phalaris, the 
notorious tyrant of Agiigentum, dedicated in the sanctuary 
of Lindian Athena in Rhodes a bowl which was enriched with 
a relief representing Cronus in the act of receiving his children 
at the hand of Rhea and swallowing them. An inscription 
on the bowl set forth that it was a present from the famous 
artist Daedalus to the Sicilian king Cocalus. These things 
we learn from a long inscription which was found in recent 
years at Lindus : it contains an inventory of the treasures 
preserved in the temple of Athena, together with historical 
notes upon them. See Chr. Blinkenberg, La Chronique 
du temple Lindien (Copenhagen, 1912), p. 332 (Acad^iie 
BoycUc des Sciences et des Lettres de Danemarky Extrait du 
Bulletin de Vann6e 1912, No. 5-6). 

^ As to the disgorging of his offspring by Cronus, see 
Hesiod, Theog. 493 aqq., who, however, says nothing about 
the agency of Metis in admfnistering an emetic, but attributes 
the stratagem to Earth (Gaia). 

* As to the war of Zeus on the Titans, see Hesiod, Theog, 
617 aqq.'y Horace, Odea, iii. 4. 42 aqq.) Hyginus, Fab, 118. 

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ivtavToi^ Sixa r/ Ftj t^ Ad €XPV<^^ Tr}P vLktjv, 
Tov? KaraTapTapcoOivTa^ av e^p a'Vfifid')(pv<i* 6 
hk Ttjv <f>povpovc-ap avT&v ra Seafia iLdfiirriv 
a7rofCT€Lva<; eXvae. fcal KuacXottc? tot€ Atl fih 
SiBoaai ^povTTjv /cal aarpairr^v koX Kepavvov, 
UXovTCdvi Se fcvpiffv,^ Uoa-eLS&vi Be rpiaLvav* 
ol he TOVTOt? oTrXiaOivre^ Kparovai TirdvaJV, koI 
Ka0€Lp^avT€<; avroxf^ iv r^ Taprdptp tov9 ixaroy- 
'X€ipa<; fcariaTTfaav ^ <f>vXa/ca^. airrol Se SiafcXr)- 
povvrai irepl t^? ^px^h* ^^^ Xayyavei Zeu? puep 
TTjv iv ovpav^ hvvaareiav, Jlo(TeLoS)v Se rrjv iv 
OaXdo'arf, UXovtoov Sk Tfjv iv ''Aihov, 

^EyivovTo Se Tirdvayv cKyovoi ^D^fceavov fiev /cat 
TrjOvo^ ^ilKcaviSe^,^ *Aaia Xrif^ ^HXcKTpa ^(opU 

^ Kvv4fiv E : Kvavirfv A. 

* Kariffrnffav E : Kadiffrairav A, KaOiffraffi Bekker. See 
R. Wagner, Epitoma Vaticana, p. 84. 

3 The MSS. add Tpwx^Xtai (A) or rpi<rxt^toi (E). The 
word seems to have been interpolated from Hesiod, Theog. 

^ The most ancient oracle at Delphi was said to be that of 
Earth ; in her office of prophetess the goddess was there 
succeeded by Themis, who was afterwards displaced by 
Apollo. See Aeschylus, EumenideSy 1 sqq. ; Pausanias, x. 5. 
5 sq. It is said that of old there was an oracle of Earth at 
Olympia, but it no longer existed in the second century of our 
era. See Pausanias, v. 14. 10. At Aegira in Achaia the 
oracles of Earth were delivered in a subterranean cave by 
a priestess, who had previously drunk bull's blood as a means 
of inspiration. See Pliny, Nat. Hist, xxviii. 147 ; compare 
Pausanias, vii. 25. 13. In the later days of antiquity the 
oracle of Earth at Delphi was explained by some philosophers 
on rationalistic principles : they supposed that the priestess 
was thrown into the prophetic trance by natural exhalations 
from the ground, and they explained the decadence of the 


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THE LIBRARY, I. ii. 1-2 

ten years, and Earth prophesied victory ^ to Zeus if 
he should have as allies those who had been hurled 
down to Tartarus. So he slew their gaoleress Campe, 
and loosed their bonds. And the Cyclopes then gave 
Zeus thunder and lightning and a thunderbolt,^ and 
on Pluto they bestowed a helmet and on Poseidon 
a trident. Armed with these weapons the gods 
overcame the Titans, shut them up in Tartarus, and 
appointed the Hundred-handers their guards;' but 
they themselves cast lots for the sovereignty, and 
to Zeus was allotted the dominion of the sky, to 
Poseidon the dominion of the sea, and to Pluto the 
dominion in Hades.* 

Now to the Titans were born offspring : to Ocean 
and Tethys were bom Oceanids, to wit, Asia, Styx, 

oracle in their own time by the gradual cessation of the 
exhalations. The theory is scoated by Cicero. See Plutarch, 
De defectu oractUorumy 40 sqq, ; Cicero, De divinatione, i. 19. 
38, i. 36. 79, ii. 57. 117. A similar theory is still held by 
wizards in Loan^o, on the west coast of Africa; hence in 
order to receive the inspiration they descend into an artificial 
pit or natural hollow and remain there for some time, absorb- 
ing the blessed influence, just as the Greek priestesses for a 
similar purpose descended into the oracular caverns at Aegira 
and Delphi. See Die Loango Expedition, iii. 2, von Dr. E. 
PechuSl-Loesche (Stuttgart, 1907), p. 441. As to the oracular 
cavern at Delphi and the inspiring exhalations which were 
supposed to emanate from it, see Diodorus Siculus, xvi. 26 ; 
Strabo, ix. 3. 5, p. 419; Pausanias, x. 5. 7; Justin, xxiv. 6. 
6-9. That the Pythian priestess descended into the cavern 
to give the oracles appears from an expression of Plutarch 
(De defectu oraculorum, 51, Kar40Tj filv tls rh txavruov). As to 
the oracles of Earth in antiquity, see A. Bouch^-Leclercq, 
Histoire de la Divination dans V Antiquity, ii. 251 sqq. ; L. K. 
Famell, Ths Cults of the Greek States, iii. 8 sqq, 

* Compare Hesiod, Theog. 501-506. 
' Compare Hesiod, Theog. 717 sqq, 

• Compare Homer, II, xv. 187 sqq.; Plato, Oorgias, p. 523a. 


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^vpovofiT) \^Afi<f>irpiTrj] Mtjti^;, Kolov Si xal 
^oC/3rf^ ^Aarepia /cat Arjra), ^Tirepiovo^ Se xal 
&€La^ *Hft)9 "HXto? XeXrjvi], Kpeiov Bk fcal Evpv- 
Pia^ T^9 HovTOv ^Aarpalo^ IlaXXa? Hepai]^, 

3 ^lairejov he xal *Aaia^^ "ArXa^;, 89 ex^i toU 
&fioi^ Tov ovpavop, KoX UpofirjOevt; koI 'Ett*- 
firjOev^ /cal M-Cvoirio^, hv K€pavpa>aa<; iv rfj 

4 Ttravofia'xJicL Zeu? KaTeraprdptoaev. iyivero Se xal 
Kpovov KoX ^tXvpa<; Xeiptov Bi(f>vi)^ Kevravpo^;, 
'HoO? Be fcal ^AaTpaiov avefioi fcal atrrpa, Hepaov 
Bk KoX ^Aarepla^ 'E/cart;, J\aXkavTO<; Be icai 

6 2ti;709 ^ ^iicq Kpdro^ Z?}\o9 B/a. to Be 7779 
Xrvyo^ vB(op ex irirpa^ iv ^AlBov peov Zeu? 
hroirjaev opfcov, ravrrjv avry rifiijv BiBov^: avff* 
&v avT^ Karh TiTdv<ov fierh r&v reKvtov awe- 

6 YiovTOV Be KaX r^9 4>o/)/co9 ^ 0av/wi9 Nr;p€U9 

^ The MSS. add rSov *CiKeavov, which Heyne, Westermanu 
Miiller, and Bekker alter into tiJs *Aiccayov. 

2 *6pKos Heyne, Miiller, Bekker, Hercher, (compare ii. 
4. 2) : *6pKvs A. 

* Compare Hesiod, Theog, 346-366, who mentions all the 
Oceanids named by Apollodorus except Amphitrite, who was 
a Nereid. See Apollodorus, i. 2. 7 ; Hesiod, Theog. 243. 

2 As to the offspring of Coeus and Phoebe, see Hesiod, 
Theog. 404 sqq. 

* As to the offspring of Hyperion and Thia, see Hesiod, 
TJheog. 371 sqq. 

* As tx) the offspring of Crius and Eurybia, see Hesiod, 
Theog. 375 sqq. 

^ As to the offspring of lapetus and Asia, see Hesiod, 
Theog. 507-520. 

^ It is said that Cronus assumed the shape of a horse when 
he consorted with Philyra, and that, we are told, was why 

y Google 

THE LIBRARY, I. ii. 2-6 

Electra, Doris, Eurynome, Amphitrite, and Metis ; ^ 
to Coeus and Phoebe were born Asteria and La- 
tona ; ^ to Hyperion and Thia were bom Dawn, Sun, 
and Moon ; ^ to Crius and Eurybia, daughter of Sea 
(Pontus), were bom Astraeus, Pallas, and Perses;* 
to lapetus and Asia was bom Atlas, who has the sky 
on his shoulders, and Prometheus, and Epimetheus, 
and Menoetius, he whom Zeus in the battle with the 
Titans smote with a thunderbolt and hurled down to 
Tartarus.^ And to Cronus and Philyra was born 
Chiron, a centaur of double form ; ^ and • to Dawn 
and Astraeus were born winds and stars ; ' to Perses 
and Asteria was bom Hecate ; ^ and to Pallas and 
Styx, were bom Victory, Dominion, Emulation, and 
Violence.* But Zeus caused oaths to be sworn by 
the water of Styx, which flows from a rock in Hades, 
bestowing this honour on her because she and 
her childreli had fought on his side against the 

And to Sea (Pontus) and Earth were bom Phorcus, 

Chiron was bom a centaur, half- man, half -horse. See 
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon, i. 554. 

' As to the offspring of Dawn and Astraeus, see Hesiod, 
Theog, 378 aqq, 

• As to this parentage of Hecate, see Hesiod, Theog, 
409 aqq. But the ancients were not agreed on the subject. 
See the Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon, iii. 467. He 
tells us that according to the Orphic hymns, Hecate was a 
daughter of Deo ; according to Bacchylides, a daughter of 
Night ; according to Musaeus, a daughter of Zeus and Asteria ; 
and according to Pherecydes, a daughter of Aristaeus. 

• For this brood of abstractions, the offspring of Styx and 
Pallas, see Hesiod, Theog, 383 sqq,; Hyginus, FcU), p. 30, ed. 

i» Compare Hesiod, Theog, 389-403. As to the oath by the 
water of Styx, see further Hesiod, Theog. 775 sqq.; compare 
Homer, II. xv. 37 sq., Od. v. 186 sq.; Homeric Hymn to 
ApoUoy 86 sq, 


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Evpv/Sla KrjTO), %avfjLavTO<; fievoiv KaVUXi/CTpa^^ 
*I/5t9 Koi apTTVUu, ' AeXXo) <Kal> ^ilKvirerrf, ^opxov 
Si Kol KrfTOV<; ^opKiSe^ <Kal> Topyove^, irepl &v 
7 ipov/jL€P OTav tA Kark Ylepaea Xeyco/jsv, Nrjpeax; Bk 
fcai AaypiSo^ ^ iir)pr)iS€<;, &v rh ovofuna TLvfiodorj 
STreto) VXavKovop/q l^avaiOor) 'AXirj, 'E/oaxft) Xao) 
'A/A^tT/otTiy EvpLKTf 0€Tt9, TStvkifiivrf ^Ayavf) Eu- 
S(!>prj AcDTO) ^ipovaa, FaTiAreia *AKTairj HovTOfii- 
Sovaa ^linroOorj AvaMPa<r<Ta, Kvfio) ^Htoprj 'AXt- 
P'liSrj HXtf^avprf EvKpavrrj, Tlpa)Ta> KaXt/'^o) 
Tlavoirrf }Q>avTa> Neofif)pi(;, 'Iirirovotf ^Idveipa 
IloXvvofir) AvTOPOff MekiTT),^ Acdvi] T^r)<r€urf Ai]pi> 
Evar/opTj 'Vafidffrj, Evfiokirr) 'I01/17 Avvafiivrf KrjTO) 

III. Zeu? Sk yafiel fikv '^Hpav, xal rexvol 
H/Stjp FtikeiOviav "'Aprjp,^ fuyvvrai Be TroXXafe 
0V7jTav^ T€ Kol ddavaTOt^ yvvai^iv, ifc fiev oiv 
06/it8o9 T?)9* Ovpavov yevva Ovyaripa^ &pa^, 
Elpi^vrjp Evpofuap Aifcrfp, fioCpa<;, KXayOoD Adxeatp 
ArpOTTOPt i/c Ai(OPr)(; Se ^A<f>poSiTi]p, ef TSiVpvp6firj<; 

^ The MSS. add rwv *n.K€avoVf which Hey no, Westermanu, 
Miiller, and Bekker alter into rrjs 'CiKtayov. 

^ MfXlrri Heyne, comparing Hesiod, Theog, 246, Homer, 
n, xviii. 42, etc.: MeXln A. 

3 "Apijv Gale : Apyriv R : apy^y E : &pyrip B. 

* rris E : rov A. 

^ As to the offspring of Sea (Pontus, conceived as mascu- 
line) and Earth (conceived as feminine), see Hesiod, Theog. 
233 sqq,; Hyginus, Fab. p. 28, ed. Bunte. 

^ As to the ofi&pring of Thaumas and Electra, see Hesiod, 
Theog. 265 aqq. 

' As to the parentage of the Phorcids and Gorgons, see 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, I. ii. 6-111. i 

Thaumas, Nereus, Eurybia, and Ceto.^ Now to 
Thaumas and Electra were bom Iris and the Harpies, 
Aello and Ocypete ; ^ and to Phorcus and Ceto were 
bom the Phorcids and Gorgons,' of whom we shall 
speak when we treat of Perseus. To Nereus and 
Doris were bom the Nereids,* whose names are. 
Cymothoe, Spio, Glauconome, Nausithoe, Halie^ 
Erato, Sao, Amphitrite, Eunice, Thetis, Eulimene, 
Agave, Eudore, Doto, Phemsa, Galatea, Actaea, 
Pontomedusa, Hippothoe, Lysianassa, Cymo, Eione, 
Halimede, Plexaure, Eucrante, Proto, Calypso, 
Panope, Cranto, Neomeris, Hipponoe, lanira, Poly- 
nome, Autonoe, Melite, Dione, Nesaea, Dero, 
Evagore, Psamathe, Eumolpe, lone, Dynamene, Ceto, 
and Linuioria. 

III. Now Zeus wedded Hera and begat Hebe, 
Ilithyia, and Ares,^ but he had intercourse with many 
women, both mortals and immortals. By Themis, 
daughter of Sky, he had daughters, the Seasons, to 
wit. Peace, Order, and Justice; also the Fates, to wit, 
Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropus ; ® by Dione he had 

Hesiod, Theog, 270 sqq, ; Hyginus, Fab. p. 29, ed. Bunte. 
As to the monsters themselves, see Apollodorus, ii. 4. 2 aq. 

* For lists of Nereids, see Homer, II. xviii. 38-49 ; Hesiod, 
Theog, 240-264 ; Homeric Hymn to Demeter, 417-423 ; Virgil, 
Qeorg. iv. 334-344 ; Hyginus, Fab. pp. 28 »g., ed. Bunte. 

* As to the offspring of Zeus and Hera, see Homer II. v. 
889 aqq. (Ares), xi 270 sq. (Ilithyia), Od. xi. 603 aq. (Hebe) ; 
Hesiod, Theog. 921 sqq. According to Hesiod, Hera was the 
last consort whom Zeus took to himself ; his first wife was 
Metis, and his second Themis {Theog. 886, 901, 921). 

' For the daughters of Zeus and Themis, see Hesiod, 
Theog. 901 sqq. 


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Si T^ ^ilfceavov ^a/>iTa9, ^AyXatrjv lEiV<f>po<rvvi]v 
SaXciav, eK Bk Xrvyb^ Jl€pa€(f>6prjv, i/c Sk Mvrj- 
fjLoavvrj^ fiovaa<;, TrpwTtfv fikp JLaWiOTrrjp, elra 
K\€^ MeXirofiivrjv FtVTepirrjv ^EpaTcb Teps^i- 
XopV^ Ovpavlav %aXeiav TIoXvfjLpiav. 

KaWioiTf)^ fi€v oiv KoX Oldypov, Kar* iiri- 
K\r)acv Sk 'AttoWwi/o?, Ati/09, hv 'Hpa#cX^9 
airefCTeive, fcal ^Op(f>€v<; 6 a<TKTJ<Ta<; Kidaptpolav, 89 
ahwv ifcive^ Iddov^ re kclI BevSpa. airoOavovarj*; Bk 
]SivpvBl/cr)<; T?}9 yvvaiKo<; ainov, Sr/^^e^crTy? vtto 
o^66>9> fcaTfjXOev eh^'AiBov OeKwv avdyeiv^ avrriv, 

^ hvdy^iv Heyne : hyayup A. 

^ As to Dione, mother of Aphrodite, see Homer, IL v. 370 
aqq.; Euripides, Helena^ 1098; Hyginus, Fob. p. 30, ed. 
Bunte. Hesiod represents Aphrodite as bom of the sea-foam 
which gathered round the severed genitals of Sky (Uranus). 
See Hesiod, Theog, 188 sqq. 

'^ As to the parentage of the Graces, see Hesiod, Theog. 
907 sqq,; Pausanias, ix. 35. 5 ; Hyginus, F(ib, p. 30, ed. Bunte. 

' According to the usual account, the mother of Persephone 
was not Styx but Demeter. See Hesiod, Theog, 912 sq,; 
Homeric Hymn to Demeter y 1 aqq.; Pausanias, viii. 37. 9 ; 
Hyginus, Fab, p. 30, ed. Bunte. 

^ As to the names and parentage of the Muses, see Hesiod, 
Theog. 75 aqq,, 915 aqq, 

^ Accounts differ as to the parentage of Linus. According 
to one, he was a son of Apollo by the Muse Urania (Hyginus, 
Fab, 161); according to another, he was a son of Apollo 
by Psamathe, daughter of Orotopus (Pausanias, ii. 19. 8) ; 
according to another, he was a son of Apollo by Aethusa, 
dau^ter of Poseidon {Contest of Homier and Hesiody p. 570, 
ed. Evelyn- White, Loeb Classicdl Library) ; according to 
another, he was a son of Magnes by the Muse Clio (Tzetzes, 
Schol, on LycopJkron, 831). 

• That Orpheus was a son of Oeagrus by the Muse Calliope 
is affirmed also by ApoUonius Rhodius, Argon, i. 23 sqq. ; 
Conon, Narrat. 45 ; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 831 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, I. iii. 1-2 

Aphrodite ; ^ by Eurjoiome, daughter of Ocean, he 
had the Graces, to wit, Aglaia, Euphrosyne, and 
Thalia ; 2 by Styx he had Persephone ; ^ and by 
Memory (Mnemosyne) he had the Muses, first Calliope, 
then Clio, Melpomene, Euterpe, Erato, Terpsichore, 
Urania, Thalia, and Pol3naania.* 

Now Calliope bore to Oeagrus or, nominally, to 
Apollo, a son Linus,^ whom Hercules slew; and 
another son, Orpheus,* who practised minstrelsy and 
by his songs moved stones and trees. And when 
his wife Eurydice died, bitten by a snake, he went 
down to Hades, being fain to bring her up,^ and he 

the author of The Contest o Homer and Heaiod, p. 670, ed. 
Evelyn-White ; Hyginus, Fab. 14 ; and the First and Second 
Vatican Mythographers (Scriptores rerum mythicaru/m La- 
tini^ ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 26, 90). The same view was 
held by Asclepiades, but some said that his mother was the 
Muse Polymnia (Scholiast on ApoUonius Rhodius, Argon, i. 
23). Pausanias roundly denied that the musician's mother 
was the Muse Calliope (ix. 30. 4). That his father was 
Oeagrus is mentioned also by Plato (Sympos. p. 179 d), Dio- 
dorus Siculus (iv. 25. 2), and Clement of Alexandria {Protrept. 
7, p. 63, ed. Potter). As to the power of Orpheus to move 
stones and trees by his singing, see Euripides, Bacchae, 561 
sqq.; ApoUonius Khodius, Argon, i. 26 sqq.; Diodorus Siculus, 
iv. 25. 2 ; Eratosthenes, Cataster. 24 ; Conon, Narrat. 45 ; 
Horace, Odea, i. 12. 7 sqq.; Seneca, Hercvles OetaeuSy 1036 
sqq,; id., H erodes Furens, 572 sq. 

' As to the descent of Orpheus to hell to fetch up Eurydice, 
compare Pausanias, ix. 30. 6 ; Conon, Narrow. 45 ; Virgil, 
Oeorg. iv. 454 sqq, ; Ovid, Meta/morph, x. 8 sqq. ; Hyginus, 
Fab. 164 ; Seneca, Hercules Furens, 569 sqq.; id. Hercules 
Oetaeus, 1061 sqq.; Lactantius Placidus, on Statins, Theb. 
viii. 59 and 60 ; Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latini, ed. 
G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 26 sq., 90 (First Vatican Mythographer, 
76 ; Second Vatican Mythographer, 44). That Eurydice was 
killed by the bite of a snake on which she had accidentally 
trodden is mentioned by Virgil Ovid, Hyginus, and the 
Vatican Mythographers. 


VOL. I. 

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Kal UXovToyva eiretaep avairi/iyjrai. 6 Be viri- 
a"xeTO Tovro iron^aeiv, av firj iropevofjLevo^ 'Op- 
<\>ev^ iinaTpa^y irplv eh rrjv oLKiav avTOv irapa- 
yeveoQcu* 6 Be airiaT&v i'irurTpa<f>€h eOedaaro 
rrjv yvvaiKa, fj Bk iraXiv vTriarpey^ev. eipe Bk 
*Op<l)€V<; teal rh Aiovwov /waTijpia, fcal redaiTTai 
irepl rffv Uieplav BiaairaaOeU vtto t&v fiaivdBcov, 
3 K\€£a> Bk Tlcepov tov Md/yvr}TO^ fipdaOri Kark 
firjviv * A(f>poBiTr)<; {ayveiBcae ykp avTjj tov tov 
*ABiu>vtBo<; epcoTo), avveXBovaa Be eyevyqcev ef 
avTOv TralBa 'Td/civOov, ov &dp,vpi<; 6 ^iXd/i- 
fia>vo<; Koi *Apyi67rrj<; vvfi^rj^; ecr^ei/^ epooTa, 
7r/>G>T09 dp^dp^evo^ ipav dppevtov. aXV 'TdfcivOov 
phf vaTepov ^AiroXXofv epmp,evov ovTa Biatctp 

^ (ffx^v JEA : tffxft Hercher, Wagner. But Kx^iv fpura is 
good Greek. See Herodotus, v. 32 ; ApoUodorus, Epit ii. 6. 
On the other haod Apollodorus has tex*^*' fywra elsewhere 
(i. 9. 8, i. 9. 23, u. 3. 1, iii. 14. 4). 

^ On Orpheus as a founder of mysteries, ocnnpare Euri- 
pides, Rhesus, 943 sq, ; Aristophanes, Frogs, 1032 ; Plato, 
Protagoras, p. 369 d ; id. Republic, ii. 7, pp. 365 e-366 a ; 
Demosthenes, Or, xxv. 11, p. 772 ; Diodorus Siculus. i. 23, 
i. 96. 2-6, iii. 65. 6, iv. 25. 3, v. 77. 3 ; Pausanias, ii. 30. 2, 
ix. 30. 4, X. 7. 2 ; Plutarch, Frag, 84 (Plutarch, Didot ed. 
vol. V. p. 55). According to Diodorus Siculus (i. 23), the 
mysteries of Dionysus which Orpheus instituted in Greece 
were copied by him from the Egyptian mysteries of Osiris. 
The view that the mysteries of Dionysus were based on those 
of Osiris has been maintained in recent years by the very aUe 
and learned French scholar. Monsieur Paul Foucart. See his 
treatise, Le cuUe de Dionysos en Attiqv^ (Paris, 1904), pp. 8 
sqq. ; id, Les mysUres d^tileusis (Paris, 1914), pp. 1 aqq,^ 
445 sqq. 

^ As to the death of Orpheus at the hands of the Maenads 
or the Thracian women, see Pausanias, ix. 30. 5 ; Conon, 
Narrat, 45 ; Eratosthenes, CcUaster, 24 ; Virgil, Oeorg. iv. 
520 sqq. ; Ovid, Metamorph. xi. 1 sqq. Usually the women are 


y Google 

THE UBRARY, I. iii. 2-3 

persuaded Pluto to send her up. The god promised 
to do so, if on the way Orpheus would not turn round 
until he should be come to his own house. But he 
disobeyed and turning round beheld his wife ; so 
she turned back. Orpheus also invented the 
mysteries of Dionysus,^ and having been torn in 
pieces by the Maenads * he is buried in Pieria. Clio 
fell in love with Pierus, son of Magnes, in consequence 
of the wrath of Aphrodite, whom she had twitted 
with her love of Adonis ; and having met him she 
bore him a scm Hyacinth, for whom Thamyris, the 
s(m of Philammon and a nymph Argiope, omceived 
a passion, he being the first to become enamoured of 
males. But afterwards Apollo loved HyacinUi and 
killed him involuntarily by the cast of a quoit. ^ And 

said to have beejj offended by the widower's constancy to 
the memory of his late wife, and by his indifference to their 
charms and endearments. But Eratosthenes, or rather the 
writer who took that name, puts a different complexion on 
the story. He says that Orpheus did not honour Dionysus, 
but esteemed the sun the greatest of the gods, and used to 
rise very early every day in order to see the sunrise from the 
top of Mount Pangaeum. This angered Dionysus, and he 
stirred up the Bassarids or Bacchanals to rend the bard limb 
from limb. Aeschylus wrote a tragedy on the subject called 
the Bassarids or Bassarae, See Tragicorum Oraecorum 
FragmerUa, ed. A. Nauck* (Leipsic, 1889), pp. 9 sq. 

• As to the death of Hyacinth, killed by the cast of Apollo's 
quoit, see Nicander, Ther, 901 sqq.; Pausanias, iii. 19. 4 sq.; 
Lucian, Dial, deorum^ xiv. ; Philostratus, Imag. i. 23 (24) ; 
PalaephatuSy De incredib. 47 ; Ovid, Metamorph. x. 162 sqq,; 
Servius, on Virgil, Ed. iii. 63; Lactantius Placidus, on 
Statins, Theb. iv. 223 ; Scriptores rerum myihicarum Latini, 
ed. 6. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 37, 135 sq. (First Vatican Mytho 
""" ^ ' V ■ " ' ' ■ ■ ""* 

grapher, 117 ; Second Vatican Mythographer, 181). The 
usual story ran that Apollo and the West Wind, or, according 
to others, the North Wind, were rivals for the affection of 
Hyacinth ; that Hyacinth preferred Apollo, and that the 


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jSaXcbv aKcov aireicTeive, &dfivpi<; Be KoXkei 
Si€vey/co)v fcal Kidaptphia irepl fiovaiKi)^ tjpia-e 
/jLovaai(;, (TvvOefievo^, av puev KpeiTTcov evpedfj, 
Trkrjo'ida'eiv Trdaat^, iav Se ^TT7f0fj, areprjOrjaeadai 
ov av iicelvaL deKaxn, KadvirepTepac Se at fiova-ai 
y€v6/jL€Pai /cal r&v ofifidrfov avrov fcal t^9 fciOa- 

i p<pBia<: ia-reprjaav. Eire/OTrr;? Si koI iroTapuov 
XrpVfjLOVO*; 'P^<709, ov iv Tpoia AiOfJLijBrjf; dire- 
fcreivev w Sk evcoi X^yovai, KaWioirr)^ virijpxev. 
0aX€ta9 Be koL 'AttoWo)!/©? eyevovTo KopvlSavTe^, 
yieXirofievq^ Be koL 'A^^eXwov S€(/>^i/€9> irepl &v 
iv TOL^ irepl ^OBvaaeoof; ipov/nev. 

5 "H/oa Be X(opl^ evvij<i iyevvrjaev '^R6ai<TT0V' <&9 
Be "Ofir}po<; Xeyei, fcal tovtov ifc At09 eyevvrja-e. 

jealous West Wind took his revenge by blowing a blast which 
diverted the quoit thrown by Apollo, so that it struck 
Hyacinth on the head and killed him. From the blood of the 
slain youth sprang the hyacinth, inscribed with letters which 
commemorated his tragic death ; though the ancients were not 
at one in the reading of them. Some, like Ovid, read in them 
the exclamation AI AI, that is, ** Alas, alas ! " Others, like 
the Second Vatican Mythographer, fancied that they could 
detect in the dark lines of the flower the first Greek letter (T) 
of Hyacinth's name. 

^ This account of Thamyris and his contest with the Muses 
is repeated almost verbally by Zenobius, C&nt, iv. 27, and by 
a Scholiast on Homer, II. ii. 595. As to the bard's rivalry 
with the Muses, and the blindness they inflicted on him, see 
Homer, 11, ii. 594r-600 ; compare Euripides, RhesuSy 915 sqq.; 
Scriptores rerum mythicarum LcUini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. 
p. 60 (First Vatican Mythographer, 197). The story of the 
punishment of Thamyris in hell was told in the epic poem T?he 
Minyadf attributed to Prodicus the Phoca,ean (Pausanias, iv. 
33. 7). In the great picture of the underworld painted by 
Polygnotus at Delphi, the blind musician was portrayed 
sitting with long flowing locks and a broken lyre at his feet 
(Pausanias, x. 30. 8). 

y Google 

THE LIBRARY, I. iii. 3-5 

Thamyris, who excelled in beauty and in minstrelsy 
engaged in a musical contest with the Muses, the 
agreement being that, if he won, he should enjoy 
them all, but that if he should be vanquished he 
should be bereft of what they would. So the 
Muses got the better of him and bereft him both 01 
his eyes and of his minstrelsy. ^ Euterpe had by the 
river Str3rmon a son Rhesus, whom Diomedes slew at 
Troy; 2 but some say his mother was Calliope. 
Thalia had by Apollo the Corybantes ; * and Melpo- 
mene had by Achelous the Sirens, of whom we shall 
speak in treating of Ulysses.* 

Hera gave birth to Hephaestus without intercourse 
with the other sex,* but according to Homer he was 

^ As to the death of Rhesus, see Homer, II. x. 474 aqq,; 
compare Conon, Narrai. 4. It is the subject of Euripides's 
tragedy Rhesus ; see particularly verses 756 sqq. Euripides 
represents Rhesus as a son of the river Strymon by one of the 
Muses (w. 279, 915 sqq,)^ but he does not name the particular 
Muse who bore him. 

' Very discrepant accounts were given of the parentage of 
the Corybantes. Some said that they were sons of the Sun 
by Athena ; others that their parents were Zeus and the 
Muse Calliope ; others that their father was Cronus. See 
Strabo, x. 8. 19, p. 472. According to another account, their 
mother was the Mother of the Gods, who settled them in 
Samothrace, or the Holy Isle, as the name Samothrace was 
believed to signify. The name of the father of the Corybantes 
was kept a secret from the profane vulgar, but was revealed 
to the initiated at the Samothracian mysteries. See Diodorus 
Siculus, iii. 66, 8 sq, 

• As to the Sirens, see Apollodorus, Epitome, vii. 18 sq. 
Elsewhere (i. 7. 10) Apollodorus mentions the view that the 
mother of the Sirens was Stcrope. 

" Compare Hesiod, Theog. 927 sq.; Lucian, De sacrifi-dis, 6. 
80 Juno is said to have conceived Mara by the help of the 
^dess Flora and without intercourse with Jupiter (Ovid, 
P(uH» V. 229 sq.). The belief in the possible impregnation 


y Google 


pLTrrei Si avrov i^ ovpavov Zev? "Vipq B^eltrr^ 
/SorjOovpra* ravTfjv ^kp iicpifiaae^ Zcu? ef 'OXiJ/a- 
trov yeifi&va iiriirefi'y^aa'ap 'UpaxXei^ ore TpoCav 
ikoDv €7r\€C, ireaovra 8' ^l{(f>aia'TOv iv Krjfivtp Kot 

; MlyvvTai Se Zeif^; M^^tiBl,^ fieraffaXKovay eh 
TToWi? tSea? virep tov fir) avvekOelv, koI avTr^v 
yevo/iiivrjv eyfcvop KaTairivei <l)0daa<;, iireiirep 

^ iKptfiatre E : iKKptfxdtrcura R&, i^eKptfiatre G, 

' M^TiJi E, Scholiast on Plato, TimtuiLSy p. 23 D : e4ri^ A. 

of women without sexual intercourse appears to have been 
common, if not universal, among men at a certain stage of 
social evolution, and it is still held by many savages. See 
AdoniSf Attis, Osiris, 3rd ed. i. 92 sqq,; Folk-lore in the Old 
Testament, ii. 204, notes; A. et G. Grandidier, Ethnogrtxpkie 
de Madagascar, ii. (Paris, 1914), pp. 245 sq. The subject is 
fully discussed by Mr. E. S. Hartland in his Primitive 
Paternity (London, 1909-1910). 

^ Compare Homer, II. i. 571 sq,, 577 sq» In these lines 
Hephaestus plainly recognizes Hera as his mother, but it is 
not equally clear that he recognizes Zeus as his father y the 
epithet '* father" which he applies to him may refer to the 
god's general paternity in relation to gods and men. 

^ See Homer, II. i. 590 sq. 

3 See Homer, IL xv. 18 sqq., where Zeus is said to have 
tied two anvils to the feet of Hera when he hung her out of 
heaven. Compare Apollodorus, ii. 7. 1 ; Nonnus, in Wester- 
mann's Mythographi Oraeci (Brunswick, 1843), Appendix 
Narrationum, xxix. 1, pp. 371 sq. 

* The significance of lameness in my th and ritual is obscure. 
The Yorubas of West Africa say that Shankpanna, the god of 
small-pox, is lame and limps alon^ with the aid of a stiok, one 
of his legs being withered. See (Sir) A. B. Ellis, The Yoruha- 
8-peaking peophs of the Slave Coast of West Africa (London, 
1894), p. 73. The Ekoi of Southern Nigeria relate how the 
first fire on earth was stolen from heaven by a boy, whom the 
Creator (Obassi Osaw) punished with lameness for the theft. 

y Google 

THE LIBRARY, I. iii. 5-6 

one of her children by Zeus.^ Him Zeus east out of 
heaven^ because he came to the rescue of Hera in 
her bonds. ^ For when Hercules had taken Troy 
and was at sea, Hera sent a storm after him; so Zeus 
hung her from Olympus.^ Hephaestus fell on Lem- 
nos and was lamed of his legs,^ but Thetis saved 

Zeus had intercourse with Metis, who turned into 
many shapes in order to avoid his embraces. When 
she was with child, Zeus, taking time by the forelock 

See P. Amaury Talbot, In the Shadow of the Bush (London, 
1912), pp. 370 sq. This lame boy seems to play the part of a 
good fairy in Ekoi tales, and he is occasionally represented in 
a "stilt play" by an actor who has a short stilt bound round 
his right leg and limps like a cripple. See P. Amaury Talbot, 
-vp. cit. pp. 58, 285. Among the Edo of Benin "custom 
enjoined that once a year a lame man should be dragged around 
the city, and then as far as a place on the Enyai road, called 
Adaneha. This was probably a ceremony of purification." 
See W. N. Thomas, Anthropological Report on the Edo-apeak- 
ing peoples of Nigeria, Part I. (London, 1910), p. 36. Li a race 
called **the King's Race," which used to be run by lads on 
Good Friday or Easter Saturday in some parts of the Mark of 
Brandenburg, the winner was called "the King," and the last 
to come in was called **the Lame Carpenter." One of the 
Carpenter's legs was bandaged with splints as if it were 
broken, and he had to hobble along on a crutch. Thus he 
was led from house to house by his comrades, who collected 
eggs to bake a cake. See A. Kuhn, Mdrkische Sagen und 
Marchen (Berlin, 1843), pp. 323 sq. 

' As to the fall of Hephaestus on Lemnos, see Homer, II, 
i. 590 sqq,; Lucian, De sacriftciis, 6. The association of the 
fire-god with Lemnos is supposed to have been suggested by 
a volcano called Moschylus, which has disappeared— perhaps 
submerged in the sea. See H. F. Tozer, The Islands of the 
Aegean, pp. 269 sqq.] R. C. Jebb on Sophocles, PMloctetes, 
800, with the Appendix, pp. 243-245. According to another 
account, Hephaestus fell, not on Lemnos, but into the sea, 
where he was saved by Thetis. See Homer, Jl, xviii, 394 sqq. 


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1X676 <Trj> ^evvrjaeiv^ iratSa /jsrci, rifv fiiWovaav 
6? avTrj<; yevvdaOai^ fcoprjv, S9 ovpavov Bvvda-Ti]^; 
y€vi](T€Tai. Tovro <f>ol3r)0€l<; fcaremev avTijv c&9 

avTOv Tfjv fC€<t>a\rjv ireXi/cei Tlpofir)0€(o^ ff KaOdirep 
aXKoi Xirfovaiv 'ii<j>aLarov, iic Kopv(f)rj<;, iirl irora- 
fiov TpiTcovo^, ^Affrjva aifv 07rXo*9 aveOopev. 

IV. Tmv Sk JLoiov 0ir/aT€pa)v ^Aarepia fiev 
ofioitoOelaa opTvyi iavrrjv 619 OaXatraav eppL^e, 
^exTfovaa rrjv 7rpo<; Ata a-vvovaiav fcal ttoXa? 
dir* eKeivi)^ ^Aarepia irporepov xXTjOeura, wrepov 
hi A^Xo9. A?7Tft) hk avveXOovaa Ad Karh rrjv 
yrjv airaaav v<f>* "Hpa9 rj\avv€TO, /i€%/ot9 6*9 
A^Xoi; iXOovaa yewd irpcorrfv '^Aprefiiv, v^* ^9 
p^toaOela'a vaTepov ^ATroXktova iy€PV7)<r€v. 

^ f\(yt < r^ > ytvyfjirtiv Heyne, comparing Hesiod, Theog, 
890 8q, : tXeye yevtrfitreiv A, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, 
Hercher, Wagner. 

^ y€vvaff$ai E, Scholiast on Plato, TimaeuSf p. 23 D : 
y4v€ff$ai A. 

' ycyvfifftus A, Scholiast on Plato, Timaeua, p. 23 d : 
y€v4a€as E, Wagner. 

1 See Hesiod, Theog, 886-900, 929«-929p, ed. Evelyn- 
White ; Scholiast on Plato, TimaetiSf p. 23 d. Hesiod says 
that Zeus acted on the adrice or warning of Earth and Sky. 
The Scholiast on Hesiod, quoted by Goettling and Paley in 
their commentaries, says that Metis had the power of turning 
herself into any shape she pleased. 

■ Compare the Scholiast on Homer, II, i, 195, who cites 
the first book of ApoUodorus as his authorit}'. According to 
the usual account, followed by the vase-painters, it was 
Hephaestus who cleft the head of Zeus with an axe and so 
delivered Athena. See Pindar, Olymp, vii. 35 (65) sqq, ; 
Scholiast on Plato, Timaeus, p. 23 d. According to Euripides 
(Ion, 454 8qq,)y the delivery was efifected by Prometheus ; but 
according to others it was Palamaon or Hermes who split the 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, I. iii. 6-iv. i 

swallowed her, because Earth said that, after 
giving birth to the maiden who was then in her 
womb. Metis would bear a son who should be the lord 
of heaven. From fear of that Zeus swallowed her.^ 
And when the time came for the birth to take place, 
Prometheus or, as others say, Hephaestus, smote the 
head of Zeus with an axe, and Athena, fully armed, 
leaped up from the top of his head at the river Triton.^ 
IV. Of the daughters of Coeus, Asteria in the 
likeness of a quail flung herself into the sea in order 
to escape the amorous advances of Zeus, and a city 
was formerly called after her Asteria, but afterwards 
it was named Delos.* But Latona for her intrigue 
with Zeus was hunted by Hera over the whole earth, 
till she came to Delos and brought forth first Artemis, 
by the help of whose midwifery she afterwards gave 
birth to Apollo.* 

head of the supreme god and so allowed Athena to leap forth. 
See the Scholiast on Pindar, OVymp, vii. 35 (65). 

* Compare Callimachus, Hymn to Delos, ^^ aqqr, Tzetzes, 
SchoL on Lycophron, 401 ; Hyginus, Fah. 63 ; Serviua, on 
Virgil, Aen. iii. 73 ; Lactantius Placidus, on Statins, Thd>. iv. 
795 ; Scriptorea rerum mythicarum LaMni, ed. G. H. Bode, 
vol. i. pp. 13, 79 sq, (First Vatican Mythographer, 37 ; 
Second Vatican Mythographer, 17). 

* As to the birth of Apollo and Artemis, see the Homeric 
Hymn to Apollo, 14 sqq. ; Pindar, On Delos, p. 560, ed. 
Sandys ; Hyginus, Fab. 140 ; and the writers cited in 
the preceding note. The usual tradition was that Latona 
gave birth both to Artemis and to Apollo in Delos, which 
lormerly had been called Asteria or Ortygia. But the 
author of the Homeric Hymn to Apollo distinguishes 
Ortygia from Delos, and says that, while Apollo was bom in 
Delos, Artemis was bom in Ortygia. Thus distinguished 
from Delos, the island of Ortygia is probably to be identified, 
as Strabo thought, with Rhenia, an uninhabited island a 
little way from Delos, where were the graves of the Delians ; 
for no dead body might be buried or burnt in Delos (Strabo, 

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wapffivo^ €fJL€iV€V, 'AttoWo)!/ Se TTfv puvriKrjv 
fia0Q>p iraph Tiavo<; tov Aio<; xal ''Tj3pemsf ^ 
fJKcv eh A€\(l>ov<;, xPV^f^^^^^V^ rore %€fuBo<i' 
(»9 8^ (f>povp&v TO fiavT€iov HvdoDV o<\>i<; ixcolXvev 
avTov TrapeXdelv erri to x^apLa, tovtov dveXojv to 
pMvrelov irapaXapL^dvu. fcreivei Se puer ov iroXif 
Kol TiTvov, 89 fjv A409 vio^ Kal T7;9 'Opxoptepov 
dvyaTpb<; ^Ekdpr)<;,^ ^v Zev^, iTreiBt) avvrfKde, 

**Tj8pe«j EA, Tzetzes, Schoh on Lycophrrm, 772 (aH 
MSS.), Westermann : B^fiBptcts Scholiast on Pindar, Pyth,, 
Argum, (p. 297, ed. Boeckh), Aegius, Heyne, Miiller, 
Bekker, Hercher, Wagner. 

• *t\dfyns Aegius : iKdvris A : i\4vris E. 

X. 5. 5, p. 486). Not only so, but it was not even lawfol 
either-to Tbe born or to die in Delos ; expectant mothers and 
dying folk were ferried across to Rhenia, there to give birth 
or to die. However, Rhenia is so near the sacred isle that 
when Polycrates, tyrant of Samos, dedicated it to the 
Delian Apollo, he connected the two islands by a chain. 
See Thucydides, iii. 104 ; Diodorus Siculus, xii. 58. 1 ; 
Pausanias, ii. 27. 1. The notion that either a birth or 
a death would defile the holy island is illustrated by 
an inscription found on the acropolis of Athens, which 
declares it to be the custom that no one should be 
bom or die within any sacred precinct. See *E<l>rifi€p\s 
i.fiXaioXoyiK'fif Athens, 1884, pp. 167 sq. The desolate and 
ruinous remains of the ancient necropolis, overgrown by 
asphodel, may still be seen on the bare treeless slopes oi 
Rhenia, which looks across the strait to Delos. See H. F. 
Tozer, The Islands oj the Aegean (Oxford, 1890), pp. 14 sq. 
The quaint legend, recorded by Apollodorus, that immediately 
after her birth Artemis helped her younger twin brother 
Apollo to be born into the world, is mentioned also by 
Servius (on Virgil, Aen. iii. 73) and the Vatican Mytho- 
graphers (see the reference in the last note). The legend, 
these writers inform us, was told to explain why the maiden 
goddess Artemis was invoked by women in childbed. 


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THE LIBRARY, I. iv. i 

Now Artemis devoted herself to the chase and 
remained a maid; but Apollo learned the art of 
prophecy from Pan, the son of Zeus and Hybns,^ 
and came to Delphi, where Themis at that time used 
to deliver oracles;^ and when the snake Python, 
which guarded the oracle, would have hindered him 
from approaching the chasm,^ he killed it and took 
over the oracle.* Not long afterwards he slew also 
TitjTus, who was a son of Zeus and Elare, daughter of 
Orchomenus ; for her, after he had debauched her, 

^ Pan, son of Zeus and Thymbreus (Thymbris ? Hybris ?), 
is mentioned by a Scholiast on Pindar, who distinguishes 
him from Pan, the son of Hermes and Penelope. See the 
Argument to the PytMana^ p. 297, ed. Boeckh. 

^ As to the oracle of Themis at Delphi, see Aeschylus, 
EumenideSf 1 sqq.; Euripides, Iphigenia in Tatms, 1259 aqq,; 
Pausanias, x. 5. 6; Scholiast on Pindar, Argument to the 
PythianSf p. 297, ed. Boeckh. According to Ovid {Meta- 
morph. i. 3*87 sqq.)^ it was Themis, and not Apollo, whom 
Deucalion consulted at Delphi about the best means of 
repeopling the earth after the great flood. 

^ T^e reference is to the oracular chasm at which the 
priestess, under the supposed influence of its divine exhala- 
tions, delivered her prophecies. See Diodorus Siculus, xvi. 
26 ; Strabo, ix. 3. 6, p. 419 ; Justin, xxiv. 6. 9. 

* As to Apollo's slaughter of the Python, the dragon that 
guarded the oracle at I^lphl, see Plutarch, Quaest, Qraec, 12 ; 
%d. De defedu oracuhrtim, 15 ; Aelian, Var, Hist. iii. 1 ; 
Pausanias, ii. 7. 7, ii. 30. 3, x. 6. 5 sq.; Ovid, Mekmwrph, i. 
437 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab, 140. From Plutarch and Aelian we 
learn that Apollo had to go to Tempe to be purified for the 
slaughter of the dragon, and that both the slaughter of the 
dragon and the purification of the god were represented 
every eighth year in a solemn festival at Delphi. See my 
note on Fausanias, ii. 7. 7 (vol. iii. pp. bZsqq.). The Pythian 
games at Delphi were instituted in honour of the dead 
dragon (Ovid and Hyginus, ; compare Clement of 
Alexandria, Protrept. 2, p. 29, ed. Potter), probably to soothe 
bis natural anger at being slain. 


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0€PTa iralBa Titvov VTrepfieyiOi] el^ <f>&^ avrj- 
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pTjixa^;, Tr60<p Karaax^ffeU iTrKTiraTar fj he roif^ 
TratSav iTTLKaXelraL koX KaraTO^evovcriv avrov. 
Kokd^erai S^ koI psra ddvarov yvTre^ yap avTov 
Ttjv tcapSiav iv'^AiSov iaOiovaiv. 
2 *A'n'€KT€LV€ Se 'AttoXXg)!/ Koi TOV *0\vfnrov 
TraiSa Mapavav. OUT09 yctp evpmf av\ov<;, 069 
eppiyjrev *Adr)vd Sia to Ttfp o'^^lv avrrj^ iroielv 

* ipXOfi^^Vi' ER, compare Homer, Od. xi. 681 : ipx^M-^vos A. 

^ Compare Scholiast on Homer, Od. vii. 324 ; Eustathlus 
on Homer, Od. vii. 324, p. 1581 ; ApoUonius Rhodius, Argon. 
i. 761 sq.f with the Scholiast on v. 761. The curious story 
how Zeus hid his light o' love under the earth to save her 
from the jealous rage of Hera was told by the early mytho- 
logist and antiquarian Pherecydes of Athens, as we learn from 
the Scholiast on ApoUonius Rhodius {l.c.). Pherecydes was a 
contemporary of Herodotus and Hellanicus, and wrote in the 
first half of the fifth century B.C. Apollodorus often refers, 
to him, and appears to have made much use of his writings, 
as I shall have occasion to observe in the course of these 
notes. With regard to Elare or Elara, the mother of Tityus, 
some people thought that she was a daughter of Minyas, not 
of Orchomenus (Scholiast on Homer, and Eustathius, 
Because Tityus was brought up under the earth, he was said 
to be earth-bom {yTrytviis, Scholiast on ApoUonius Rhodius, 
Argon, i. 761). Homer calls him simply a son of Earth 
(Od. xi. 576), and in this he is followed by Virgil {Aen. vi. 

■ As to the crime and punishment of Tityus, see Homer, 
Od. xi. 576-581 ; Pindar, Pyth. iv. 90 (160) sqq., with the 
Scholiast on v. 90 (160) ; Lucretius, iii. 984 sgq,; Virgil, Aen. 
vi. 595 sgq.; Horace, Odes, ii. 14. 8 sq.y iii. 4. 77 sqq.^ iii. 11. 
21 sq., iv. 6. 2 sq.; Hyginus, Fab. 55; Scriptores rerum 
mythioarum LaUni, ed. G. H. Bode, voU i. pp. 4, 110 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, I. iv. 1-2 

Zeus hid under the earth for fear of Hera, and brought 
forth to the light the son Titjois, of monstrous size, 
whom she had borne in her womb.^ When Latona 
came to Delphi, Tityus beheld her, and overpowered 
by lust drew her to him. But she called her children 
to her aid, and they shot him down with their arrows. 
And he is punished even after death ; for vultures eat 
his heart in Hades. ^ 

Apollo also slew Marsyas, the son of Olympus. 
For Marsyas, having found the pipes which Athena 
had thrown away because they disfigured her face,* 

(First Vatican Mythograpber, 13; Second Vatican Mytho- 
grapher, 104). The tomb of Tityus was shown at Panopeus 
in Fhocis ; it wsis a mound or barrow about a third of a 
furlong in circumference. See Pausanias, x. 4. 5. In Euboea 
there was shown a cave called Elarium after the mother of 
Tityus, and Tityus himself had a shrine where he was 
worshipped as a hero (Strabo, ix. 3. 14, p. 423). The death 
of Tityus at the hands of Apollo and Artemis was represented 
on the throne of Apollo at Amyclae (Pausanisis, iii. 18. 15), 
and it was the subject of a group of statuary dedicated by 
the Cnidians at Delphi (Pausanias. x. 11. 1). His sufferings 
in hell were painted by Polygnotus in his famous picture of 
the underworld at Delphi. The great artist represented the 
sinner worn to a shadow, but no longer racked by the vultures 
gnawing at his liver (Pausanias, x. 29. 3). 

' As she played on the pipes, she is said to have seen her 
puffed and swollen cheeks reflected in water. See Plutarch, 
De cohibenda ira, 6 ; Athenaeus, xiv. 7, p. 616 ef ; Propert- 
ius, iii. 22 (29). 16 sqq,; Ovid, FasH, vi. 697 sqq.i id. Ars 
Amat, iii. 505 sq.; Hyginus, Fab. 165 ; Fulgentiua, Mytholog. 
iii. 9 ; Scriptores rerum myihicarum LcUini, ed. G. H. Bode, 
vol. i. pp. 40, 114 (First Vatican Mythographer, 125 ; Second 
Vatican Mythographer, 115). On the acropolis at Athens 
there was a group of statuary representing Athena smiting 
Marsyas because ne had picked up the flutes which she had 
thrown away (Pausanias, i. 24. 1). The subject was a favourite 
theme in ancient art. See my note on Pausanias, Ix. (vol. ii. 
pp. 289 aqq,). 


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XiBffv, fjv eppf^yjrev eh '^AiBov irepl fU}p^rj<; ipi- 
aaaav "Hpa* * avOi^ Be eXOa^v eh ^iov M.epo'^v 

^ iK4\tv<rt A : 4k4\€v€ E, Wagner. 

^ <.iFp(t)rr\v>' conjecturally inserted by Heroher and 
• "H^ Wagner (apparently a misprint.) 

^ As to the musical contest between Marsyas and Apollo, 
and the punishment of the vanquished Marsyas, see Diodoms 
Siculus, iii. 59 ; Pausanias, ii. 22. 9 ; Ovid, Metamorph, vi. 
382 «?g.; id. Fasti, vi. 103 sqq,; Hyginus, Fab. 165; Scrip- 
tores rerum mythtcarum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 
40, 1 14 (First Vatican Mythographer, 125 ; Sec<md Vatican 
Mythographer, 115). There has been some doubt as to the 
interpretation of the words r)\v Kiddpav <rrp4ipas ; but that 
they mean simply ** turned the lyre upside down," as Heyne 
correctly explained them, is shown by a comparison with 
the parallel passages in Hyginus (** dtharam veraabat ") and 
the Second Vatican Mythographer {**invertit citharatn, et 
canere coepit, Inversis a/utem tibiis, guum se Marsya 
ApoUini aequiparare nequiret^* etc.). That the tree on 
which Marsyas was hanged was a pine is affirmed by many 
ancient writers besides ApoUodorus. See Nicander, Alext- 
pJutrmaca, 301 sq,, with the Scholiast's note ; Lucian, Trago- 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, I. iv. 2-3 

engaged in a musical contest with Apollo. They 
agreed that the victor should work his will on the 
vanquished^ and when the trial took place Apollo 
turned his lyre upside down in the competition and 
bade Marsyas do the same. But Marsyas could not. 
So Apollo was judged the victor and despatched 
Marsyas by hanging him on a tall pine tree and 
stripping off his skin.^ 

And Artemis slew Orion in Delos.^ They say that 
he was of gigantic stature and bom of the earth ; 
but Pherecydes says that he was a son of Poseidon 
and Euryale.* Poseidon bestowed on him the power 
of striding across the sea.* He first married Side/ 
whom Hera cast into Hades because she rivalled 
herself in beauty. Afterwards he went to Chios and 

dopodagra, 314 «g.; Archias Mitylenaeus, in ArUhologia 
Palatina, vii. 696; Phik>stratu8 Junior, Imagines, i. 3; 
LonevLBf Pastor, iv. 8 ; Zenobius, Cent. iv. 81 ; J. Tzetzes, 
ChiUades, i. 353 sqq* Pliny alone describes the tree as a 
plane, which in his time was still shown at Aulocrene on the 
way from Apamea to Phrygia {Nat. Hist. xvi. 240). The 
skin of the flayed Marsyas was exhibited at Celaenae within 
historical times. See Herodotus, vii. 26; Xenophon, Ana- 
basis, i. 2. 8 ; Livy, xxxviii. 13. 6 ; Quintus Curtius, iii. 1. 
1-5; Pliny, Nai. Hist. v. 106. 

2 See Homer, Od. v. 121-124 ; Horace, Odes, iii. 4. 70 sqq. 

' The same account of Orion's parentage was given by 
Hesiod, whom Pherecydes probably followed. S^ Erato- 
sthenes, Catasterism. 32 ; Hyginus, Astronom. ii. 34. 

* Some thought that Orion waded through the sea (so 
Virgil, Aen. x. /63 sqq.), others that he walked on the top 
of it (so Eratosthenes, Catasterism. 32; Scholiast on Nicander, 
Ther, J 5 ; Hyginus, Astronom. ii. 34). 

'^ As Side means "pomegranate" in Greek, it has been 
supposed that the marriage of Orion to Side is a mythical 
expression for the ripening of the pomegranate at the season 
when the constellation Orion is visible in the nightly sky. 
See W. Pape, Worterbuch der griechischen Sigennamen^ 
(Brunswick, 1884), ii. 1383. 


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&fjLcov i'm6efi€vo<i ifciXevae iroBrjyeiv tt/oo? tu^ 
avaTo\d<;, i/cel Se irapayevofievo^ dvi/SXeyftev 
i^aKcaOeh^ inro rrj^ fpiiaKT]^ afcrlvo^, kclL Sid 

4 rax^^v ^irl rov Olvoiritova eatrevSev, dWd r^ 
fihf Tlocreih&v ri^ataroTevKTOv viro yrjv /care- 
aK€va<T€v oIkov, 'Xl/)ta)i/09 S' 'Heb? ipaaOelaa 
fjp7ra<T€ Kal i/cofiia-ev eh ^rjXov iiroiei yap avrrfv 
^A^poSiTf] (Tvvexw ipdv, on *'Ap€i avvevvdaOr). 

5 o S' 'ilpicov, 0)9 p^v evtoi Xeyovtriv, dviypedr) 
SifTxevecv "Aprep^iv 7rpoKa\ovp£VO<;, 0)9 Se Tive^, 
^ia^6fievo<; ^tlinv p>Lav tq>v e^ "Tirepfiopetop irapa- 
yevofievoDv irapOeveov vtr* ^ApTep^Bo^ iTo^evOtf, 

^ <*H(t>al<rrov> a conjecture of Heyne, who proposed to 
read <€ls A^/xi'ov> 4vl rh x«^'C€tov <'H^a/<rToi;>, comparing 
Eratosthenes, Gataster. 32. 

* ^|a/cc(r0eU Hercher : ixKa^is MSS. and editors, including 

^ This quaint story of Orion and Oenopion is told also by 
Eratosthenes, CaUiateriain. 32 ; the old Scholiast on Aratus, 
Phaenomena^ 322, quoted in Epicorum Oraecorum Frag- 
menta^ ed. G. Kinkel, p. 89 ; the Scholiast on Nicander, 
Ther, 15 ; Hyginus, Astronom. ii. 34 ; Servius, on Virgil, 
Aen, X. 763 ; and the First Vatican Mythographer, 33 
(Scriptores rerum mythicaru/m Latiniy ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. 
p. 12), except that this last writer substitutes Minos, king of 
Crete, for Oenopion. The name of the guide whom Orion 
took on his back to guide him to the sunrise was Cedalion 
(Lucian, De domo, 28 ; Eratosthenes, Scholiast on Aratus, 
and Hyginus, U,cc.). Sophocles made the story the theme 
of a satyric drama called GedaUoriy of which a few fflkgments 
have come down to us. See Tragicorum Oraecorum Frag- 


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THE LIBRARY, I. iv. 3-5 

wooed Merope, daughter of Oenopion. But Oeno- 
pion made him drunk, put out his eyes as he 
slept, and cast him on the beach. But he went to 
the smithy of Hephaestus, and snatching up a lad 
set him on his shoulders and bade him lead him to 
the sunrise. Being come thither he was healed by 
the sun's rays, and having recovered his sight he 
hastened with all speed against Oenopion. But for 
him Poseidon had made ready a house under the 
earth constructed by Hephaestus.^ And Dawn 
fell in love with Orion and carried him off and 
brought him to Delos ; for Aphrodite caused 
Dawn to be perpetually in love, because she bad 
bedded with Ares. But Orion was killed, as some 
say, for challenging Artemis to a match at quoits, 
but some say he was shot by Artemis for offering 
violence to Opis, one of the maidens who had come 
from the Hyperborean s.^ 

menta, ed. A. Nauck*, pp. 202 aq.; The Fragments of Sopho- 
cUsy ed. A. C. Pearson, vol. ii. pp. 8 sqq* Euripides repre- 
sents the blinded Polymestor praying to the Sun to restore 
his sight {Hecuba, 1067 8qq,), 

• CSmpare Scholiast on Homer, Od. v. 121, who calls the 
maiden Upis. According to another, and more generally 
received, account, Orion died of the bite of a scorpion, which 
Artemis sent against him because he had attempted her 
chastity. For this service the scorpion was raised to the 
rank of a constellation in the sky, and Orion attained to a 
like dignity. That is why the constellation Orion flies for 
ever from the constellation Scorpion round the sky. See 
Aratus, Phaenomena, 634 sqq, ; Nicander, Ther. 13 sqq, ; 
Eratosthenes, Catasterism, 32 ; Scholiast on Homer, II. xviii. 
486 ; Scholiast on Homer, Od. v. 121 ; Lactantius Placidus, 
on Statins, Theb. iii. 27; Scholiast on Caesar Germanicus, 
Aratea, p. 386, ed. Eyssenhardt, in his edition of Martianus 
Oapella. The Scholiast on Homer, II. xviii. 486, cites as his 
authority Euphorion, a grammarian and poet of the fourth 
century B.C. 


VOL. I. D 

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HocreiS&v Be ^A/M<l>iTpLTrjv [rijv ^[iKeavov] yafiei, 
Kol avT^ yLverai Tpiroov Kal PoSr), ^v ' H\ao9 

V. Tl\ovTOi)v he Tlepa€(f>6vi]<; epaaOeX^ Aio? 
(TvvepyovvTO^ ffpTraaev avTr)v Kpv<f>a. ArjfirJTijp 
Bk fiera \ap>'rrdha>v vvicto^ re koX '^fjuepa^ Kara 
iraaav ttjv yrjv ^rfTovcra irepcper pxidovaa H 
irap ^Etpfiiovecov on TTKovtcop avrrjv ripiraa-ev, 

^ Compare Hesiod, Theog. 930 sqq, 

2 Rhode, more commonly in the form Rhodos, is a personi- 
fication of the island of Rhodes, which Pindar calls the 
Bride of the Sun {Olymp. vii. 14), because it was the great 
seat of the worship of the Sun in ancient Greece. A Rhodian 
inscription of about 220 B.C. records public prayers oflfered 
by the priests * * to the Sun and Rhodos and all the other 
gods and goddesses and founders and heroes who have the 
city and the land of the Rhodians in their keeping." See 
P. Cauer, Delectus InscripHonum Oraecarum^, p. 123, No. 181 ; 
Ch. Michel, Rectieil (Tlnscriptions Qrecqites, p. 24, No. 21 ; 
H. CoUitz and F. Bechtel, Sammlung der griechtschen DicUekt- 
Inschrijten, vol. iii. p. 412, No. 3749. Every year the 
Rhodians threw into the sea a chariot and four horses for 
the use of the Sun, apparently supposing that after riding a 
whole year across the sky his old chariot and horses must be 
quite worn out. See Festus, s.v. ** October equus,"p. 181, 
ed. C. O. Muller. 

* This account of the rape of Persephone and Demeter's 
quest of her is based on the Homeric Hymn to Demeter. The 
opening passage, including the explanation of the Lauchless 
Stone, is quoted verbally by Zenobius {Cent. i. 7) and the 
Scholiast on Aristophanes [Knights, 785 j, but without mention 
of their authority. For other accounts of the rape of Persephone 
and Demeter's quest of her, see Diodorus Siculus, v. 4. 1—3, 
V. 68. 2 ; Cicero, In Verrem, Act. II. lib. 4, cap. 48 ; Ovid, 
Fasti, iv. 419 sqq.; id. Metamorph. v. 346 sqq.; Hyginus, 
Fab. 146 ; Lactantius Placidus, on Statins, v. 347 ; Scriptores 
rerum mythicarum Lalini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 106-108 
(Second Vatican Mythographer, 93-100). All these writers 


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THE LIBRARY, I. 1V..5-V. i 

Poseidon wedded Amphitrite, daughter of Ocean, 
and there were bom to him Triton ^ and Rhode, who 
was married to the Smi.^ 

V. Pluto fell in love with Persephone and with the 
help of Zeus carried her off secretly.* But Demeter 
went about seeking her all over the earth with 
torches by night and day, and learning from the 
people of Hermion that Pluto had carried her off,* 

agree in mentioning Sicilv as the scene of the rape of Perse- 
phone ; Cicero and Ovid identify the place with Enna (Henna), 
of which Cicero gives a vivid description. The author of the 
Homeric Hymn to Demeter says {w, 16 sq.) that the earth 
yawned **in the Nysian plain," but whether this was a real 
or a mythical place is doubtful. See T. W. Allen and E. E. 
Sikes, The Homeric Hymns, p. 4 (on Hymn i. 8). It was 
probably the luxuriant fertility of Sicily, and particularly the 
abundance of its corn, which led later writers to place the 
scene of the rape in that island. In Ovid's version of the 
visit of Demeter to Eleusis {Fctstiyiv, 507 sqq,), Celeus is not 
the king of the place but a poor old peasant, who receives 
the disguised goddess in his humble cottage. 

* This visit paid by the mourning Demeter to Hermion, 
when she was searching for the lost Persephone, is not 
mentioned by the author of the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, 
nor, so far as I know, by any other ancient writer except 
Zenobius (Cent. i. 7) and the Scholiast on Aristophanes 
(Knights, 785), both of whom, however, merely copied 
Apollodorus without naming him. But compare Pausanias, 
ii. 35. 4-8, who mentions the sanctuary 01 Subterranean 
Demeter at Hermion, and describes the curious sacrificial 
ritual observed at it. At Hermion there was a chasm which 
was supposed to communicate with the infernal regions, 
and through which Hercules was said to have dragged up 
Cerberus (Pausanias, ii. 35. 10). The statement of Apollo- 
dorus in the present passage suggests that according to local 
tradition Pluto dragged down his bride to hell through the 
same chasm. So convinced were the good people of Hermion 
that they possessed a private entrance to the nether regions 
that they very thriftily abstained from the usual Greek 
practice of placing money in the mouths of their dead 

D 2 

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6pyi^o/jL€vrj deol^ fcarekiTrev ^ ovpavov, el/cacrOeia-a 
Se yvvaifcl fJK€v eh ^Ekevalva, Kal irp&rov fjikv 
iirl rrjv air i/c€ivrj<; KXtjOelaav ^AyeXaarov ifcdffiae 
irerpav iraph to KaWixopop (f>p€ap KoCKovyjevov, 
iirevra irpb^ KeXeov iXdovaa rov ^aaiXevovTa 
TOT€ *¥i\ev<TLVi(ov, €vSov ov(tS)v yvvaiK&v, teal 
Xeyova&v rovrtav irap avrh^ /cade^eaOai, ypald 
T*9 *Idfjb/3r) <TK(0'^a<Ta rrjv Oeov iiroi'qae fjueiBidaai, 
Sm tovto iv TOt? deafWi^opLoL^ rh^ yvvalKa^ 
(TKODinetv Xiyovacv, 

"Oi'To? Be TTj Tov J^eXeov yvvai/cl Meraveipa 
iraiBiov, tovto ^Tpe^ev r/ AtjfJLijTrfp irapaXa^ovaa' 
^ovXofievT] Be avTo dOdvaTov iroirjaai, tu^ vvfcra^ 
€A9 TTvp fcaT€TC0€L TO ^pe(f>o<; KoX TTepiypei Ta9 
0V7)Tct<f adpica^ avTOv, /ca6^ fjixepav Be irapaho^o)^ 
av^avofievov tov Arjfjbo<f>&vTo<; (tovto yctp i^v 

^ Kar4\tT€v Zenobius, Cent. i. 7, Scholiast on Aristophanes, 
Knights, 785 : iiir4\iirev A. 

(Strabo, ix. 6. 12, p. 373). Apparently they thought that 
it would be a waste of money to pay Charon for ferrying 
them across to hell when they could get there for nothing 
from their own backdoor. 

^ Compare Homeric Hymn to Demeter, 98 sqq., who says 
that Demeter, sad at heart, sat down by the wayside at the 
Maiden's Well, under the shadow of an olive-tree. Later in 
the poem {w. 270 aqq.) Demeter directs the people of Eleusis 
to build her a temple and altar ** above Callichorum " — that 
is, the Well of the Fair Dances. ApoUodorus identifies the 
well beside which Demeter sat down with the Well of the 
Fair Dances. But from Pausanias (i. 38. 6, i. 39. 1) we learn 
that the two wells were different and situated at some 
distance, from each other, the Well of the Fair Dances being 
close to the Sanctuary of Demeter, and the Maiden's Well, 
or the Flowery Well, as Pausanias calls it, being outside 
Eleusis, on the' road to Megara. In the course of the modem 


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she was wroth with the gods and quitted heaven, 
and came in the likeness of a woman to Eleusis. 
And first she sat down on the rock which has been 
named Laughless after her, beside what is called the 
Well of the Fair Dances ^ ; thereupon she made her 
way to Celeus, who at that time reigned over the 
Eleusinians. Some women were in the house, and 
when they bid her sit down beside them, a certain 
old crone, lambe, joked the goddess and made her 
smile.* For that reason they say that the women 
break jests at the Thesmophoria.^ 

But Metanira, wife of Celeus, had a child and 
Demeter received it to nurse, and wishing to make 
it immortal she set the babe of nights on the fire and 
stripped off its mortal flesh. But as Demophon — for 

excavation of the sanctuary at Eleusis, the Well of the Fair 
Dances was discovered just outside the portal of the sacred 
precinct. It is carefully built of polygonal stones, and the 
mouth is surrounded by concentric circles, round which the 
women of Eleusis probably tripped in the dance. See 
TIpaKTiKh. r7}s *Apxctio\oyiKris 'Eraipiast Athens, 1892, pp. 33 sq. 
In antiquity solemn oaths were sworn by the water of the 
well (Alciphron, iii. 69). 

* As to the jesting of the old woman with Demeter, see 
Homeric Hymn to Demeter, 194-206 ; Scholiast on Nicander, 
AUxipharmaca, 130, who calls Demeter's host Hippothoon, 
son of Poseidon. 

* The jests seem to have been obscene in form (Diodorus 
Siculus, V. 4. 6), but they were probably serious in intention ; 
for at the Thesmophoria rites were performed to ensure the 
fertility of the fields, and the lewd words of the women may 
have been thought to quicken the seed by sympathetic 
magic. See Scholia in Lucianum, ed. H. Rabe (Leipsic, 
1906), pp. 275 sq.; Spirits of the Com and of the Wild, i. 
62 sq,, 116, ii. 17 sqq, 


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ovo/jLa T^ TraiBi) eirerrifyqaev 17 Tlpa^iOea} Koi 
KaraXa^ov<Ta eh nrvp ijKeKpvfi/jLevop ave^orjae* 
hioirep TO fikv fipi<f>o^ viro rod Trvpo<; dvrjXddrj, 

2 17 deh Sk avTTjv i^i^rfve, TpiirToXefi^ Se rcS 
Trpea^vTipq) r&v Meraveipa^'^ iraiScov Bi<f>pov 
tcaraaKevdaaaa ttttjv&v hpaKovrcov top irvpov 
eBcoKev, ^ TTjv oXtfv olKovfievrjv Bi ovpavov alpo- 
fievo^ Kareairei^pe, Tlavvaa-i^ Bk TpcirroXefwv 
*Ei\€uaivo^ \iyer (f>i](Tl yap Ai]/Mi]Tpa 7r/)09 avrov 
i\0eiv, ^epefcvBrj^ Be (prjaiv avrov ^^fceavov 
Kol r?)9. 

3 A*09 B^ TVKovrtovi Tr)v Koprjv dvairi/JAlrai xeXev- 
aavTO^, 6 TlXjovTtov, Xva firj iroXvv xpovov irapcL 
rfj firjTpX /caTafieivr), pota^ lBa>K€P avrfi <^ayelv 

^ ^ Upa^tBia A, Bekker ; MereCveipa, rl irpd^ti Bed Heyne, 
Westermann : Mcrivcipa, ri irp&ffffti fi 0td Miiller : tj Mcrct- 
vetpo Heroher, Wagner. 

2 Meravelpas Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, Her- 
cher, Wagner : npa^i04as A. 

* See Appendix, ** Putting Children on the Fire." 

* Compare Comutus, Theologiae Oraecae Compendium^ 28, 
pp. 53 eg. ed. O. Lang ; Ovid, F<i8ti, iv. 659 aqq,; id. Tristia, 
iii. 8. (9) 1 sq.; Hyginus, F<ib, 147 ; id. Astronom, ii. 
14; Servius, on Virgil, Qeorg, i. 19 and 163; Lactantius 
Placidus, on Statins, Tf^eb. ii. 382; Scriptores rerum 
mythicarum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 3, 107 
(First Vatican Mythographer, 8 ; Second Vatican Mytho- 
grapher, 97). The dragon-car of Triptolemus was mentioned 
by Sophocles in his lost tragedy Triptolemua. See Tragi- 
corum Qraecorum Fragmenta, ed. A. Nauck^, p. 262, frag. 
539 ; The Fragments oj Sophocles^ ed. A. C. Pearson, vol. ii. 
p. 243, frag. 596. In Greek vase-paintings Triptolemus is 
often represented in his dragon-car. As to the representa- 
tions of the car in ancient art, see Stephani, in Compte 
Rendu (St. Petersburg) for 1859, pp. 82 sgq.; my note on 
Pausanias, vii. 18. 3 (vol. iv. pp. 142 aq.) ; and especially 


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THE LIBRARY, I. v. 1-3 

that was the child's name — grew marvellously by 
day, Praxithea watched, and discovering him buried 
in the fire she cried out; wherefore the babe was 
consumed by the fire and the goddess revealed her- 
self.i But for Triptolemus, the elder of Metanira's 
children, she made a chariot of winged dragons, and 
gave him wheat, with which, wafted through the sky, 
he sowed the whole inhabited earth.^ But Panyasis 
affirms that Triptolemus was a son of Eleusis, for he 
says that Demeter came to him. Pherecydes, how- 
ever, says that he was a son of Ocean and Earth. ^ 

But when Zeus ordered Pluto to send up the Maid, 
Pluto gave her a seed of a pomegranate to eat, in 
order that she might not tarry long with her mother.* 

A. B. Cook, ZetcSt i. (Cambridge, 1914), pp. 211 «gg., who 
shows that on the earlier monuments Triptolemus is repre- 
sented sitting on a simple wheel, which probably represents 
the sun. Apparently he was a mythical embodiment of the 
first sower. See Spirits of the Com and of the WUdy i. 72 sq. 

' The accounts given of the parentage of Triptolemus were 
very various (Pausanias, i. 14. 2 sq.)^ which we need not 
wonder at when we remember that he was probably a purely 
mythical personage. As to Eleusis, the equally mythical hero 
who is said to have given his name to Eleusis, see Pausanias, 
viii. 38. 7. He is called Eleusinus by Hyginus {Fab, 147) 
and Servius (on Virgil, Oeorg, i. 19). 

* The Maid {Kore) is Persephone. As to her eating a seed 
or seeds of a pomegranate, see Homeric Hymn to Demeter, 
371 sqq., 411 sqq.; Ovid, Metamorph, v. 333 sqq.; id, Fctsti, 
iv. 601 sqq. ; Servius, on Virgil, Oeorg, i. 39 and Aen. iv. 462 ; 
Lactantius Placidus, on Statins, Theb, iii. 511; Scriptores 
rerum mn/tfdcarum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 3, 108 
(First Vatican Mythographer, 7 ; Second Vatican Mytho- 
grapher, 100). There is a widespread belief that if a living 
person visits the world of the dead and there partakes of 
food, he cannot return to the land of the living. Thus, the 
ancient Egyptians believed that, on his way to the spirit 
land, the soul of a dead person was met by a goddess (Hathor, 


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KOKKOV. rj hi ov Trpoihofievrj to av/M^rjaojievov 
/carrfvaXaxrep avrov, Karafiaprvprjaamo^ he 
avTTJ^; *AaKaXd<l>ov tov 'A^^ooi/to? xal ropyvpa<;, 
TOVTfp fiev Ar)fjLi]T7jp iv "Aloov ^apecav iiridrj/ce 
irirpap, Hepaeifiovr) he icaO* eKa<jTOV iviavrov to 
fjbkv rpiTov fiera UXovtcovo^ rjvayfcdo'drj fieveiv, 
TO he XoiTTOv irapa rot? ^€0t9. 

Nouit, or Nit), who offered him fruits, bread, and water, and 
that, if he accepted them, he could return to earth no more. 
See G. Maspero, Histoire Ancienne des Peuples de VOrient 
Clasaiqttest lea Origines (Paris, 1895), p. 184. Similarly, the 
natives of New Caledonia, in the South Pacific, say that when 
a man dies, messengers come from the other world to ^ide 
his soul through the air and over the sea to the spirit land. 
Arrived there, he is welcomed by the other souls and bidden 
to a banquet, where he is offered food, especially bananas. 
If he tastes them, his doom is fixed for ever : he cannot 
return to earth. See the missionary Gagni^re, in AnncUes 
de la Propagation de la Foi, xxxii. (Lyons, 1860), pp. 439 aq. 
The Eastern Melanesians believe that living people can go 
down to the land of the dead and return alive to the upper 
world. Persons who have done so relate how in the nether 
world they were warned by friendly ghosts to eat nothing 
there. See R. H. Codrington, TJie Melaneaiana (Oxford, 
1891), pp. 277, 286. Similar beliefs prevail and similar tales 
are told among the Maoris of New Zealand. For example, a 
woman who l^lieved that she had died and passed to the 
spirit land, related on her return how there she met with her 
dead father, who said to her, ** You must go back to the earth, 
for there is no one now left to take care of my grandchild. 
But remember, if you once eat food in this place, you can 
never more return to life ; so beware not to taste anything 
offered to you." See E. Shortland, Traditiona and Super- 
aPUiona of the New Zealandera (London, 1856), pp. 150-152. 
Again, they tell of a great chief named Hutu, who performed 
the same perilous journey. On reaching the place of departed 
spirits he encountered a certain being callecl Hine nui te po, 
that is, Great Mother Night, of whom he inquired the way 
down to the nether world. She pointed it out to him and 


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Not foreseeing the consequence, she swallowed it ; 
and because Ascalaphus, son of Acheron and Gorgyra, 
bore witness against her, Demeter laid a heavy rock 
on him in Hades.^ But Persephone was compelled 
to remain a third of every year with Pluto and the 
rest of the time with the gods.^ 

gave him a basket of cooked food, saying, " When you reach 
the lower regions, eat sparingly of your provisions that they 
may last, and you may not be compelled to partake of their 
food, for if you do, you cannot return upwards again." See 
R. Taylor, Te Ika A Maui, or New Zealand and its Inhabi- 
tants, 2nd ed. (London, 1870), p. 271. And the same rule 
holds good of fairyland, into which Uving people sometimes 
stray or are enticed to their sorrow. ** Wise people recom- 
mend that, in the circumstances, a man should not utter a 
word till he comes out again, nor, on any account, taste fairy 
food or drink. If he abstains he is very likely before lone 
dismissed, but if he indulges he straightway loses the wiU 
and the power ever to return to the society of men." See 
J. G. Campbell, Superstitions of the Highlands and Islands 
of Scotland (Glasgow, 1900), p. 17. See further E. S. Hart- 
land, The Science of Fairy Tales (London, 1891), pp. 40 sqq. 

* As to the talebearer Ascalaphus, below, ii. 5. 12. Ac- 
cording to another account, Persephone or Demeter punished 
him by turning him into a screech-owl. See Ovid, Meta- 
morph. V. 538 sqq.; Servius, on Virgil, Qeorg. i. 39 and on 
Aen. iv. 462 ; Lactantius Placidus, on Statins, Theb. iii. 511 ; 
Scriptores rerum mythicarwm La/tini, ed. 6. H. Bode, vol. i. 
p. 108 (Second Vatican Mythographer, 100). 

' ApoUodorus agrees with the author of the Homeric Hymn 
to Demeter {w, 398 sqq., 445 sqq.) that Persephone was to 
spend one-third of each year with her husband Pluto in the 
nether world and two-thirds of the year with her mother and 
the other gods in the upper world. But, according to another 
account, Persephone was to divide her time equally between 
the two regions, passing six months below the earth and six 
months above it. See Ovid, Fasti, iv. 613 sq. ; id. Metamorph. 
V. 564 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 146 ; Servius, on Virgil, Qeorg. i. 
39; Scriptores rerwn mythicarum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, 
vol. i. p. 108 (Second Vatican Mythographer, 100). 


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VI. Tlepl fiev oiv Ai]firjTpo<; ravra XiycTar 
Trj Se irepi TiTavayv dyavaxTOVfra yevva FiyavTa^ 
ef Ovpavov, fieyiOei fikv (TonfiaToav dpvTrep/SXij- 
Tov^, ovvdfiei Bh dKarayeopia-TOV^, oc <l)o/3€pol fiev 
TaU 8y^€(Tt KaT€<f>cUvovTO, xadeifUvoi /SaOeiav 
KOfiTjv ix K€<f>a\rj<; xal yeveiayv, elxov Se t^9 
/8a<r€t9 (boXiSa^ SpaxoPToyv. iyepopro Be, 0)9 fiiv 
Ttr€9 Xeyovaip, ip ^Xeypai^, 0)9 Se aXKoi, iv 
HaXKriPri, ffKOPTifyp Be eh ovpapop ^ irerpa^ kuI 
Bpv^ fifjufjipa^. BL€<f>€pop Be TrdpTcop Ilop^vpCeov 
T€ /cal ^AXxvopev^, S9 Bfj koX dQdvaTO^ J\p ev yirep 
eyepPTjOri yfj fiaypfiepo^. ovto<; Be teal t^9 'HTuov 
I36a<; ef *Etpvd€La<; ijXao'e. toa9 Bk 6eol<i Xoyiov 
TjP VTTo de&p fi€P fiTfBepa t&p TiydpToop diroXeaOat 
BvpacOcUi (TVfifia')(pvpTo<; Be Optjtov tipo^ reXev- 
TYjaeiP. ala-ffofiePT] Be Trj tovto i^iJTei <f>dpfia/cop, 
ipa firjB^ VTTO dp7)T0V Bup7j0&(Tip diroXeadaL. Tieif^ 

^ ohpavhv E : ovpavehs A. 

1 According to Hesiod {Theog. 183 sqq.). Earth was im- 
pregnated by the blood which dropped from heaven when 
Cronus mutilated his father Sky (Uranus), and in due time 
she gave birth to the giants. As to the battle of the gods 
and giants, see J. Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 63 ; Horace, 
Odea, iii. 4. 49 sqq. ; Ovid, Metamorph. i. 150 aqq. ; Claudian, 
Oigantomachia ; Sidonius ApoUinaris, Carm. xii. 15 ^9., ed. 
Baret; Scriptores rerum mythicarum LcUini, ed. G. H. 
Bode, vol. i. pp. 4, 92 (First Vatican Mythographer, II ; 
Second Vatican Mythographer, 53). The account which 
Apollodorus here gives of it is supplemented by the evidence 
of the monuments, especially temple-sculptures and vase- 
paintings. See Preller-Robert, Oriechisme Mythologies i. 
67 sqq. Compare M. Mayer, Die Oiganten und Titanen^ 
(Berlin, 1887). The battle of the gods and the giants was 
sculptured on the outside of the temple of Apollo at Delphi, 
as we learn from the description of Euripides {Ion, 208 


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THE LIBRARY, I. vi. i 

VI. Such is the legend of Demeter. But Earth, 
vexed on account of the Titans, brought forth the 
giants, whom she had by Sky.^ These were match- 
less in the bulk of their bodies and invincible in 
their might ; terrible of aspect did they appear, with 
long locks drooping from their head and chin, and 
with the scales of dragons for feet.' They were 
bom, as some say, in Phlegrae, but according to others 
in Pallene.^ And they darted rocks and burning 
oaks at the sky. Surpassing all the rest were 
Porphyrion and Alcyoneus, who was even immor- 
tal so long as he fought in the land of his birth. 
He also drove away the cows of the Sun from 
Erythia. Now the gods had an oracle that none of 
the giants could perish at the hand of gods, but that 
with the help of a mortal they would be made an 
end of. Learning of this. Earth sought for a simple 
to prevent the giants from being destroyed even by 

sqq.). On similar stories see Appendix, *' War of Earth on 

^ Compare Ovid, Metamorph. i. 184, Tristia^ iv. 7. 17 ; 
Macrobius, ScU, i. 20. 9 ; Servius, on Virgil, Aen, iii. 578 ; 
Claudian, Oigant, SO sq,; ScHptores rerum mythicarum Latin% 
ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 92 (Second Vatican Mythographer, 
53). Pausanias denied that the giants were serpent-footed 
(Pausanias, viii. 29. 3), but they are often so represented on 
the later monuments of antiquity. See Kuhnert, in W. H. 
Roscher's Lexikon der griech. und rom. Mythologie, i. 1664 
8qq.\ M. Mayer, Die Giganten und Titanen, pp. 274 sqq, 

^ Phlegra is said to have beea the old name of Pallene 
(Stephanus Byzantius, a.v. ^\4ypa). The scene of the battle 
of the gods and giants was laid in various places. See 
Diodorus Siculus, v. 71 ; Strabo, v. 4. 4 and 6, pp. 243, 245, 
vi. 3, 5, p. 281, vii. p. 330, frag. 25 and 27, x. 5. 16, p. 489, 
xi. 2. 10, p. 495 ; Pausanias, viii. 29. 1, with my note. Vol- 
canic phenomena and the discovery of the fossil bones of 
large extinct animals seem to have been the principal sources 
of these tales. 


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KaTappf}yvvvTO^ avrov rov^ iriirXov^ xaX jStd- 
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/cepavpoxraPTO^ avrop 'H/oa/c\^9 TO^€vaa<; direK- 
T€iP€. T&p Sk XoiiT&p ^AiroXXcop fiep *E<f>idXTov 
TOP dpiarepop iro^evaep 6<f>6aXfi6p, 'H/)a^\^ Se 
TOP Be^iop* EvpvTOP Be 6vp<T(p Aiopva-o^ exreive, 
KXvTLOP Be Baalp ^ 'E/cariy, MifiapTa * Bh ll<f>ac- 
crT09 l3aXoi}p fivBpot^. *A0rjpa Be ^EyKeXdBtji) <f>ev' 
yopTi XifceXiap eireppiy^e Tr)P prjaop, IldXXapTOf; 
Be TTfp Bophp €KTefJLOv<Ta TavTtj xaTct ttjp fid^^p 

^ ^TC/ic E ; ^ra/ic A. 

' naXX^KTjj Heyne, Westermann, Milller, Bekker, Her- 
cher, Wagner : o-eX^Kiys A. 

' i(f<rly M. Mayer, Die Oiganten und Titanen (Berlin, 
1887), pp. 204 aq. : tpaaXv A. 

* fiLitiavra M. Mayer, op. cit. pp. 204 sq. comparing Clan- 
dian, Oig. 85, and Sidonius Apollinaris, Carm, xv. (Migne, 
xii. Baret), 25 : fiaWop MSS. and editors, including Wagner. 

^ Compare Pindar, Nem. iv. 27 (43) sqq.y Isthm. vi. 31 (45) 
sqq. with the Scholia ; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 63. 
The Scholiast on Pindar, lathm. vi. 32 (47), mentions, like 
Apollodorus, that Alcyoneus had driven away the oxen of 
the Sun. The reason why Hercules dragged the wounded 


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THE LIBRARY, I. vi. 1-2 

a mortal. But Zeus forbade the Dawn and the Moon 
and the Sun to shine, and then, before anybody else 
could get it, he culled the simple himself, and by 
means of Athena summoned Hercules to his help. 
Hercules first shot Alcyoneus with an arrow, but 
when the giant fell on the ground he somewhat 
revived. However, at Athena's advice Hercules 
dragged him outside Pallene, and so the giant died.^ 
But in the battle Porphyrion attacked Hercules and 
Hera. Nevertheless Zeus inspired him with lust for 
Hera, and when he tore her robes and would have 
forced her, she called for help, and Zeus smote him 
with a thunderbolt, and Hercules shot him dead with 
an arrow. 2 As for the other giants, Ephialtes was 
shot by Apollo with an arrow in his left eye and by 
Hercules in his right ; Eurjrtus was killed by Diony- 
sus with a thjn^us, and Clytius by Hecate with torches, 
and Mimas by Hephaestus with missiles of red-hot 
metal.^ Enceladus fled, but Athena threw on him 
in his flight the island of Sicily*; and she flayed 
Pallas and used his skin to shield her own body in 

giant from Pallene before despatching him was that, as 
ApoUodorus has explained above, the giant was immortal 
80 long as he fought on the land where he had been bom. 
That, too, is why the giant revived when in falling he 
touched his native earth. 

* Compare Pindar, Pyth. viii. 12 (15) aqq,, who says that 
the king of the giants (Porphyrion) was shot by Apollo, not 
Hercules. Tzetzes agrees with ApoUodorus {Schol. on Lyco- 
phron, 63). 

* According to Euripides {Ion, 215 aq.), Mimas was killed 
hy Zeus with a thunderbolt ; according to Apollonius {Argon. 
iii. 1226 aq,) and Claudian {Oigant. 87 aq,), he was slain by 

* Compare Virgil, Aen, iii. 578 aqq> The combat of Athena 
with Enceladus was sculptured on the temple of Apollo at 
Delphi. See Euripides, Ion, 209 aq. 


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iTreppisfrev avT^, to Xeyofievov NCavpov, ^lEipfirj^ 
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fjLayofievai ^ tou9 Se oKKov^ Kepavvol<i Zeu? /3a\aDV 
hU^deipe* TrdvTa^ Se *HpaK\rj<; diroXKvfievovs 

'XI9 3' i/cpaTTja-av oi deol t&v TiydvToyv, Trj 
pboXKov 'Xp\(o6el(Ta /uyvvTat TapTcipq), koI yevva 
Tv<f>&va iv Kikifcia,^ fjLCficyfievrjv e^ovTa ^vaiv 
dvhpo^ zeal ffrjpiov. 0VT09 fiev /cal fieyeOsL koX 
Svvd/jL€i irdvTtov SiijpeyKev oa-ov^ iyevvrjo'e Trj, ^v 
Sh avT& TCi fi€v dxpi' fi^P^^ airXsTOV fi€y€0o<; 
dvhp6piOp<f>ov, &(TTe vTrepexeiv fiev TrdvToov t&v 
op&v, 17 Sk K€<\)aXr) TToXKdKL^i xal t&v aaTpcov 
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€/eT€ivojMev7jv TT)v Bc iirl T^9 dvaTo\d<;* ix tovtcov^ 

^ irparluva probably corrupt. Various emendations have 
been suggested, as Aiyalcova (Heyne, M. Mayer, op. cit. 
pp. 201 sg.), 'E.vpvriwva, 'Palwva (Hercher). 

'^ fiax^H-fi^ai Heyne, Westermann, M. Mayer, op. at. 
p. 203 : fiaxofi^pas A : fiaxofiipovs RR^ Heyne (in the text), 
Miiller, Bekker, Hercher. 

• KiKiKlq, Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, Hercher : 
:itKt\lcf. A. 

* For ix ro{ircov we should perhaps read i^ &fi(av or iK t&v 
&fitov. See Hesiod, Theog. 824 aq. ix U ot &fiav \ ^v 
knarhv K^^aXaX 6<l>ioSf deivoio hpdKovros. Compare M. Mayer, 
op. cit. p. 227. 

^ According to one account the Pallas whom Athena flayed, 
and whose skin she used as a covering, w&s her own father, 


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THE LIBRARY, I. vi. 2-3 

the fight.i Polybotes was chased through the sea by 
Poseidon and came to Cos ; and Poseidon, breaking 
off that piece of the island which is called Nisjrrum, 
threw it on him.^ And Hermes, wearing the helmet 
of Hades,^ slew Hippolytus in the fight, and Artemis 
slew Gration. And the Fates, fighting with brazen 
clubs, killed Agrius and Thoas. The other giants 
Zeus smote and destroyed with thunderbolts and all 
of them Hercules shot with arrows as they were 

When the gods had overcome the giants. Earth, 
still more enraged, had intercourse with Tartarus and 
brought forth Typhon in Cilicia,* a hybrid between 
man and beast. In size and strength he surpassed 
all the offspring of Earth. As far as the thighs he 
was of human shape and of such prodigious bulk 
that he out-topped all the mountains, and his head 
often brushed the stars. One of his hands reached 
out to the west and the other to the east, and from 

who had attempted her chastity. See Clement of Alexandria, 
Protrept, ii. 28, p. 24, ed. Potter ; Tzetzes, SchoL on 
Lycophron, 355 ; Cicero, De ncOura deorum, iii. 23. 59. 

« Compare Strabo, x. 5. 16, p. 489. 

' The helmet of Hades was thought to render the wearer 
invisible. Compare Homer, lUad^ v. 844 sq.; Hesiod, Shidd 
of Hercules^ 226 sq, 

* As to Typhon, or T3rphoeus, as he is also called, who was 
especially associated with the famous Corycian cave in 
Cilicia, see Hesiod, Theog, 820 sqq.; Pindar, Pyth. i. 15 eqq.; 
Aeschylus, Prometheus VinctuSy 351 sqq,; Antoninus Liberalis, 
Transform. 28 ; Ovid, Metamorph, v. 321 sqq.; Hyginus, 
■Pofc. 152 ; Mela, i. 76, ed. G. Parthey ; Scriptores rerum 
myihicarum LaUniy ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 4, 29, 92 
(First Vatican Mythographer, 11 and 86 ; Second Vatican 
Mythographer, 53). As to the Corycian cave, see Adonis^ 
Attisy Osiris, 3rd ed. i. 152 sqq. According to Hesiod {Theog^ 
821), Typhoeus was the youngest child of Earth. 


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Se i^eix^^ kKarov /c€(f>a\al SpafcovroDV. ra Sk 
airo fir]p&v (Tireipa^ elyev V7r€pfi€yed€i<; ix^Bv&p, 
&v 6\ko\ Trpb^ avTT)v ixTeivofiepoi Kopv4>rjv 
avpiyfwv TToXvv i^Ua-ap. irav he avrov to (T&fia 
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TOiovTO^ cjv 6 Ti/<^a)v Kal t7)\ikovto<; '^fifia/a^ 
^dWcov 'rrerpa^ iir* avrov rov ovpavov iierci 
avpiyfi&v ofiov Kal fior)<; i<f>€p€TO' ttoW^v Be i/c 
Tov (TTOfuiTO^ 7rvpo<i i^e^paao'e ^oKrjv. deol 5' 
d)^ elBov avTOV hr ovpavov oppidfievov, eh Aiyvir- 
Tov <f>vydBe^ i^ipovro, kolI Biayfcofievot tA? tSea? 
fieT€0aXov^ €t<; ^&a. Zcu? Bk 'rroppoa fiev Svtu 
Tv^&va €/3a\\e Kepavvol^, wXijaCov Bk yevofievov 
dBafiavTLvrj KariTrXrjTTev ^ apTrjj, fcal <f>€vyovTa 
axpi' TOV Kaalov opov^ avveBica^e* tovto Be virep- 
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pai^ irepiirXexOch tcariaxev avrov, koX ttjv apir'qv 
wepieXofievo^ rd re t&v j^e^/ocai; xaX woB&v Biere/Me 
vevpa, dpdfievo^ Be iirl t&v Hficov Bie/e6fii(T€v 
avTov Blcl t^9 OaXda-a-Tj^ eh KcXiKiav ^ /cal 
irapeXBoiV eh to Koypvfciov avrpov /cared €to. 
6px)l(o<; Bk Kal Tct vevpa Kpvyfra^ ev apKTov Sopa 
Keiffi aired eTO, Kal KareaTtja-e (pvXaKa^ AeX(f>vvr)v 
BpuKaivav TffuOrjp Be fjv avrrj ff Kopr}. 'Epfirj^ Bk 

^ fi€T4$a\ov E ; fierefiaWov A. 

* KaT^vXrirrty E : KaTfVTiifftv A : Karivrfiafftv Heyne, 
Westermann, MUller : Karirrrilev Bekker : KorivXinffff^v 

' KiXiKiav Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, Hercher, 
Wagner : SefccXiav AE. 

* Kariffimfff <p6\aKa E : Kari(rrr\<rt A : <<^<JAo/co> Kartarritrt 
Bekker, Hercher. 


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THE LlBftARY, 1. vi. 3 

them projected a hundred dragons' heads. From the 
thighs downward he had huge coils of vipers, which 
when drawn out, reached to his very head and 
emitted a loud hissing. His body was all winged ^ : 
unkempt hair streamed on the wind from his head 
and cheeks; and fire flashed from his eyes. Such 
and so great was Typhon when, hurling kindled 
rocks, he made for the very heaven with hissings 
and shouts, spouting a great jet of fire from his 
mouth. But when the gods saw him rushing at 
heaven, they made for Egypt in flight, and being 
pursued they changed their forms into those of ani- 
mals.2 However Zeus pelted Typhon at a distance 
with thunderbolts, and at close quarters struck him 
down with an adamantine' sickle, and as he fled pur- 
sued him closely as far as Mount Casius, which over- 
hangs Syria. There, seeing the monster sore wounded, 
he grappled with him. But Typhon twined about him 
and gripped him in his coils, and wresting the sickle 
from him severed the sinews of his hands and feet, 
and lifting him on his shoulders carried him through 
the sea to Cilicia and deposited him on arrival in the 
Corycian cave. Likewise he put away the sinews there 
also, hidden in a bearskin, and he set to guard them 
the she-dragon Delphyne, who was a half-bestial 
maiden. But Hermes and Aegipan stole the sinews 

^ Or ** feathered." But Antoninus Liberalis {Transform. 
28) speaks of Typhon's numerous wings. 

^ Compare Antoninus Liberalis, Transjorm. 28; Ovid, 
Metamorph. v. 319 sg^.; Hyginus, Fab. 152 ; Scriptores rerum 
mythicarumLcUini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 29 (First Vatican 
Mythographer, 86). The story of the transformation of the 
gods into beasts in Egypt was probably invented by the 
Greeks to explain the Egyptian worship of animals, as Liician 
shrewdly perceived {De sacrifidis, 14). 


VOL. I. ^ 

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aerai fiSXKov, iyevaaro t&v e<j>'qfiep(ov xapTT&p. 
SioTrep iinhKOKOfievo^ avOt^ ^/cev eh @paKrjv, Kal 
fiaxofievo^ irepl top Alfiov oXa ejSaXXev oprj. 
TovTcov Be iir* avrov virb tov xepavvov froKiv 
a)dovfjLev(ov TroXif iirl rov 6pov<; e^exXvaev atfjua' 
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(Pevyeiv Bk opwqOevrt avT^^ Bca t% XtfceXtfci]^ 
daXdo-a-rj^ Zev^ eireppi'^ev Atrvrjv opo^ ev %LKe- 
Xia* TOVTO Be virepfieyede^ eariv, i^ ov fiexpt' 
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aOat TTvpo^ dva^varjixaTa, dXka irepl fiev tov- 
T(ov p^XP'' '^^^ Bevpo fjpZv XeXexOa>» 

VII. tipop/qdev^ Be ef vBaro^ xal 7^9 dvOpco- 
iTov^ 7r\a(7a9 eBtoKev avroh fcal irvp, XdOpa A409 
ev vdpOrjKL Kpv^a<;. 0)9 hk yadero Zev^^ eirera^ev 

^ 6pfX7i04yri aitr^ E : SpfirfOcvros ahrov A. 

^ According to Nonnus [Dionys. i. 481 8gq.)y it was Cadmus 
who, disguised as a shepherd, wheedled the severed sinews 
of Zeus out of Typhon by pretending that he wanted them 
for the strings of a lyre, on which he would play ravishing 
music to the monster. The barbarous and evidently very 
ancient story seems to be alluded to by no other Greek 

2 This story of the deception practised by the Fates on 
Typhon seems to be otherwise unknown. 

* Haemus, from ^ima (blood); hence "the Bloody Moun- 
tain." It is said that a city of Egypt received the same name 
for the same reason (Stephanus Byzantius, s.v. *Hp(i6). 


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THE LIBRARY, I. vi. 3-vii. i 

and fitted them unobserved to Zeus.^ And having 
recovered his strength Zeus suddenly from heaven, 
riding in a chariot of winged horses, pelted Typhon 
with thunderbolts and pursued him to the mountain 
called Nysa, where the Fates beguiled the fugitive ; 
for he tasted of the ephemeral fruits in the persuasion 
that he would be strengthened thereby.^ So being 
again pursued he came to Thrace, and in fighting at 
Mount Haemus he heaved whole mountains. But 
when these recoiled on him through the force of the 
thunderbolt, a stream of blood gushed out on the 
mountain, and they say that from that circumstance 
the mountain was called Haemus.^ And when he 
started to flee through the Sicilian sea, Zeus cast 
Mount Etna in Sicily upon him. That is a huge 
mountain, from which down to this day they say that 
blasts of fire issue from the thunderbolts that were 
thrown.* So much for that subject. 

VII. Prometheus moulded men out of water and 
earth ^ and gave them also fire, which, unknown to 
Zeus, he had hidden in a stalk of fennel.® But when 

* As to Typhon under Mount Etna see Aeschylus, Pro- 
metheus VinctuSy 363 aqqr, Pindar, Pi/^^. i. 17 (32) 8qq.\ Ovid, 
Fasti, iv. 491 sq.,Metamorph. v. 352 ^g. 

^ As to the creation of the human race by Prometheus, 
compare Philemon in Stobaeus, FlorilegiiMn, ii. 27 ; Pausa- 
nias, X. 4. 4 ; Lucian, Dialogi deorum, i. 1 ; Libanius, Orat. 
XXV. 31, vol. ii. p. 552, ed. R. Foerster; Ovid, MetomorpA. 
i. 82 sqq.; Juvenal, SaU xiv. 35. It is to be observed that in 
the earliest versions of the legend (Hesiod, Theog, 510 «gg.. 
Works and Days, 48 sqq. ; Aeschylus, Prometheus Vinctus) 
Prometheus appears only as the benefactor, not the creator, 
of mankind. 

® Compare Hesiod, Works and Days, 50 sqq,, Theog. 565 
sqq.; Aeschylus, Prometheus Vinctus, 107 sqq.; Plato, 
Protagoras, H, P- 321 ; Hyginus, Fab. 144; id. Astronom. ii. 15. 
According to Servius fon Virgil, Ed. vi. 42), Prometheus 

E 2 

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aav deol 7rp(OTr)v yvpaixa, iirel Bk d<f)avi(rai Z€U9 

* Tov ^varos av^avofihov Hejme, Hercher, Wagner : rav 
liirdrtov ai^wofifvcov AE, Westermann, MuUer, Bekker. 

stole the fire by applying a torch to the sun's wheel. Stories 
of the original theft of fire are widespread among mankind. 
See Appendix, *' Myths of the Origin of Fire." The 
plant (vipBri^) in which Prometheus is said to have carried 
the stolen fire is commonly identified with the giant fennel 
{Ferula communis). See L. Whibley, Companion to Oreek 
Stvdiea^ (Cambridge, 1916), p. 67. Toumefort found the 
plant growing abundantly in Skinosa, the ancient Schinussa, 
a small deserted island south of Naxos (Plin. Nat. Hist. iv. 
68). He describes the stalk as about five feet high and three 
inches thick, with knots and branches at intervals of about 
ten inches, the whole being covered with a tolerably hard 
rind. ** This stalk is filled with a white pith, which, being 
very dry, catches fire just like a wick ; the fire keeps alight 
perfectly in the stalk and consumes the pith only gradually, 
without damaging the rind ; hence people use this plant to 
carry fire from one place to another ; our sailors laid in a 
supply of it. This custom is of great antiquity, and may 
serve to explain a passage in Hesiod, who, speaking of the 
fire which Prometheus stole from heaven, says that he carried 
it away in a stalk of fennel." He tells us, further, that the 
Greeks still call the plant nartheca. See P. de Toumefort, 


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THE LIBRARY, I. vii. 1-2 

Zeus learned of it, he ordered Hephaestus to nail his 
body to Mount Caucasus, which is a Scythian moun- 
tain. On it Prometheus was nailed and kept bound 
for many years. Every day an eagle swooped on 
him and devoured the lobes of his liver, which grew 
by night. That was the penalty that Prometheus 
paid for the theft of fire until Hercules afterwards 
released him, as we shall show in dealing with 

And Prometheus had a son Deucalion.^ He reign- 
ing in the regions about Phthia, married Pyrrha, the 
daughter of Epimetheus and Pandora, the first wo- 
man fashioned by the gods.^ And when Zeus would 

ReUuion d*un Voyage du LevatU (Amsterdam, 1718), i. 93. 
The plant is common all over Greece, and may be seen in 
particular abundance at Phalerum, near Athens. See W. G. 
Clark, Peloponneaua (London, 1858), p. Ill ; J. Murr, Die 
PJUmzenweU in der griechiachen Mythotoqie (Innsbruck, 1890), 

E. 2.31. In Naxos Mr. J. T. Bent saw orange wardens divided 
y hedges of tall reeds, and he adds : *' In Lesbos this reed 
is still called vdpdriKa (vdp07i^), a survival of the old word for 
the reed by which Prometheus brought down fire from 
heaven. One can understand the idea well : a peasant to-day 
who wishes to carry a light from one house to another will 
put it into one of these reeds to prevent its being blown out." 
See J. Theodore Bent, The Gycladea (London, 1885), p. 365. 
Perhaps Bent mistook fennel for a reed. The rationalistic 
Biodorus Siculus explained the myth of the theft of fire by 
saying that Prometheus was the inventor of the fire-sticks, by 
the friction of which against each other fire is kindled. See 
Diodorus Siculus, v. 67. 2. But Greek tradition attributed 
the invention of fire-sticks to Hermes. See the Homerio 
Hymn to Hermes, 108 aqq, 

* As to the release of I^ometheus, see ii. 5. 11. 

* The whole of the following account of Deucalion and 
Pjrrrha is quoted, with a few trifling verbal chanees, by the 
Scholiast on Homer, Iliiid, i. 126, who cites ApoUodorus as 
his authority. 

* As to the making of Pandora, see Hesiod, Works and 
I>ay8, 60 aqq., Theog, 671 aqqr, Hyginus, Fab, 142. 

y Google 


TO ya\/covv '^ffeXr^o'e ^ yivo^, virodefiipov Upo- 
fir}0€a)<; AevKoKioDV T€KTr]vdfJLevo<: XdpvaKa, xal Tct 
iTTLTtjBeia iv9€fi€V0<;, eh ravTijv fiercb Ilvppa<: 
elo-ifir),^ Z€V9 Bk TTokvv verbu dir ovpavov ^ea? 
Ta Tfhjeiara pAprj rrj^ 'EXXaSo? KaritckvaeVi &<tt€ 
8ia(f>0apr]vai irdvTa^ dv0p(O'7rov<:, oXiytov x^opX^ 6t 
<TVV€if}vyov^ €t9 T^ TrXrjaiop vyIrrfKct opt). Tore Se 
Kal rh /caret ^eaaaXiav opt) Siia-T^rj, teal rh ixro^ 
^Ia0fiov fcal HeXoTTovpijfrov avvex^^V * Travra, 
d^evKaXioDv he ev t§ XdpvaKi Si^ T779 OaXdaa-rj^ 
(fyepofj^vo^ <€</>'> ripApa<i evvea /cal vv/CTa<: <t^9> 
l(Ta<; T^ Ylapvaa^ irpoaia'xet, /cdfcel t&v ofi/Spayp 
iravXav Xa^ovrcov €/cj3h^ dvet Atl <j>v^L(p, Zeu? 
Sk Trefjuyfra^ 'Etpp,rjv Trpo^ avrov eirerpey^ev alpel- 
a6at^ o Ti ^ovXerai' 6 Se alpelrai dv0p(O'irov^ 
aifT& yeveadai. koL A409 eiirovro^; virep /ce<f)aXrj^ 
eSaXXev aXptov Xidov^, xal 0^9 fi^v eySaXe Aei;- 
fcaXioDV, avBpe^ iyevovro, 0^9 Se Uvppa, yvvaL/c€<;. 
o6ev Kal Xaol p,€Ta<f)opiK(o<; d)VO/iid<T0i]aav diro rod 
Xaa9 6 XiOo^. 

Tivovrai Be etc Hvppa^ AevKaXicovi iralSe^ 

il04Kri(T€ E, Scholiast on Homer, II. L 126 (citing ApoUo- 
dorus) : 1j0€\t A. 
■^ eltrtBri A : etV^Sw E : iy40ri Scholiast on Homer, II. i. 126. 

• <rvv4<pvyov E, Scholiast on Homer, E. i. 126 ; <rvv€ip{/r»v 
R* : ffvvttpoiroav A. 

* auvex^Bv A, Westermann, Bekker : awex^dri Heyne, 
Miiller, Hercher, Wagner. But the passive aorist aw^x^Byi 
of x«« is recognized by the Etymologicum Magnum^ 8. v. 
X^Oi p. 809, 46, and rightly defended by Lobeck, Phry- 
nichuSf pp. 731 sq. 

^ atpuffOai E : air€7c0at A, Scholiast on Homer, II. i. 126 : 
k\4cBai Hercher. 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, I. vii. 2 

destroy the men of the Bronze Age, Deucalion by 
the advice of Prometheus constructed a chest,^ and 
having stored it with provisions he embarked in it 
with Pyrrha. But Zeus by pouring heavy rain from 
heaven flooded the greater part of Greece, so that 
all men were destroyed, except a few who fled to 
the high mountains in the neighbourhood. It was 
then that the mountains in Thessaly parted, and that 
all the world outside the Isthmus and Peloponnesus 
was overwhelmed. But Deucalion, floating in the 
chest over the sea for nine days and as many nights, 
drifted to Parnassus, and there, when the rain ceased, 
he landed and sacrificed to Zeus, the god of Escape. 
And Zeus sent Hermes to him and allowed him 
to choose what he would, and he chose to get men. 
And at the bidding of Zeus he took up stones and 
threw them over his head, and the stones which 
Deucalion threw became men, and the stones which 
Pyrrha threw became women. Hence people were 
called metaphorically people {laos) from laas, "a 
stone." 2 

And Deucalion had children by Pyrrha, first 

* As to Deucalion's flood, see Lucian, De dea Syria, 12 sq,; 
Ovid, Metamorph. i. 125-415 ; Hyginus, Fab. 153 ; Servius, 
on Virgil, Eclog, vi. 41 ; Scriptorea rerum mythicarum 
LaUni, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 57 «g., 99 (First Vatican 
Mythographer, 189 ; Second Vatican Mythographer, 73) ; 
Folk-lore in the Old Testament, i. 146 aqq. Another person 
who is said to have escaped alive from the flood was a certain 
Cerambus : the story ran that the nymphs wafted him aloft 
on wings over the Thessalian mountains. See Ovid, Meta- 
morph, vii. 353 sqq. 

' Compare Pindar, Olymp, ix. 41 aqq,; Hyginus, Fab, 153. 


y Google 


'^EWiyi/ fjbkv 7r/owT09, ov ix At 09 y^€vvr]<T0ai^ 
<€VLOL> Xiyovai, KSevrepo^ 8k> * ^K^iKTVtov 6 
fierh Kpavaop PaaCkevaa^; Trj<; *Atti/c7j<;, BvyaTfjp 

3 Si UpGyroyeveca, i^ ^9 fcal At09 ^AedXto^. "EX,- 
\r)vo<; Be koI vvfi<f>r)(; ^OparjLho^i^ d^mpo^ BoO^o? 
Afo\o9. avTo^ fiev oiv cup* avTov tou9 koXov- 
fjbivov^; VpaiKov^i 7rpo<Tf}y6p€va'€v'^Ek\f}va<;, to?9 Se 
TTCUtrlv €fi€pi<T€ Tfjv x^pO'V Kol 3ov0o^ fjbkv Xa/Scbv 
TTjv Ylekoirovvqaov ifc K^peovarj^ T979 'E/0€Y^€a)9 
'A%a40i/ iyevvrjae fcal ^Ia)va, a<f>* &v 'Aj^cuol koX 
"16)1/69 KoKovvTai, A&po^ Se rrjv iripav 'xoopav 
HeXoTTomfijo'ov \afioi)v tou9 KaroiKOV^ cuf eavrov 
AcopieU exaXeo'ev, A?oXo9 Si jSaatXevayv r&v irepX 
TTJV &€(r(ra\iav roirtov tov^ ivoixovvTa^ AloXeh 
7rpoa-r)y6p€V(T€, xal yijfia^ ^EvapiTrjv rrjv Arjifid'x^ov 
7ralSa<; fih iyevvqaev eirrd, Kprfdea %Lav^ov 
^AOdfiavra ^aX/uuovia ^rjiova Mdyvrjra Tlepnjprjv, 
Ovyaripa^ Sk Trevre, K.avaKrjv *A\Kv6vr]v Hckti- 
SiKr}v Ka\vKi]V Yleptp.rjSr}v. 

lIepifii]Sr)<; jiev oifv koX 'A^eXoiou ^\7nToSdfia<; 
KoX 'O/0€<7Ti;9, YleLatSiK'q*; Se koX MvpfiiSovof} 

4 *'AvTi^o<; fcal "AKTcap, ^AXxvSvrfv Se Krjv^ eyqfjuev 

^ yty^vvTiffOai A, Scholiast on Homer, H. xiii. 307 (citing 

Apollodorus) : y^y^vriffOai R*. 
^ ivioi . . . Mrepos 5« in Scholiast on Homer, Lc, 
' oporitdos PRO: *Op€ia5oj Heyne : *O0p7iido5 Scholiast on 

Plato, Sympoa. p. 208 D, Hercher. 

^ This passage as to the children of Deucalion is quoted by 
the Scholiast on Homer, lUad, xiii. 307, who names Apollo- 
dorus as his authority. 

2 As to Hellen and his sons, see Strabo, viii. 7. 1, p. 383; 
Pausanias, vii. L 2 ; Conon, Narrat 27. According to the 
Scholiast on Homer, lUad, i. 2, Xuthus was a son of Aoolu^ 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, I. vii. 2-4 

Hellen, whose father some say was Zeus, and second 
Amphictyon, who reigned over Attica after Cranaus ; 
and third a daughter Protogonia, who became the 
mother of Aethlius by Zeus.^ Hellen had Dorus, 
Xuthus, and Aeolus ^ by a nymph Orseis. Those who 
were called Greeks he named Hellenes after himself,* 
and divided the country among his sons. Xuthus 
received Peloponnese and begat Achaeus and Ion by 
Creusa, daughter of Erechtheus, and from Achaeus 
and Ion the Achaeans and lonians derive their names. 
Dorus received the country over against Peloponnese 
and called the settlers Dorians after himself.* 
Aeolus reigned over the regions about Thessaly and 
named the inhabitants Aeolians.^ He married 
Enarete, daughter of Deimachus, and begat seven 
sons, Cretheus, Sisyphus, Athamas, Salmoneus, Deion, 
Magnes,Perieres,and five daughters, Canace, Alcyone, 
Pisidice, Calyce, Perimede.® 

Perimede had Hippodamas and Orestes by Ache- 
lous ; and Pisidice had Antiphus and Actor by Myr- 
midon. Alcyone was married by Ceyx, son of Lucifer.^ 

' According to the Parian Chronicle, the change of the 
national name from Greeks {Oraikoi) to Hellenes took place 
in 1521 B.C. See Frctgmenta Historicorum Oraecomm, ed. 
C. Miiller, i. 54€ sq. Compare Aristotle, Meteorologica, i. 14, 
p. 352 ; Etymologicwn Magmim, p. 239, 8.v. rpaiK6s ; 
Stephanus Byzantius, s.v. rpaiK6s ; Pausanias, iii. 20. 6, with 
my note ; The Fragments of Sophocles, ed. A. C. Pearson, 
vol. ii. p. 160. 

* As to the early seats of the Dorians, see Herodotus, i. 56. 

^ As to the Aeolians of Thessaly, compare Pausanias, x. 
8. 4 ; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 67. 2. 

' As to Aeolus, his descendants, and their settlements, see 
Diodorus Siculus, iv. 67. 2-7 ; Scholiast on Pindar, Pyth. iv. 
107 (190). 

' According to Ovid {Metcnnorph, xi. 271 sq.), Ceyx re- 
flected his father's brightness in his face. 


y Google 


KoDa^opov iral^, ovrot Bk Si virepTi^dveiav 
airdiKovTO* 6 fiev yap rijv yvvaXfca eXeyev '^Hpav, 
17 S^ Tov avhpa Ata, Zeu? hk avToif<; aircopvewae, 
KoX Tfjv fiev oKfcvova iirolride tov he Kr\VKa, 

KavdfcTf Bk iyevvrjo-ev ^ ix TlIo(T€iB&vo<; 'OirXia 
Koi Nipia Koi ^Eircoirea koX 'AXwea koX Tpioira. 
'A\o)€i;9 fi€V ovv eyrffiev ^l(f>LpABeLav Trjv Tpioiro^i, 
ffTi^ IIoa€iB&vo<i rjpdadrj, koX cvvex^^ <f>oiT&<ra 
eVl TTjv ddXaaaav, )(€p<rlv dpVofievrj ra KVfiara 
rol<s KoXtrot^; ivet^opei, avveXffcov Be airy HoaeL- 
B&v Bvo iyevvTfae nalBa^, 'XItoi; xal ^E(f)idXTr)v, 
T0U9 'AXeaaSa? Xeyofievov^;, ovroi /car ivtavrov 
rjv^avovirXdTO^ fikv irrf^valov firjKO^; Be opyvialov 
evvea Bk er&v yevofievoi, koI to fikv irXdro^ Tny^wi; 
^oi/T€9 evvea to Be fjL^yeOo^ opyvi&v evvea, irpo^ 
0eov<; ^ fid'xeaOai Bievoovvro, xal rrjv fiev "Oaaav 
iirl TOV "OXvpnrov edeaav, eirl Be rrjv "Oaaav 
0€VT€<; TO U'qXiov Bca t&v opmv tovtcov rjirelXovv 
eU ovpavov dva^rjaea-dai, Kal rtjv fiev daXaaaav 
^wo-ai/TC? Tot9 ope<TL iroc^aeLV ^ eXeyov ijireipov, 
TTfV Bk yrjv OdXaacav . ifiv&vro Be ^R(f>idXTrj(; fiev 
"Hpai/*12T09 Bk *'ApT€/icv. eBtfaav Bk xai "Aprjv, 

^ iytppTiatv Scaliger, Heyne (in text), Westermann, 
Miiller, Bekker, BLercher, Wagner: iirolrjatv A. Heyne 
conjectured Miiatv. * B^ovs E : Bthv A. 

• iroiiia-eiv A : ^Kiroffiativ E, Wagner. 

^ Compare Scholiast on Aristophanes, Bird^, 250 ; Schol. 
on Homer, II. ix. 562 ; Eustathius on Homer, I.e. p. 776. 
The story may be a reminiscence of an ancient Greek custom, 
in accordance with which kings are said to have been regu- 
larly called Zeus. See J. Tzetzes, ArUehomerica, 102 aq.; 
id,, Chiliadea, i. 474 ; A. B. Cook, ** The European Sky-god," 
Folk-lore, xv. (1904), pp. 299 sqq. 

^ Compare Lucian, Halcyon, 1 ; Schol. on Aristophanes, 
Birds, 260 ; Ovid, Metamorph. xi, 410 «??., especially 710 sqq. ; 


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THE LIBRARY, I. vii. 4 

These perished by reason of their pride ; for he said 
that his wife was Hera, and she said that her hus- 
band was Zeus.^ But Zeus turned them into birds ; 
her he made a kingfisher (alcyon) and him a gannet 

Canace had by Poseidon Hopleus and Nireus and 
Epopeus and Aloeus and Triops. Aloeus wedded 
Iphimedia, daughter of Triops ; but she fell in love 
with Poseidon, and often going to the sea she would 
draw up the waves with her hands and pour them 
into her lap. Poseidon met her and begat two sons, 
Otus and Ephialtes, who are called the Aloads.* 
These grew every year a cubit in breadth and a 
fathom in height ; and when they were nine years 
old,^ being nine cubits broad and nine fathoms high, 
they resolved to fight against the gods, and they set 
Ossa on Olympus, and having set Pelion on Ossa 
they threatened by means of these mountains to 
ascend up to heaven, and they said that by filling up 
the sea with the mountains they would make it dry 
land, and the land they would make sea. And 
Ephialtes wooed Hera, and Otus wooed Artemis; 
moreover they put Ares in bonds. ^ However, Hermes 

Hyginus, Fab. 65. The identification of the sea-bird ceyx 
is doubtful. See D*Arcy Wentworth Thompson, Glossary of 
Greek Birds (Oxford, 1895), p. 81. 

' As to the Aloads, see Homer, Od, xi. 305 sqq. ; Virgil, 
Aen. vi. 582 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 28. 

* This answers to the iuv4wpoi of Homer {Od. xi. 31), the 
meaning of which has been disputed. See Merry, on Homer, 
Od. X. 19. Hyginus {Fab. 28) understood ivvi<apoi in the 
same way as Apollodorus (** cv/m essent annorum ruyvem"). 

^ They are said to have imprisoned him for thirteen months 
in a brazen pot, from which he was rescued, in a state of 
great exhaustion, by the interposition of Hermes. See 
Homer,"/?, v. 385 sqq. Compare my note, "Ares in the 
brazen pot," T?^ Classical Review, ii. (1888) p. 222. 


y Google 


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^aaa yhp rrjv Iheav eh e\cuf>ov Sict fxiawv ^ avT&v 
iirrjhrjaev, ol Se ^ovXofievoi €v<rT0XV<TO,i' tov 
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> ILaXuKf)^ 8k Kol 'AedXiov 7ra?9 ^EvSvfiicov yCve- 
rat, o<7Tt9 ifc S€<Tadkia<: AtoXiaq a/>/ar^m> ^HX^y 
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Se avT^ SiSco(TLV h Povkerat ekeaOcu* 6 Bk alpelrai 
KOifidadai Bict iravro^ dSdvaTO<; seal dyijpoDf; fievo}v, 

J *FivBvfiict)vo<; Bk fcal vr)lBo<; vvfji(f>r)^,^ rj &^ rtve^ 
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^op(ovi(o<; Koi <f>vydiiv eh ttjv Kovpi]TiBa yd^pav^ 
/cTeiva<; tov^ xnroBe^apivov<; ^dia^; koX AttoX- 
X(k)po9 viov^, A&pov Kol AaoBoKOv teal HoXvTroirrjv, 
d(l>* eavTov t^i' ')((i)pav AlTtoKiav eKdXeaev. 

AItodXqv Be teal Ilpov6i]<; t^9 ^opfiov IVKevpcbv 
KoX KaXi/Scl)!/ eyevovTO, d<f! &v al ev AlrayXia 
7roX€49 a>vofid(T6r)<rav, HXevpayv fikv oiv yrjfia^ 
EavdLTnrrjv ttjv Awpov iralBa eyevvrjaep ^Ayijvopa, 
0vyaT€pa<; Bk ^Tepoirrjv koX XrparovUrjv koI Aao- 
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''Ap€09 *'0^i;\o9. ^Ayijvtop Be 6 JlXevp&vo^ y^/jui^ 
^FiTrifcda-Trfv ttjv K,aXvBa>vo<; eyewride UopOdova 

^ fjLfffav ER*, Hercher, Waguer : ficaop A : fiiirou Heyne, 
Westermann, Miiller, Bekker. 

2 TOW Biiplou Heyne, Hercher, Wagner: rh Bripiov AE, 
Westermann, Miiller, Bekker. 

' vTlltos v6fi<t)'ns Hercher, Wagner : <rriiBos R* : ariidos viJ/i- 
(f>flS ^ vTilBos A. 

* Aaop6vrrfv Heyne : \eoip6vni\v A : \^w^6vrr\v Hercher. 

y Google 

THE LIBRARY, I. vii. 4-7 

rescued Ares by stealth, and Artemis killed the 
Aloads in Naxos by a ruse. For she changed herself 
into a deer and leaped between them, and in their 
eagerness to hit the quarry they threw their darts 
at each other. ^ 

Calyce and Aethlius had a son End3rmion who led 
Aeolians from Thessaly and founded Elis. But some 
say that he was a son of Zeus. As he was of surpas- 
sing beauty, the Moon fell in love with him, and Zeus 
allowed him to choose what he would, and he chose 
to sleep for ever, remaining deathless and ageless. 2 

Endymion had by a Naiad nymph or, as some say, by 
Iphianassa, a son Aetolus, who slew Apis, son of 
Phoroneus, and fled to the Curetian country. There 
he killed his hosts, Dorus and Laodocus and Polypoe- 
tes, the sons of Phthia and Apollo, and called the 
country Aetolia after himself.* 

Aetolus and Pronoe, daughter of Phorbus, had sons, 
Pleuron and Calydon, after whom the cities in Aeto- 
lia were named. Pleuron wedded Xanthippe, daughter 
of Dorus, and begat a son Agenor, and daughters, 
Sterope and Stratonice and Laophonte. Calydon 
and Aeolia, daughter of Am3rthaon, had daughters, 
Epicaste and Protogonia, who had Oxylus by Ares. 
And Agenor, son of Pleuron, married Epicaste, 
daughter of Calydon, and begat Porthaon and 

^ Compare Hyginus, Fab. 28. 

^ As to Endymion and the Moon, see Apollonius Rhodius, 
Argon, iv. 57 «$., with the Scholiast; Pausanias, v. 1. 4; 
Mythographi Oraeci, ed Westermann, pp. 319 sq,, 324 ; 
Hyginus, Fab. 271* The present passage of Apolloidorus is 
quoted almost verbally by Zenobius, Uent. iii. 76, but as 
usual without mention of his authority. The eternal sleep 
of Endymion was proverbial. See Plato, Phaedo^ 17, p. 72 o ; 
Macarius, Cent, iii. 89 ; Diogenianus, Cent. iv. 40 ; Cicero, 
De finibus, v. 20. 65 ; compare id. Tuscvl. Disptit. i. 38. 92. 

* Compare Pausanias, v. 1. 8 ; Conon, Narrat, 14. ^ 

y Google 


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nu\09 ©€(rTt09. 

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^AiroXKcov KaToXiirrj, tov "ISav etKero avBpa, 

10 ©€(7Tt^ Be i^ Evpv6€fiiBo<; t^9 KT^o/Soia^ iyi- 
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fcal *Axe\o)oi; Xeiprjva^; yeveaOai Xeyovaiv, 

VIII. Olv€v<; Be ^aaCKevcov K.aXvB&vo^ irapa 

^ As to Evenus and Marpessa, see Scholiast on Homer, 
lUad, ix. 557 ; Eustathius, on Homer, l.c, p. 776 ; Plutarch, 
ParaUela, 40 ; Hyginus, Fab. 242 (who calls Evenus a son of 
Hercules). According to the first two of these writers, 
Evenus, like Oenomaus, used to set his daughter's suitors to 
run a chariot race with him, promising to bestow her on the 
winner ; but he cut off the heads of his vanquished competi- 
tors and nailed them -to the walls of his house. This seems 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, I. vii. 7-vni. i 

Demonice, who had Evenus, Molus, Pylus, and 
Thestius by Ares. 

Evenus begat Marpessa, who was wooed by Apollo, 
but Idas, son of Aphareus, carried her off in a winged 
chariot which he received from Poseidon.* Pursuing 
him in a chariot, Evenus came to the river Lycormas, 
but when he could not catch him he slaughtered his 
horses and threw himself into the river, and the 
river is called Evenus after him. But Idas came to 
Messene, and Apollo, falHng in with him, would have 
robbed him of the damsel. As they fought for the 
girl's hand, Zeus parted them and allowed the maiden 
herself to choose which of the two she would marry ; 
and she, because she feared that Apollo might desert 
her in her old age, chose Idas for her husband.^ 

Thestius had daughters and sons by Eurythemis, 
daughter of Cleoboea : the daughters were Althaea, 
Leda,3 Hypermnestra, and the males were Iphiclus, 
Evippus, Plexippus, and Eurypylus. 

Porthaon and Euryte, daughter of Hippodamas, 
had sons, Oeneus, Agrius, Alcathous, Melas, Leuco- 
peus, and a daughter Sterope, who is said to have 
been the mother of the Sirens by Achelous. 

VIII. Reigning over Calydon, Oeneus was the 

to be the version of the story which ApoUodorus had before 
him, though he has abridged it. 

* Compare Scholiast on Homer, lUad, ix. 557 (who cites 
Simonides) ; Eustathius, on Homer, Ix. p. 776 ; Tzetzes, 
Schol. on I/ycophrorit 561 ; Pausanias, v. IS. 2. 

* Pausanias (iii. 13. 8) agrees with ApoUodorus in saying 
that Leda was the daughter of Thestius, who was a son of 
Agenor, who was a son of Pleuron ; and he cites the epic 
poem of Areus as his authority for the genealogy. 


y Google 


Au)vv<rov ^VTov afiireKov irp&ro^ ^ eXa/Se. y^fia^; 
Sk ^AXOaiav ttjv SeaTLOv yevva To^ia, ov auT09 
€KT€iV€V vTrepirrjhrjdavTa rrfv Td(f>pov, /cal irapa 
TOVTov Svpia fcal KXvfievov,^ fccu dvyarepa 
Topyqv, fjv ^AvSpaificov eyrjfie, xal Arjidveipav, r^v 
^AXOaiav Xiyovaiv ix Aiovvaov yepvija-ai. avrrj 
S' 'qvioyei KoX rci Kara TroT^fiov ijaKei, xal irepl 
r&v yafjLCOv avrrj^ 'HpaKXrjf; 7r/509 *Aj^€\^oj/ iird- 
l Xaiaev, iyewrjae he ^AXdaia TralSa ef Oiveay^: 
MeXiaypov, hv i^ ''Apeo^ yeyevprjadai (fyaai, rov- 
Tov 5' 0J/T09 '^fiep&v eirra irapayevofieva^ ra? 
fioipa<; (f>a(rlv eiirelv, <6ti> * rore TeXevrijaei 
MeXeaypo^,^ orav 6 xaiofievo^ iwl t% iaydpa^ 
Sa\o9 KaTa/caf}. tovto aKOvaaaa tov oaXov 
dveiXero ^AXBaia /cal KarWero eU Xdpvaxa. 
MeXeaypo*; Be dvrjp arpcoTo^; koX yevvaio<; yevo- 
fievo<; TovSe tov rpoirov eTeXevTrja-ev. irrjaicov 
Kapir&v iv t§ X^P^ yevop^evcov rh^ dirap'XO'S 

^ irpSnos ER* : irp&ra A. 

2 KXtJ/ic/ior Bekker, Wagner (misprint). 

' trt omitted in AE, but inserted by Diodorus Siculus in 
the parallel passage, iv. 34. 6. 

■* T«\«wT^<r€t M€\4aypos AE, Zenobius, Cent. v. 33: r€\€v- 
riitruv M€\4aypov LN. 

* Compare Hyginus, Fab, 129. 

^ So Romulus is said to have Jtilled Remus for leaping over 
the rising wall of Rome (Livy, i. 7. 2). 
^ See ApoUodorus, ii. 7. 5, with the note. 

* The whole of the following account of the life and 
death of Meleager is quoted, with a few verbal changes 
and omissions, by Zenobius {Cent. v. 33). The story is 
told by Bacchylides {Epinic, v. 93 sqq.) and, though 
without any express mention of the burning brand or of 
Meleager's death, by Homer {Iliad, ix. 529-599). Compare 
Diodorus Siculus, iv. 34; Ovid, Metamorph. viii. 270 ^gg^.; 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, I. viii. 1-2 

first who received a vine-plant from Dionysus.^ He 
married Althaea, daughter of Thestius, and begat 
Toxeus, whom he slew with his own hand because he 
leaped over the ditch.^ And besides Toxeus he had 
Thyreus and Cl3rmenus, and a daughter Gorge, whom 
Andraemon married, and another daughter Deianira, 
who is said to have been begotten on Althaea by 
Dionysus. This Deianira drove a chariot and prac- 
tised the art of war, and Hercules wrestled for her 
hand with Achelous.^ Althaea had also a son Melea- 
ger,* by Oeneus, though they say that he was begotten 
by Ares. It is said that, when he was seven days old, 
the Fates came and declared that Meleager should die 
when the brand burning on the hearth was burnt out. 
On hearing that. Althaea snatched up the brand and 
deposited it in a chest.* Meleager grew up to be an 
invulnerable and gallant man^ but came by his end 
in the following way. In sacrificing the firstfruits of 

Lactantius Placidus, on Statitis, Th^. ii. 481 ; Scriptores 
rerum myihicarum Lcaini^ ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 46 aq, 
(First Vatican Mythographer, 146). It was made the theme 
of tragedies by Sophocles and Euripides. See Aug. Nauck, 
Tragicorum Qraecorum FragmerUa'^ (Leipsic, 1889), pp. 219 
sq.t 525 sqq.; The Fragments of Sophocles , ed. by A. C. 
Pearson, ii. 64 sqq. 

* For the story of the burning brand on which the life of 
Meleager depended, see also Aeschylus, Choeph. 604 sqq.; 
Bacchylides, Epinic. v. \^% sqq.\ Diodorus Siculus, iv. 34. 
Qsqr, I'ausanias, x. .31. 4; Antoninus Liberalis, Transjorm. 2 ; 
Dio Chrysostom, Or. Ixvii. vol. ii. p. 231, ed. L. Dindorf ; 
Scholiast on Homer, lUad, ix. 534 ; Ovid, Metamorph, viii. 
445-525 ; Hyginus, Fab. 171, 174 ; Lactantius Placidus, on 
Statins, Tfieb. ii. 481 ; Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latin% 
ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 47 (First Vatican Mythographer, 
146). The story belongs to a widespread class of tales con- 
cerned with the ** external soul," or the belief that a person's 
life is bound up with an animal or object outside of his own 
body. See Balder the BeattHfiil, ii. 94 sqq. 


VOL. I. F 

y Google 


Olveif^ 0€oi<; irdaL dvmv fi6vrf<; ^AprifiiBof; i^eXd- 
dero. 17 Se firfviaaaa /cdtrpov €<f>rJK€V e^oxov 
fieyedeL re koI p(Ofir), 89 ti]V re yrjv aairopov 
iriOei koI tcl ^oaKruiara xaX tov<; ivTvyvdvovra^; 

Bl€<f)0€lp€V, iwl TOVTOV TOV xdlTpOV T0U9 apL(rTOV(; 

€K T?)9 'EWaSo9 irdpra^; avP€Kd\€a€, fcal t^ 
KTeivavTi top drjpa rrjv Sopav Sdaeip dpiarelop 
iirrjyyeiXaTO, oi Be avpekOopre^ iiri rrjp tov 
Kdirpov drjpap ^aap otSe* Mekeaypo^ Oip€(o<;, 
Apva<: ^ "Apeof;, €k Ka\vS&po<; ovtoi, "ISa? teal 
Avy K€if<; A(f>ap€a)^ ifc M€(r(n]Pi](;, Kdcrcop xal 
Ilo\vS€VKr)<; A409 Kai Ai]Ba<; €K AafceBaifWPo^;, 
®^(r6U9 Aiy€(t><; i^ ^A0r}p&p, ''ABfirjTO^i ^dpr^ro^ 
€K ^ep&p, AyKoiq^ <Ka\> Krj<f>€if^ Avfcovpyov i^ 
^ApKaBLa^f ^Idccop Atcropo^ i^ ^looXfcov, ^I^ikXtj^ 
^AfjL(f)iTpva)PO^ ifc Qr)fi&p, Il€ipi0ov<; *1^lopo<: i/c 
Aapiarff;, IIr)\€v<; Aiafcov ix ^0ia<;, TekafjLwv 
Ala/cov e/c XaXapuipo^, Evpvrioop "AKTopo^ i/c 
^dia^, ^ArakdpTfj 2%o*re«a)9 i^ ^ ApKaBia^, ^ Afi- 
(f)i,dpao<; ^OikX€ov<;^ i^ ''Apyovf;' fierh tovtwp 
KoX ol ®€<TTtoi; iralBe^. (rvpekdopra^ Be avTov<; 
OIp€v<; iirl eppea '^fiepa<; e^epiae' rfj BeKdrrj Be 
Krjipeax; koX * Ay xaiov /cai ripcop dXKcop aTra^LOvp- 
Tcop /nera yvpaiKO<; eirX rrjp Orjpap ^ i^Uvai, 
MeXeaypo^ €X(*>v yvpalxa KXeoirdrpap ttjp "ISa 
fcal Map7r'^(Tar}<; dvyar^pa, l3ovX6/iepo<: B^ fcal ef 
^AraXdpTrj*; T€KP07roifj(raadat, avprfpayKaaep av- 
TOv<; €7rl TTjp Orjpap pLerh ravrr}^ i^iepai, irepi- 

^ Apvas Aegius : rvfias A. 

^ OIk\€ovs Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, Hercher, 
Wagner: iokAcovs A. Compare A. C. Pearson, The Frag- 
ments of SophocleSy vol. ii. p. 119. 

* r^v Oiipap A : rhv Katrpov E. 


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THE LIBRARY, I. viii. 2 

the annual crops of the country to all the gods Oeneus 
forgot Artemis alone. But she in her wrath sent a 
boar of extraordinary size and strength, which pre- 
vented the land from being sown and destroyed the 
cattle and the people that fell in with it. To attack 
this boar Oeneus called together all the noblest men 
of Greece, and promised that to him who should 
kill the beast he would give the skin as a prize. Now 
the men who assembled to hunt the boar were 
these ^ : — Meleager, son of Oeneus ; Dryas, son of 
Ares ; these came from Calydon ; Idas and Lynceus, 
sons of Aphareus, from Messene ; Castor and Pollux, 
sons of Zeus and Leda, from Lacedaemon ; Theseus, 
son of Aegeus, from Athens ; Admetus, son of Pheres, 
from Pherae ; Ancaeus and Cepheus, sons of Lycur- 
gus, from Arcadia; Jason, son of Aeson, from 
lolcus ; Iphicles, son of Amphitryon, from Thebes ; 
Pirithous, son of Ixion, from Larissa; Peleus, son 
of Aeacus, from Phthia; Telamon, son of Aeacus, 
from Salamis ; Eurytion, son of Actor, from Phthia ; 
Atalanta, daughter of Schoeneus, from Arcadia ; 
Amphiaraus, son of Oicles, from Argos. With 
them came also the sons of Thestius. And when 
they were assembled, Oeneus entertained them for 
nine days ; but on the tenth, when Cepheus and An- 
caeus and some others disdained to go a-hunting with 
a woman, Meleager compelled them to follow the 
chase with her, for he desired to have a child also by 
Atalanta, though he had to wife Cleopatra, daughter 
of Idas and Marpessa. When they surrounded the 

^ For lists of the heroes who hunted the Calydonian 
boar, see Ovid, Metamorph. viii. 2^9 aqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 

F 2 

y Google 


ardvTtov hi avrayv rov Kanpov, 'TXeu9 ^ fiev koI 
*Ayfcaio^ viro rov drjpo^ Sc€<f>0dpi]aav, ^vpvrioyva 
Si UrfKeif^; axcov fcarijfcovTiae, rov Be Kairpov 
irpcoTTj fikv ^AraXavTi] el^ ra v&ra iro^eva-e, 
hevTepo<i hk ^AfKpLcipao^ el^ rov 6(f>da\fi6v' Me- 
\€aypo(; Bi avrbv ei^ rov Kcve&va 7r\7]^a^ dire- 
KT€LV€, /cal \afia>v to Se/oa? lBa>fC€V AraKavrrj. 
oi Be ^eariov 7ratS€9, dBo^ovvre^ el irapoincov 
dvBp&v yvvrf tcL dpiCTeia Xrjyjrerai, to Bepa^ 
avrij^^ difyeiXovTO, Kard yevo<; avroU Trpoarj/ceiv 
XeyovTe^, el MeXeaypo^; Xafi^dveLv fjurj irpoaipolro. 
3 opyiaOeU Bi MeX^aypo^; Toif<; fiev %eariov iralBa^ 
dTrdfcreive, to Be Bepa<; eBcofce rfj ^AraXdvTj). 
^AXOaia Be XvTrrjdeiaa eirl rrj r&v dB€X<f>&v 
dirwXeia rov BaXov ^yjre, Koi 6 MeXeaypo^; i^aitf)" 
in)<; diriOavev, 

Oi Be (f>a<Tiv ovx ovt(o MeX^aypov reXevrijaai, 
dfi^c(TJ3r)TovpT0i)v Be t^9 Bopd^ ^ t&v ^eariov irai" 
Bojv C&9 ^UUXov 7rpa>T0V 0aX6vTO<;, Kovprja-c /cal 
KaXvBcovioi^; TroXefiop ivarijpai, i^eXdovro^ Si 
^eXedypov Kai riva^ r&v Qeariov iralBcov <f>ovev- 
aapTO<: AXOaiap dpdaaadai kut avrov' top Be 
opytt^ofievop otfcoi /Mcpeip, ijBrj Be t&p iroXefuaov 
ToU T€LX€<ri IT po<nreXat^6pT(M)P koX t&p ttoXlt&v 
d^iovPTCop fied^ lK€Tr)pia<: iSorjdeiP, fjb6Xi<; ireiadepTa 
vTTo T9J9 yvpaiK0<; e^eXOelp, ical tov<; Xoattou? 

^ *T\fhs Aegius : ir^Kos A. 

^ aifrris Wagner (comparing Scholiast on Aristophanes, 
Frogs, 1238, and Zenobius, Cent. v. 33) : owTfJ A : airrol E : 
aiiT^v Hercher. 

* Zopas Frazer (for Sopa compare i. 6. 2 and 3, ii. 1. 2, 
ii. 4. 10, ii. 5. 1): ttjs e-hpas E, Wagner: rrjs d-ffpas <l>a(r\ A, 
Bekker : rod driphs <po<ri Heyne, Miiller : rod Briphs Wester- 
mann. Hercher omits rrjs S^pas <t>a(y\v. 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, I. viii. 2-3 

boar, Hyleus and Ancaeus were killed by the brute, 
and Peleus struck down Eurytion undesignedly with 
a javelin. But Atalanta was the first to shoot the 
boar in the back with an arrow, and Amphiaraus was 
the next to shoot it in the eye ; but Meleager killed 
it by a stab in the flank, and on receiving the skin 
gave it to Atalanta. Nevertheless the sons of Thes- 
tius, thinking scorn that a woman should get the 
prize in the face of men, took the skin from her, 
alleging that it belonged to them by right of birth if 
Meleager did not choose to take it. But Meleager 
in a rage slew the sons of Thestius and gave the skin 
to Atalanta. However, from grief at the slaughter 
of her brothers Althaea kindled the brand, and 
Meleager immediately expired. 

But some say that Meleager did not die in that 
way,^ but that when the sons of Thestius claimed 
the skin on the ground that Iphiclus had been the 
first to hit the boar, war broke out between the 
Curetes and the Calydonians ; and when Meleager 
had sallied out^ and slain some of the sons of 
Thestius, Althaea cursed him, and he in a rage re- 
mained at home ; however, when the enemy ap- 
proached the walls, and the citizens supplicated him 
to come to the rescue, he yielded reluctantly to his 
wife and sallied forth, and having killed the rest of 

^ The following account of the death of Meleager is sub- 
stantially that of Homer, II. ix. 529 sqq, 
'^ From Calydon, then besieged b}^ the Curetes. 


y Google 


KTeivavTa t&v SecrTLOV iraihayv airoOavelv t-iaxo- 
fievov. fiera Be tov Mekedypov Odvarov ^AXOaLa 
Koi KXeoirdrpa iavra^; dvrjprrjaav, ai he dprjvovaai 
TOV vsKpov yvvatfce^ dircDpye^iOrjo-av, 

4 'AX^ata? he diroOavovar}^ eyrj/jbep Oiv€v<; Uepi- 
fiouiv Tfjv 'Ittttovoov, TavTr)v Se 6 fiev ypdyfra^ 
rrjv QrjfiatBa iroKefi'qOeia'q^ ^ClXevov Xeyei \a$elv 
Oivea yipa^y 'Ho-toSo? Be ef ^DXevov t^9 'A;j^a&i9, 
€<f)dapfjL€vr}v VTTO ^lirTToarpdrov tov ^AfjuapvyKeo)^, 
'lirirovovv tov iraTepa Trefiyjrai irpof; Olvea iroppto 
T^9 'E\\a8o9 6vTay evTeCkafievov diroKTelvac,^ 

5 elal Be oi XeyovTe^; 'Ittttovovv iinyvovTa ttjv IBLav 
dvyuTepa €<f>OapfjL€vrjv viro OtVeo)?, eyicvov avTtjv 
7r/)09 TOVTOV diroirep^ylrai. €y€vvi]dr}-Bk ifc rauriy? 
Olvel TvBev<;, Il€L(TavBpo<; Be avTOV etc Vopyq^ 
yeveadai \eyer t?)? yap dvyaTpo^ Olvea xaTa 
TTjv ^ov\r}<Tiv ^io<; ipaadfjvat. 

Tf 8eu9 Be dvrjp yevop^evo^ y€vvaio<; iifyvyaBevOr], 
icTeiva^i cb? p>ev t«/€9 Xeyovaiv, dBe\(l>6v Olveo)^ 
^AXxdOoov, ft)9 Be 6 Tr)v * AXxp^LcoviBa yeypa(f>(o<;, 
Toif^ MeXavo<; iralBa*; iTnjSovXevovTa^Oivec, ^rjvea 

^ hvoKT^tvai Faber, Heyne, Westermann, Bekker, Hercher, 
Wagner : htroffntKai A. 

^ The birds called in Greek meleagrideSf guinea-fowl 
{Numida sp.). See Antoninus Liberalis, Transform. 2 ; 
Aelian, De natura animalium, iv. 42 ; Ovid, Metamorph. viii. 
633-546; Hyginus, Fab, 174 ; Pliny, Nat, Hist. x. 74, xxxvU. 
40. Worshippers of Artemis strictly abstained from eating 
the bird ; the reason of the abstention was known to the 
natives of Leros, one of the Sporades (Aelian, I.e.). The 
birds were kept in the sanctuary of the Maiden ( Artemis ?) 
in that island, and were tended by the priests (Athenaeus, 
xiv. 71, p. 655 c). It is said that it was Artemis who turned 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, I. viii. 3-5 

the sons of Thestius, he himself fell fighting. After 
the death of Meleager, Althaea and Cleopatra hanged 
themselves, and the women who mourned the dead 
man were turned into birds.^ 

After Althaea's death Oeneus married Periboea, 
daughter of Hipponous. The author of the Thebaid 
says that when Olenus was sacked, Oeneus received 
Periboea as a gift of honour ; but Hesiod says that 
she was seduced by Hippostratus, son of Amarynceus, 
and that her father Hipponous sent her away from 
Olenus in Achaia to Oeneus, because he dwelt far 
from Greece, with an injunction to put her to death.2 
However, some say that Hipponous discovered that 
his daughter had been debauched by Oeneus, and 
therefore he sent her away to him when she was with 
child. By her Oeneus begat Tydeus. But Pisander 
says that the mother of Tydeus was Gorge, for Zeus 
willed it that Oeneus should fall in love with his 
own daughter.* 

When Tydeus had grown to be a gallant man 
he was banished for killing, as some say, Alcathous, 
brother of Oeneus; but according to the author 
of the Alcmaeonid his victims were the sons of Melas 
who had plotted against Oeneus, their names being 

the sisters of Meleager into birds by touching them with a 
rod, after which she transferred them to the inland of Leros 
(Antoninus Liberalis, l,c,) On the birds see D*Arcy Went- 
worth Thompson, Oloesary oj Oreek Birds (Oxford, 1895), 
pp. 114 aq. 

* Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 35. 1 aq., according to 
whom Periboea alleged that she was with child by Ares. 
Sophocles wrote a tragedy on the subject ; a few fragments 
of it remain {The Fragments oj Sophocles, ed. A. C. Pearson, 
i. 216 sqq.). 

^ Gorge was a daughter of Oeneus. See above, i. 8. 1 ; 
Pausanias, x. 38. 5. 


y Google 


KvpvaXov'T'H'epXaov* AvTLOxov EvfirjSrfv XreppoTra 
'SavdnnTov XOevekaop, (w? Se ^epefcvSr)^; (prjalv, 
^DXeviav dSeXxfiOv Ihiov. "* Ay plov Be Sifcafs iird- 
yovTO<i avT^ f^vyiov eh "Kpyo^ fjKe irpos "AZpaa- 
Tov, KoL TTjv TovTOv yi]fjLa^ dvyarepa ArfnrvXrjv 
eyevvqae Aio/juijSrfv, 

TvSev^ fiev ovv iirl Stj/Sa^; fier ^ASpda-rov 
arpar€vadfi€VO<; vtto MeXavLTnrov TpeodeU dire- 
6 davev* oi he ^ Ay piov TralSe?, ^epaiTrj^ ^Oyxrj(rTo<: 
npoOoo^ KeXevToop AvKcoireif^; MeXdpiirm-o^, d(f>€- 
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Kal irpoaeTi ^Sivra rov Oivea Kadeip^avre^ 'p/cC- 
^ovTo, varepov Sk AiofirjBrj^; i^ "Apyov^ irapa- 
yevofxevo^ fier ^AXfc/iaioovo^ ^ Kpv(j>a tou9 fiev 
^ Ay piov TratSa?, Xfi>/ot9 ^Oy^rjaTOv fcal ^epairov, 
Trdvra^ direKreivev (otrroi yap ^ddaavre<: el^ 
TJeXoTTowTjaov etfivyov), Trjv Se ^aaiXeiav, eireihr} 
yrjpaiof; tjv 6 Olvev^, ^ApSpal/jLovi T<p rrjv dvyarepa 
Tov Olvio)^ yrjfiavTi SeScofce, top Se Oipea el^ 
UleXoTTOPPijaop rjyep, oi he Sia<f>vy6pT€<; ^AypLov 
iralhe^ epehpevaapres irepl ttjp HrjXe<f)OV eo-Tiav 
rrj^ * ApKahia^ top 7rpea/3vT7fp dTri/creipap. Aio- 
IMrjhrj^ he top peKpop ei^^Apyo^; KopXaaf; eOay^v 
epda pvp 7ro\t9 dir ifcetpov Olporj fcaXeiTai, fcal 

^ *A\K/jLaicovos Heyne (comparing Strabo, x. 2. 25, p. 462), 
Bekker, Wagner : *A\KfjL4coyos Hercher : kwov A, Wester- 
maun, Miiller. 

^ Compare Eustathius, on Homer, Iliads xiv. 122, p. 971 ; 
Scholia on Homer, Iliad, xiv. 114, 120 ; The Fragments of 
Sophocles, ed. A. C. Pearson, vol. iii. p. 38, frag. 799 ; Statins, 
Theb, i. 401 sqq., with the commentary of Lactantius Placidus, 
pp. 47 aq. ed. R. Jahnke. The accounts differ as to whom 
Tydeus killed, but they agree that he fled from Calydon to 


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THE LIBRARY, I. viii 5-6 

Pheneus, Euryalus, Hyperlaus, Antiochus, Eumedes 
Sternops, Xanthippus, Sthenelaus ; but as Pherecydes 
will have it, he murdered his own brother Olenias.^ 
Being arraigned by Agrius, he fled to Argos and came 
to Adrastus, whose daughter Deipyle he married and 
begat Diomedes. 

Tydeus marched against Thebes with Adrastus,^ 
and died of a wound which he received at the hand of 
Melanippus. But the sons of Agrius, to wit, Thersites, 
Onchestus, Prothous, Celeutor, Ly cope us, Melanippus, 
wrested the kingdom from Oeneus and gave it to 
their father, and more than that they mewed up 
Oeneus in his lifetime and tormented him.* Never- 
theless Diomedes afterwards came secretly with 
Alcmaeon from Argos and put to death all the sons 
of Agrius, except Onchestus and Thersites, who had 
fled betimes to Peloponnese; and as Oeneus was 
old, Diomedes gave the kingdom to Andraemon who 
had married the daughter of Oeneus, but Oeneus 
himself he took with him to Peloponnese. Howbeit, 
the sons of Thestius, who had made their escape, 
lay in wait for the old man at the hearth of 
Telephus in Arcadia, and killed him. But Diomedes 
conveyed the corpse to Argos and buried him in the 
place where now a city is called Oenoe after him.* 

Adrastus at Argos, and that Adrastus purified him from 
the murder (Eustathius and Scholia on Homer, U,cc.) and 
gave him his daughter to wife. Compare Apollodorus, iii. 6. 1. 

* See below, iii. 6. 3 sqq, 

' With this and what follows compare Pausanias, ii. 25, 2 ; 
Scholiast on Aristophanes, Acham, 418 ; Antoninus Liberalis, 
Transform. 37 ; Hyginus, Fab, 175. The story furnished 
Euripides with the theme of a tragedy called Oeneus, See 
Tragicorum Oraecorum Fragmentaf ed. A. Nauck^, pp. 536 

* Compare Pausanias, ii. 25. 2. 


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yrjfia'i AlyiaXeiav rrjv ^ASpdaTOV, <fj> m ivioi 
<f>a(Ti Tr)v AlyiaXeco^, iiri re SrjlSa^ koX Tpoiav 

IX. T&v Se Alokov Traihayv 'A^a/xav, Botft>Tta9 
Swaarevcov, ck Ne^eX?;? t€/cvoI iralSa fiev ^pi^ov 
OvyuTcpa Sk '^EWrjv, avdi^ he ''Ivw yap^i, i^ ^9 
avT^ Aeap'xp^ ^^^ MeXt/ceyOT?;? iyevovro, iin- 
^ovXevovaa Bk ^Ivco toi^ Ne^e\»79 t€kvoi^ eireiae 
T^9 yvvalKa<; tov irvpov if>pvyeiv. Xa/x^dvovaai 
Bk Kpv<f>a T&v dvBpa)v tovto eirpaaaov. yrj Se 
Tr€<f>pvy/M€vov^ TTvpov^ Sexofiivr) Kapirov^ errjaiov^ 
ovfc dveBiBov. Bio TrifjUTroov 6 ^A0d/ia^ eh ^€X<f>ov<; 
diraWayrjv iirwddviETO t^9 dt^opLa^. 'Ii^o) Be rov^ 
irefi^Oevra^ dveireiae \eyecp 0)9 elrj Ke'X^p'qa fxevov 
iravaeaOai ^ tt^v dKapiriav, edv a<f>ayfj Ail 6 
<PpL^o<;, TOVTO aKovaa^ ''A^a/ui9, avvavayfca^o- 

fieVOfS VTTO T&v TTJV yrjv KaTOlfCOVVTCOV, T^ 0(Ofl^ 

irapiaTrjae ^pC^ov. N€<^^\r7 Be fieTcL t^9 OvyaTpo<i 
avTov dvtjpwaae, fcal Trap ^Epfiov \a0ovaa XP^' 
aofwXKov KpLov eBcofcev, v(j>' ^ oi <f>€p6fi€voi Bi 
ovpavov yrjv vwepe/Sfjaav fcal OdXaaaav. C09 Be 

^ ira^fftffBai E, Hercher, Wagner : ira^ffaffBai A. 
2 64>' R: 4<i>* A. 

^ For the story of Athamas, Phrixus, and Helle, see Zeno- 
bius, Cent. iv. 38 ; Apostolius, Cent. xi. 58 ; Scholiast on 
Aristophanes, Clouds^ 257 ; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophrony 
22 ; Eustathius, on Homer, Iliadt vii. 86, p. 667 ; Scholiast 
on Homer, Iliady vii. 86 ; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 47 ; Hyginus, 
Fab, 1-3 ; id. Aatronomicay ii. 20 ; Lactantius Placidus, on 
Statius, Achill. i. 65 ; Scriptorea rerum mythicarum Latini^ 
ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 8, 120 aq. (First Vatican Mytho- 
grapher, 23; Second Vatican Mythographer, 134). According 
to Herodotus (vii. 197), it was a rule among the descendants 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, I. viii. 6-ix. i 

And having married Aegialia, daughter of Adrastus 
or, as some say, of Aegialeus, he went to the wars 
against Thebes and Troy. 

IX. Of the sons of Aeolus, Athamas ruled over 

Boeotia and begat a son Phrixus and a daughter 

Helle by Nephele.^ And he married a second wife, 

Ino, by whom he had Learchus and Melicertes. 

But Ino plotted against the children of Nephele 

and persuaded the women to parch the wheat ; 

and having got the wheat they did so without the 

knowledge of the men. But the earth, being sown 

with parched wheat, did not yield its annual crops ; 

so Athamas sent to Delphi to inquire how he might 

be delivered from the dearth. Now Ino persuaded 

the messengers to say it was foretold that the 

infertility would cease if Phrixus were sacrificed to 

Zeus. When Athamas heard that, he was forced by 

the inhabitants of the land to bring Phrixus to the 

altar. But Nephele caught him and her daughter 

up and gave them a ram with a golden fleece, 

which she had received from Hermes, and borne 

through the sky by the ram they crossed land and 

of Phrixus that the eldest son of the family should be sacri- 
ficed (apparently to Laphystian Zeus) if ever he entered the 
town-ball ; hence, to escape the risk of such a fate, many of 
the family fled to foreign lands. Sophocles wrote a traged v 
called AthcMnaSf in which he represented the king himself 
crowned with garlands and led to the altar of Zeus to be 
sacrificed, but finally rescued by the interposition of Hercules 
(Scholiast on Aristophanes, Clouds, 237 ; Apostolius, Cent, 
xi. 58 ; The Fragments of Sophocles, ed. A. C. Pearson, i. 
1 sqq.). These traditions point to the conclusion that in the 
royal line of Athamas the eldest son was regularly liable to 
be sacrificed either to prevent or to remedy a failure of the 
crops, and that in later times a ram was commonly accepted 
as a substitute for the human victim. Compare Th>e Dying 
Ood, pp. 161 sqq, 


y Google 


iyevovTo kutcL ttjv fiera^if KeifUvrfv OoiKaaaav 
'S^iyeiov koI Xeppovijaov, (oKiadev eU tov ^vOov rj 
"E\\^, KCLKei 0avova7j<: avTrj<i aii ixeivrj^ 'EW?;<r- 
TTOVTO^ iKXtjOri TO ireXayo^. <Ppi^o<; Sk rjXBev €t9 
KoX^ou?, &v Ali]Trj<; i/SaaiXeve wal^ 'HXiov fcal 
IlcpcnytSo?, aS€\xf>6^ Se KipKr)<$ koI Ilaai(f)dr)(;, fjv 
Mti/a)9 €yrj/jL€v, ouro^; avTov viroBex^Tai, koI fdav 
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XaXKioirrj^ 4>/0(-f^ TralSe^ ''Apyo<; MeXa? ^povri^ 
I 'A^a/ui9 S^ vaTepop Sih firjvip"t{pa<; fcal t&v ef 
*\vov^ iareptjOrj TraCBoov avro^ fiev yhp fiavei^ 
iro^evae Aiapyov, 'Ii/ft) 8^ MeXifciprrjv fied^ eavrrj^ 
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eiTvvdaveTO tov deov irov KaTOifcijaer 'XpiqadevTo^ 
he avT<p /caTOi/ceiv iv wirep av Toirtp viro ^w<ov 
ayplmv ^eviadfj, ttoXXtjv 'xjipav hieXdcov iveTv^e 
XvKoi.<; irpo/SaTtav fJLoipa^ vefiopAvois' oi he, Oeoiprj' 
(TavTe^ avTov, a hijfpovvTO airoXiirovTe^ €<f>vyov. 
^AOdfia^ he fCTLca^ ttjv xoapav ^AOafiavTiav d(f>* 
eavTov 7rpoar)y6p€vae, KaX yripja.^ &€/j,taTa> ttjv 
'Tyjreoof; eyevvqae AevKcova ^Epvdptov S;)^0£i/6a 

^ Compare Zenobius, Cent. iv. 38 ; Tzetzes, Schol, on 
Lycophronf 229 ; Scholiast on Homer, Ihad, vii. 86 ; Eusta- 
thius on Homer, Iliad, vii. 86, p. 667 ; id. on Homer, Od, v. 
339, p. 1543 ; Pausanias, i. 44. 7 «g., ix. 34. 7 ; Ovid, Jlf eto- 
morph. iv. 481-542 ; Hyginus, Fab. 4 and 6. Euripides wrote 
a tragedy, /no, of which a number of fragments remain. See 
Tragtcorum Qraecorum Fragmenta, ed. A. Nauck'**, pp. 482 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, I. ix. 1-2 

sea. But when they were over the sea which lies 
betwixt Sigeum and the Chersonese, Helle slipped 
into the deep and was drowned, and the sea was 
called Hellespont after her. But Phrixus came to 
the Colchians, whose king was Aeetes, son of the 
Sun and of Perseis, and brother of Circe and 
Pasiphae, whom Minos married. He received 
Phrixus and gave him one of his daughters, Chalciope. 
And Phrixus sacrificed the ram with the golden fleece 
to Zeus the god of Escape, and the fleece he gave 
to Aeetes, who nailed it to an oak in a grove of 
Ares. And Phrixus had children by Chalciope, to 
wit, Argus, Melas, Phrontis, and Cytisorus. 

But afterwards Athamas was bereft also of the 
children of Ino through the wrath of Hera ; for he 
went mad and shot Learchus with an arrow, and Ino 
cast herself and Melicertes into the sea.^ Being 
banished from Boeotia, Athamas inquired of the god 
where he should dwell, and on receiving an oracle 
that he should dwell in whatever place he should be 
entertained by wild beasts, he traversed a great 
extent of country till he fell in with wolves that 
were devouring pieces of sheep ; but when they saw 
him they abandoned their prey and fled. So 
Athamas settled in that country and named it 
Athamantia after himself ;2 and he married Themisto, 
daughter of Hypseus, and begat Leucon, Erythrius, 
Schoeneus, and Ptous. 

aqq. It is said that Hera drove Athamas mad because she 
was angry with him for receiving from Hermes the infant 
Dionysus and bringing him up as a girl. See Apollodorus, 
iii. 4. 3 ; Tzetzes, SchoL on Lycophron. 22. 

^ Compare Scholiast on Plato, MinoSy p. 316 c ; Tzetzes, 
Schol, on Lycophron, 22 ; Etymologicttm Magnum, s.v. *A0a- 
fjidvrioy, p. 24. 10. According to the last of these writers, 
Athamantia was a plain in Thessaly. 


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X€yofj.€V7jv JS.optpdov yafiei Mepoirrjv rrjv "ArXav- 
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B€W€po<f)6pTrj^ i^ l&vpVfieBrj^ iyevvijdrj, 09 €KT€iv€ 
Tfjv TTvpiTrvovv Kifiaipav. KoXd^erai Be %L(tv<\>o^ 
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TLvei Be TavTTjv ttjp Bi/crjv BtcL ttjp ^Aacoirov 
dvyarepa Alyivav apirdaavTa yhp avrrjv Kpv(f>a 
Aia 'A(7ft)7r^ /jurjvvaai ^rjrovvri Xeyerai. 

4 Arjmp Bi iSaaiXevoov ti)? 4>a>ActSo9 AiOfit]Bi]v 
rrjv Sovdov yafiel, koX avr^ yLverai dvydrrip fiev 
^ A(TT€poBia,^ iralBe^ Be AtVero? "Aktcup ^vKaKo<i 
Kd^aXof!, 09 yafiel IlpoKpcv ^ rrjv ^Epexdeax;, 
avdi^ Be 7) 'Ha)9 avrov apird^ei, epaaOeiaa, 

5 Hepi^rfpris Be Meaaijvrjv fcaraax^yv Topyo(f>6vr]v 
TTjv tlep<Te(o^ eyrjfiev, i^ ^9 'A</)a/)€U9 avr^ xal 
AevKiTTTTO^ KaX TvvBdpeco^; en re 'I^a/o/09 7ratSe9 

^ *A<TT«po5(o Preller (comparing Scholiast on Homer, //. 
ii. 520, Scholiast on Euripides, Troades, 9), Hercher, 
Wagner : *Aartpoirla A. 

^ np6Kpiv Aegius : irp6Kvr\v A. 

^ Compare Homer, Iliad, vi. 152 aq. ; Pausanias, ii. 1. 1. 

^ As to Bellerophon and the Chimera, see Apollodoras, ii. 
3. 1, with the note. 

3 As to Sisyphus and his stone, see Homer, Od. xi. 593-600. 
Homer does not say why Sisyphus was thus punished, but 
Pausanias (ii. 5. 1) and the Scholiast on Homer [Iliad, i. 180) 
agree with ApoUodorus as to the crime which incurred this 
punishment. Hyginus assigns impiety as the cause of bis 
sufferings (Fab. 60). The picturesque story of this cunning 
knave, who is said to have laid Death himself by the heels, 
so that nobody died till Ares released Death and delivered 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, I. ix. 3-5 

And Sisyphus, son of Aeolus, founded Ephyra, which 
is now called Corinth,' and married Merope, daughter 
of Atlas. They had a son Glaucus, who had by 
Eurymede a son Bellerophon, who slew the fire- 
breathing Chimera. 2 But Sisyphus is punished in 
Hades by rolling a stone with his hands and head in 
the effort to heave it over the top ; but push it as he 
will, it rebounds backward.^ This punishment he 
endures for the sake of Aegina, daughter of Asopus ; 
for when Zeus had secretly carried her off, Sisyphus 
is said to have betrayed the secret to Asopus, who 
was looking for her. 

Deion reigned over Phocis and married Diomede, 
daughter of Xuthus ; and there were bom to him a 
daughter, Asterodia, and sons, Aenetus, Actor, 
Phylacus, and Cephalus, who married Procris, 
daughter of Erechtheus.* But afterwards Dawn fell 
in love with him and carried him off. 

Perieres took possession of Messene and married 
Gorgophone, daughter of Perseus, by whom he had 
sons, to wit, Aphareus and Leucippus,^ and Tyndareus, 

Sisyphus himself into his clutches (Scholiast on Homer, lUcuif 
vi. 153), was the theme of plays by Aeschylus, Sophocles, 
and Euripides. See Tragicorwn Oraecorum Fragmenta, ed. 
A. Nauck^, pp. 74 aqq,, 251, 572 ; The Fragments of Sophocles, 
ed. A. C. Pearson, vol. ii. pp. IMsq. Critias, one of the Thirty 
Tyrants at Athens, is credited with a play on the same 
theme, of which a very striking fragment,, giving a wholly 
sceptical view of the origin of the belief in gods, has come 
down to us. See Sextus Empiricus, ed. Im. Bekker, pp. 402 
aqq.; Tragicorwm Oraecorum Fragmenta, ed. A. Nauck^, 
pp. 771 sqq. 

* Compare ii. 4. 7, iii. 15. 1. As to the love of Dawn or 
Day for Cephalus, see Hesiod, Theog. 986 sqq.; Pausanias, i. 
3. 1 ; Antoninus Liberalis, Transform, 41 ; Ovid, Metamorph, 
vii. 700-713 ; Hyginus, Fab. 189, 270. 

^ Compare Pausanias, iv. 2. 2 and 4. 


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iyipovTo. woWol 8k tov Tlepn^pijv Xeyovaiv ovk 
Alokov walSa dWcL KvpopTa ^ tov ^AfivfcXa* 
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^ArXavrtK^ yevei hrfKa>aofiev. 

6 M 071/779 Se ^ yafi€t vvp(f>r)p vrjiSa, koX yivovrai 
avr^ TraZSe? Il6kvS€KTr]<: ^ xal Ai/cTV(;' oiroi 
Xipi'(f>ov atKiaav^ 

7 2a\yLta)i/€U9 Se to pkv irp&TOv irepl SeacaXLav 
KaT€pK€i, 'rrapay€p6fjL€vo<i oe avdis eh ^HXvv i/cei 
iroKiv €fCTi<r€V, v^piari)^ Si &v xal tcS Au i^iaov- 
aOai di\(ov Sih TtfV aae/Sei.av iKoXdadrj* eXeye 
ycLp kavTov elvai Aia, Koi ra^ ixeivov Ovaia^; 
aSeXofievot; eavr^ irpoaeraaae 0v€tv, xal ^vpaa^ 
p>€v i^pafip^pa^ ef app^aro^ pera Xe^rjTODV xaX- 
K&v avpoov eXeye j3povTdv, /3dXX(ov Si ek ovpavov 
aiOopevas Xapirdha^ eXeyev darpdinetv, Zeu9 Se 
avTov Kepavvdxra^ ttjv fcrtadetaav vir avTOv iroXiv 
KoX Toiff; olKijTopa^ rf^dviae. irdpra^. 

8 TvpQ) Se 17 TaXpxov€(o<; Ovydrrfp koX ^AXxiSiKrjf; 
irapd Kpr}0€i [toS XaXp^aovea)^ dSeXxf)^^ rpe^opAvri 
epayra ta-xet ^KvLireci}^ tov iroTap^v, xal a'vv€')(&^ 
iirX rd tovtov peWpa <\>oiT&(Ta rovroi^ iTraySvpero.^ 

^ KvvSpra Aegius : kvvSvtov A. 

* 5^. The MSS. add Al6\ovj which is retained by Miiller 
and Bekker, bracketed by Westermann, and deleted by 
Hercher and Wagner. 

* noKvUfcrris Aegius : icoKvMictis A. 

* &Ki(rav Heyne : (fxriaav A. 

' 4ir<i}^{tp€To Faber, Bekker , Wagner : anw^vptTo A, Heyne, 
Westermann, Miiller : iwevlixfro Hercher (comparing Philo- 
Btratus, Epist. 47, v 5c Tvpii> r^ *Evix9i iicev^^aro). 

' See below, iii. 10. 3. 

^ Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 68. 1. His city was called 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, I. ix. 5-8 

and also Icarius. But many say that Perieres was 
not the son of Aeolus but of Cynortas, son of 
Amyclas ; ^ so we shall narrate the history of the 
descendants of Perieres in dealing with the family 
of Atlas. 

Magnes married a Naiad nymph, and sons were 
born to him, Polydectes and Dietys ; these colonized 

Salmoneus at first dwelt in Thessaly, but after- 
wards he came to Elis and there founded a city.^ 
And being arrogant and wishful to put himself on an 
equality with Zeus, he was punished for his impiety ; 
for he said that he was himself Zeus, and he took 
away the sacrifices of the god and ordered them to 
be offered to himself; and by dragging dried hides, 
with bronze kettles, at his chariot, he said that he 
thundered, and by flinging lighted torches at the 
sky he said that he lightened. But Zeus struck him 
with a thunderbolt, and wiped out the city he had 
founded with all its inhabitants.^ 

Now Tyro, daughter of Salmoneus and Alcidice, 
was brought up by Cretheus, brother of Salmoneus, 
and conceived a passion for the river Enipeus, and 
often would she hie to its running waters and utter 

Salmone. See Strabo, vii. 3. 31 and 32, p. 356 ; Stephanus 
Byzantius, a,v. '^a\n(i>pri, 

» Compare Virgil, Aen. vi. 585 sqq. with the commentary 
of Servius ; Hyginus, Fab. 61 ; Scriptores rerum mythicarum 
Latini, ed. O. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 28, 93 (First Vatican 
Mythographer, 82 ; Second Vatican Mythographer, 56). In 
the triSitions concerning Salmoneus we may perhaps trace 
the reminiscence of a line of kings who personated the Sky-god 
Zeus and attempted to make rain, thunder and lightning by 
means of imitative magic. See The Magic Art and the 
Evolution oj Kings, \. 310, ii. 177, 180 %q. Sophocles composed 
a Satyric play on the subject {The Fragments oj Sophocles, 
ed. A. C. Pearson, vol. ii. pp. 177 sqq.), 

o I 

VOL. I. G 

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avrfj' 17 Be yevvijaaaa Kpv^a ScBvfwv^ iralSa^ 
iKTL0r]aiv, eKKevfievoDv hk r&v I3p€<l)&v, irapiovTcov 
iTTiro^op^aiv ^ Itttto? fua Trpoaaylrafiivrj ry XV^V ^ 
darepov r&v I3p€^&p TreXiov ri tov irpoaooirov 
fiipo^ iwoltfa-ev, 6 Be i7nro<f)op^o^ dfi<f>oT€pov^ 
T0V9 iralSa^ dveXofievof; eOpey^e, koI rov fikv ireXKa- 
Oevra TleXiav ixaXeae, tov Be erepov N^yXea. 
TeSjeioi>6evTe<i Be dveyvcopiaav ri^v /jLr)T€pa, xal rffv 
fiTjTpviav aireKTeivav ZiBrjpo)' KaKovfievrjv yap 
yvovre^ utt' avrrj^ t^v fir)T€pa &pfirj(rap iir^ avirjv, 
17 Be ^ddaaaa eh to tt)? '^ilpa<; rifievo^ KaTe<f>vye, 

^ •wapi6vrcov iiriro<l>op$Sp MSS. and editors : xapi6yros iiriro- 
<t>op$ov Hercher. But compare Scholiast on Homer, II x. 
334, ixfKdSvrts oZv oi t7nro<pop$ol iLveKo/xtyoi re rh icai^la 
irp€<t>ov. On the other hand Eustathius, on Homer, Od. xi. 
253, p. 1681, has the singular : rovrov fifv lirico<t>op$hs i.v€\6- 

fifVOS ktX. 

* 0ri\f A. Wagner ascribes the correction xv^V ^ Aegius ; 
but in his text Aegius reads $ri\^ and translates it so 
{** mamma casu qtuxiam tetigisset"). Oommelinus and Gale 
read xv^V* ^^^ ^o Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, 
Hercher, and Wagner. 

^ As to the passion of Tyro for the river Enipeus, see 
Homer, Od. xi. 235 sqq.; Lucian, Dial, Marin. 13 ; Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 68. 3 ; Euatathius, on Homer, Od. xi. 234, p. 1681. 
Sophocles wrote two plays, both called TyrOf on the romantic 
love and sorrows of this heroine. See Tragicorum Oraecorum 
Fragmenta, ed. A. Nauck', pp. 272 sqq.; The Fragments of 
Sophodesj ed. A. C. Pearson, vol. ii. pp. 270 sqq. 

^ As to the exposure and discovery of the twins Pelias and 
Neleus, see Menander, Epitrepontes^ 108-116 {Four Plays of 
Menandery ed. E. Capps, pp. 60 ffg.); Scholiast on Homer, II. 
X. 334 ; Eustathius, on Homer, Od. xi. 253, p. 1681. Accord- 
ing to Eustathius and the Scholiast on Homer (, Pelias 
was suckled by a mare and Neleus by a bitch. Compare 


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THE LIBRARY, I. ix. 8 

her plaint to them. But Poseidon in the likeness of 
Enipeus lay with her,^ and she secretly gave birth 
to twin sons, whom she exposed. As the babes lay 
forlorn, a mare, belonging to some passing horse- 
keepers, kicked with its hoof one of the two infants 
and left a livid mark on its face. The horse-keeper 
took up both the children and reared them ; and the 
one with the livid (pelion) mark he called Pelias, 
and the other Neleus.^ When they were grown up, 
they discovered their mother and killed their 
stepmother Sidero. For knowing that their mother 
was ill-used by her, they attacked her, but before 
they could catch her she had taken refuge in the 
precinct of Hera.^ However, Pelias cut her down 

Aelian, Var. Hiat. xii. 42. Aristotle 8ays {Poetics, 16, p. 1454, 
b 25) that in Sophocles's play Tyro the recognition of the 
forsaken babes was effected by means of the ark {ffKd(iyri) in 
which they were found. Menander seems to have followed 
a somewhat different tradition, for he says that the children 
were found by an old goatherd, and that the token by which 
they were recognized was a small scrip or wallet (wriplStov). 
The legend of the exposed twins, the children of a divine 
father by a human mother, who were suckled by animals, 
reared by a peasant, and grew up to quarrel about a kingdom, 
presents points of resemblance to the legend of Romulus and 
kemus ; and it has even been suggested that the Greek tale, 
as dramatized by Sophocles, was the ultimate source of the 
Roman story, having filtered to the early Roman historian 
Q. Fabius Pictor through the medium of the Greek historian 
Diodes of Peparethus, whom Fabius Pictor appears to have 
followed on this and many other points of early Roman 
history (Plutarch, RomtUus^ 3). The same word (rKd<t>ri which 
Sophocles seems to have applied to the ark in which Pelias 
and Neleus were exposed, is applied by Plutarch (I.e.) to 
the ark in which Romulus and Kemus were exposed. See 
C. Trieber, **Die Romulussage," Rheiniaches Museum, N.F. 
xliii. (1888), pp. 568. 

3 Compare Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 175, who seems 
to have copied ApoUodorus. 


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o<f>v^ 6t€ Sk fiiXicaa, v<f>^ 'HpaxXiov^ fierd t&v 
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Bk Uepaea ^TpaTi'xov "Ap'qTOv 'E;)^€<^/)oi/a UeKric- 
Tparov ^AvtlXo'x^ov ^paa-vfiTjBrjv, 

10 UeXia^ Se irepl ^eaaaXiav KaroiKei, Ka\ ytj/na^ 
^Ava^t/Siav rrjv Btai/T09, ft)9 Be evioc ^ ^vXo/jud'xijv 
TTfv ^Afi<l)Lovo^, iyevvrjae iraiBa fiev ^Axaarov, 
ffvyaripa^ Be Heia-iBiKrjv TleXoireiav *l7nro06rjv 

11 Kprj06v<: Be fcri(Ta^ ^IcoX/cov yafiei Tvpo) rfjp 

^ tvioi R, Wagner : tvioi xiyowi A. 

* Compare Homer, Od. xi. 281 aqq^'y Pausanias, iv. 2. 5. 

2 See below, ii. 7. 3, and compare Homer, II. xi. 690-693, 
with the Scholia; Ovid, Meta/morph. xii. b4Q aqq.\ Hyginus, 
Fah. 10. As to Periclymenus, see the verses of Hesiod 
quoted by the Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon, i. 156, 
according to whom Periclymenus received from Poseidon the 
power of turning himself into an eagle, an ant, a bee, or a 
snake ; but Hercules, so says the scholiast, killed him with 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, I. ix. 8-i i 

on the very altars, and ever after he continued to 
treat Hera with contumely. But afterwards the 
brothers fell out, and Neleus, being banished, came 
to Messene, and founded Pylus, and married Cliloris,^ 
daughter of Amphion, by whom he had a daughter, 
Pero, and sons, to wit, Taurus, Asterius, Pylaon, 
Deimachus, Eurybius, Epilaus, Phrasius, Eurymenes, 
Evagoras, Alastor, Nestor and Periclymenus, whom 
Poseidon granted the power of changing his shape. 
And when Hercules was ravaging Pylus, in the fight 
Periclymenus turned himself into a lion, a snake, and 
a bee, but was slain by Hercules with the other sons 
of Neleus. Nestor alone was saved, because he was 
brought up among the Gerenians.^ He married 
Anaxibia, daughter of Cratieus,^ and begat daughters, 
Pisidice and Polycaste, and sons, Perseus, Stratichus, 
Aretus, Echephron, Pisistratus, Antilochus, and 

But Pelias dwelt in Thessaly and married Anaxibia, 
daughter of Bias, but according to some his wife was 
Phylomache, daughter of Amphion ; and he begat 
a son, Acastus, and daughters, Pisidice, Pelopia, 
Hippothoe, and Alcestis.* 

Cretheus founded lolcus and married Tyro, 

a blow of his club when he had assumed the form of a fly. 
According to another account, it was in the form of a bee 
that Periclymenus was slain by Hercules (Eustathius, on 
Homer, Od. xi. 285, pp. 1685 8q.\ Scholiast on Homer, II. ii. 
336). But Ovid {he.) says that Hercules shot him in the 
shape of an eagle, and this version is followed by Hyginus 
{Fob, 10). Periclymenus is also reported to have been able 
to change himself into any animal or tree he pleased (Eusta- 
thius, /.c; Scholiast on Homer, Od. xi. 286). 

' According to Homer {Od. iii. 462), the wife of Nestor 
was Eurydioe, daughter of Clymenus. 

* Compare Tzetzes, Sckol. on LycophroUt 175. 


y Google 


^aXfKoveco^, i^ ^9 avr^ yivovrat TratSe? Ata(ov 
^A/xv0d(ov ^eprjf;. ^Afivddcov fxev ovv oIk&v 
TlvXov ^ EilSofiivTjv yafi€i rrjv ^iprjro^;, fcal ylvov- 
rai. iraiBe^ avr^ Bta? kuI M€\dfiwov<;, 09 iwl r&v 
'X^mpicov SiaTeX&v, ovar)^ irpo t?)? olfci]a'€(o<; avrov 
Spvo<; iv y dxoXeo^ o<f>€(ov virrfpyev, diroKTeivdvTwv 
T&v OepatrovTfov tov^ o^ei^ ra fiev ipTrerct ^vka 
av/jxj>op')]aa^ exavae, Toif<; S^ tg)i/ oipeaov veocr<roif<: 
edpeylrep. oi Bk yevofiepoi riXetot TrapaardvTe^i ^ 
avTq> Koi,fi(Dfjb€v<p T&v &/jLOt)v ef ifcarepov tu^ dfcoct^ 
raU yXa)(T(rac(; i^exdOaipov. 6 Be dvaarat; koX 
y€v6fi€P0f; irepiSefjf! rtav virepTrerofievoov opvea>v 
rk^ (fxova^ avpUi, koI irap iKeipcop fiapddpoop 
irpovXeye to?9 apOpdwoi^ tcL fxeXXopra, irpoaeXa^e 
he KaX TTjp Sta twi/ lepcjp fiaPTifctjp, Trepl Be top 
^AX<l>€top avpTv^odP ^AttoXXcopl to Xoittop apiaTot; 
ffp /idpTi<;, 
1 2 Bta9 Be ^ ifiprjarevero Il7jpa> Tr)P NrjXeayt;' 6 
Be ttoXXmp avT(p fiprjarevofjiepeop ttjp dvyarepa 

* -KyXov E : viX'tiv A. ^ icapaardvrts E : ir€piardyr€s A. 

* Bias 86 d *Afxv0dovos A : the words d *AfAti6dovos were con- 
demned as a gloss by Heyne and are omitted byHercher 
and Wagner. 

^ Compare Homer, Od. xi. 258 sq.; Tzetzes, Schol. on 
Lycophron, 175. 

^ As to the mode in which Melampus learned the language 
of birds, and with it the art of divination, from serpents in 
return for the kindness which he had shown to their species, 
see Scholiast on ApoUonius Rhodius, Argon, i. 118 ; compare 
Eustathius on Homer, Od. xi. 292, p. 1685 ; Pliny, Nat. Hist 
X. 137. Helenus and Cassandra are said to have acquired their 
prophetic power in like manner. As children they were left 
overnight in a temple of Apollo, and in the morning serpents 
were found licking their ears. See Scholiast on Homer, II. 
vii. 44 ; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, Introd. vol. i. pp. 


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THE LIBRARY, I. ix. 11-12 

daughter of Salmoneus, by whom he had sons, 
Aeson, Amylhaon, and Pheres.^ Amythaon dwelt 
in Pylus and married Idomene, daughter of Pheres, 
and there were bom to him two sons. Bias and 
Melampus. The latter lived in the country, and 
before his house there was an oak, in which there 
was a lair of snakes. His servants killed the 
snakes, but Melampus gathered wood and burnt the 
reptiles, and reared the young ones. And when 
the young were full grown, they stood beside him 
at each of his shoulders as he slept, and they 
purged his ears with their tongues. He started up 
in a great fright, but understood the voices of the 
birds flying overhead, and from what he learned 
from them he foretold to men what should come 
to pass.2 He acquired besides the art of taking the 
auspices, and having fallen in with Apollo at the 
Alpheus he was ever after an excellent soothsayer. 

Bias wooed Pero, daughter of Neleus.^ But as 
there were many suitors for his daughter's hand, 

266 sq., ed. C. G. Miiller. Porphyry said that perhaps we and 
all men might have understood the language of all animals 
if a serpent had washed our ears (De ahsHnentia, iii. 4). In 
the folk-tales of many lands, men are said to have obtained 
a knowledge of the language of animals from serpents, either 
by eating the flesh of serpents or in other ways. See my 
article, ** The Language of Animals,'* The Archaeological 
Review, i. (1888), pp. 166 aqq, 

• The following romantic tale of the wooing of Pero is 
told also by the Scholiast on Homer {Od. xi. 287). It is 
repeated also in substantially the same form by Euatathius, 
on Homer, Od. xi. 292, p. 1685. Compare Scholiast on 
Theocritus, iii. 43 ; Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, i. 118 ; 
Proper tins, ii. 3. 51 aqq. A summary of the story, shorn of 
its miraculous elements, is given by Homer {Od. xi. 287-297, 
XV. ^25-238) and Pausanias (iv. 36. 3). See Appendix, 
«* Melampus and the kine of Phylacus." 


y Google 


Bdxreiv €<t>r) r^ rh^ ^vXaxov^ fioa^ ko/u- 
(TavTL avT^. axhai Sh fftrav iv ^vXdfcrj, teal 
Kvwv i(f>v\aa'a€v avra^ ov ovre avdpwiro^ ovre 
07)pLov TreXa? iXffelv rjhvvaro. raura? ahvvar&v 
Bta9 Ta9 i8oa9 KXesjtai irapefcaXet top dB€\(f>bv 
avWafieaffac. McXa/xTrou? Be vireax^ro, fcal 
TTpoelirev on (^oupadrjtTeTai k\€ttt(ov fcal Se^el? 
iviavTOV ovToo ra<; j36a<; Xrjylrerai. iierh hi rrjv 
v'Tr6a')(€<Tiv eU ^v\dKr)v diryei Kai, xaffdirep 
TTpoelire, ^aypaOeU cttI rfj kXott^ Sec/iio^^ iv 
oLK^fiaTi i(f>v\da'a'€ro. Xeiirofievov Be rov ivi- 
avTov fipax€0<; ^/^oi^otf, r&v /card to Kpv^alov^ 
TYj^ criyrji; (TfcoDXrjfconv aKovec, rov fiev ipcoT&vro^ 
TToaov rjBrj p>€po<: rov Bokov Bia/Se^pcoTai, r&v Be 
diroKpivofikvayv^ Xoittov eXd')(i<nov elvai. koX 
rax^d)^ i/ceXevaev avrov eh Irepov OLKtjfia /xera- 
yayelv, yevofjuevov Be rovrov /xer ov iroXv awe- 
ireGe to 6iici)iia. QavpAaa^ Be 4>iJ\a/co9, kolI 
fjuidwv on iarl pbdvn^ aptaro^, Xi5<ra9 Trapexd- 
Xeaev elirelv 07ra>9 avrov r^ iraiBX ^\(f>LKX<p iralBe^ 
yevoyvrai, 6 Be vireax^ro €<^' © t^9 /8oa9 X^- 
ylrerai. fcal KaTadvGa^ Tavpov^ ovo koX iieXiaa^ 
Toiff; ol(ovov<; '7rpo<TeKaXe<Ta70' irapayevofiepov Be 
aiyviTiov, trapd rovrov /lavffdvei Brj on ^vXaxo^ 
TTore fcpLoix; repbvoDv eirl r&v alBoicov * irapd toG 
*]^LfcXq) rffv pbdxO'i'pcLv 'pfiayfjLevYfv en xareOero, 
Beiaavro^; Be rov iraiBo^; koX if>vy6vro^ av0i^ Kara 
T^9 lepd^; Bpvb<; avrrjv eirrj^e, xal ravrrjv dfi(f)i- 

^ *u\dKov A, Westermann, MilUer : *1<pIk\ov Aegius, 
Heyne, Bekker, Hercher, Wagner. 

^ Sffffiios Bekker : Stfffiois A. 

^ Kpv^diov RR»jB : Kopvipaiov 0, PR^ in the margin : opo- 
<pia7ov Faber, Hercher. * inroKpivofifPcov R : hkvoKpivafiivwv A. 

^ aihoioiv R : alfiloov A : kyp&v Heyne, Westermann, Bekker. 

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THE LIBRARY, I. ix. 12 

Neleus said that he would give her to him who 
should bring him the kine of Phylacus. These 
were in Phylace, and they were guarded by a dog 
which neither man nor beast could come near. 
Unable to steal these kine. Bias invited his brother 
to help him. Melampus promised to do so, and 
foretold that he should be detected in the act of 
stealing them, and that he should get the kine after 
being kept in bondage for a year. After making 
this promise he repaired to Phylace and, just as 
he had foretold, he was detected in the theft and 
kept a prisoner in a cell. When the year was nearly 
up, he heard the worms in the hidden part of the 
roof, one of them asking how much of the beam 
had been already gnawed through, and others an- 
swering that very little of it was left. At once 
he bade them transfer him to another cell, 
and not long after that had been done the cell 
fell in. Phylacus marvelled, and perceiving that 
he was an excellent soothsayer, he released him 
and invited him to say how his son Iphiclus might 
get children. Melampus promised to tell him, 
provided he got the kine. And having sacrificed 
two bulls and cut them in pieces he summoned the 
birds; and when a vulture came, he learned from 
it that once, when Phylacus was gelding rams, he 
laid down the knife, still bloody, beside Iphiclus, 
and that when the child was frightened and ran 
away, he stuck the knife on the sacred oak,^ and the 

* According to the Scholiast on Homer (Od, xi. 287 and 
290) and Eustathius (on Homer, Od, xi. 292, p. 1685), the tree 
was not an oak but a wild pear-tree {&x^p^o$). 


y Google 


Tpox^fra^^ efcaXvy^ev 6 (f>\oi6^. eXeyev oiv, 
€vp€0€ia'7)<; T?79 /jLa'xaipa<; el ^vcov rov lov eirX 
ri/jL€pa<; hiKa ^\<f>iK\<p Sa> Tnelv, iraiSa yevi^ijaeiv, 
ravra fiaOcbv irap alyuTnov MeXdfiirov^ rfjv fiev 
frnxatpav evpe, r^ Sk ^l<f>L/c\q) rov lov ^vaa<; eVl 
rjfjiepa^ hetca SiScofce inelv, tcaX iral^; avr^ HoSap- 
KTi^ iyivero, ra^ Se fi6a<i eh IlvXov rjXaa-e, fcal 
T& a^e\<j>^ Trjv Nrjkeay^; ffuyarepa Xaj3a}v eSco/ce. 
Koi fieyoL fi€v Tivo^ iv Mea-a-TJvy Kar^xet, w Se 
Ta9 iv Apyei yvvaiKa^ i^€/jLf)V€ Aiovvaof;, iwl^ 
/i€p€i T^9 ^ fiaaiXeia^; laadfi€vo<; avrk^; ijcel fiera 
Btai^TO? fcaT<pKr)a€, 

13 Btai^To? Se fcal ll7)pov<; TaXad?, ov xal Avai- 
fid^V^ T779 *'A/8ai/T09 Tov M.€\dfnroSo<; ''ABpaa'ro^ 
HapOevoTraLo^; Hp&va^ MrjKiarev^; ^ApiaTOfiayo^ 
^Epc(f>v\rj, fjv ^Afi^idpao<; yapuel, Hapffevoiraiov 
Se TLpofiaxo^ iyivero, t<; fieTct r&v iiriyovcov iwl 
0i7)8a9 ia-Tpaievffrj, MrfKiareco^; Be F,vpva\o<;, 09 
fJKev eh Tpoiav. lIp(ovaKro^ Se eyivero AvKovp- 
709, *ASpd(TTov Be zeal ^AfjL<l>iO€a^ t^9 TIpdvaKTO^ 
Ovyarepef; fiev ^Apyeia ^rjiTrvXrj AlytdXeia, iral- 
869 Bk Alyta\€v<; <Kal> KvdviTnro^, 

14 4>ip779 Be 6 Kpr)0€a}<; <p€pa<; iv SeaaaXCa fcri- 
aa<; iyevvriaev" ABpLr^Tov koI AvKovpyov. AvKovp- 
709 pbkv ovv Trepl ^cfieav fcaT(jpfcr}a'e, y^fia<; Be 
EvpvBiM:Y)v, 0)9 Bk evioi (fyaaiv ^AfKfyiOeav, iyev- 
vrjaev ^0<f>€\Trjv <tov vaT€pov>^ KkriOevra ^Ap'Xje- 

15 /jLopov, ^ABiiTjTOv Be ^aac\€vovTO<; r&v ^ep&v, 
idrjTevaev ^Att6W(ov avr^ fivrja'TevopAvo) Ttfv 

^ iLfxtpirpoxo-ffas R : i,fx<pirpox<i><^<iti A. 
2 ^Trl R : ^vh A. « T^s R : rov A. 
* rhv 0<rT€poi/ added by Hercher. 


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THE LIBRARY, I. ix. 12-15 

bark encompassed the knife and hid it. He said, 
therefore, that if the knife were found, and he scraped 
off the rust, and gave it to Iphiclus to drink for ten 
days, he would beget a son. Having learned these 
things from the vulture, Melampus found the knife, 
scraped the rust, and gave it to Iphiclus for ten days 
to drink, and a son , Podarces was born to him.^ 
But he drove the kine to Pylus, and having received 
the daughter of Neleus he gave her to his brother. 
For a time he continued to dwell in Messene, but 
when Dionysus drove the women of Argos mad, 
he healed them on condition of receiving part of the 
kingdom, and settled down there with Bias.^ 

Bias and Pero had a son Talaus, who married 
Lysimache, daughter of Abas, son of Melampus, and 
had by her Adrastus, Parthenopaeus, Pronax, Mecis- 
teus, Aristomachus, and Eriphyle, whom Amphiaraus 
married. Parthenopaeus had a son Promachus, who 
marched with the Epigoni against Thebes;^ and 
Mecisteus had a son Euryalus, who went to Troy.* 
Pronax had a son Lycurgus ; and Adrastus had by 
Amphithea, daughter of Pronax, three daughters, 
Argia, Deipyle, and Aegialia, and two sons, Aegialeus 
and Cyanippus. 

Pheres, son of Cretheus, founded Pherae in Thessaly 
and begat Admetus and Lycurgus. Lycurgus took up 
his abode at Nemea, and having married Eury dice, or, as 
some say, Amphithea, he begat Opheltes, afterwards 
called Archemorus.^ When Admetus reigned over 
Pherae, Apollo served him as his thrall,^ while Admetus 

^ Compare Apollodorus, Epitome^ iii. 20, with the note. 

* See below, ii. 2. 2 ; Diodorus Siculus, ii. 68. 4 ; Pausanias, 
ii. 18. 4. 

'^ CJompare below, iii. 7. 2. * See Homer, IL ii. 565 aq, 

* See below, iii. 6. 4. • See below, iii. 10. 4. 


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IleXtot; Ovyarepa "AXKr^tniv, ixeivov ^ Be Bwaeiv 
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apfia XeovTo^ fcal fcdirpov,^ ^AiroWcav fcufa? 
eScoKCV' 6 Sk Ko/uaa<; 7rpo<; HeXiav " AXKr}aTiv 
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^ApT€fiiSi Ovaar Sia tovto rov dakafiov dvol^a<; 
€vp€ hpafcovTfov aireipdfUKTi, * 7r€7r\rjpa)fjiivov, 
^AiroXXayv Be eliroov i^iXda-Keaffai rrjv Beov, rjrrj- 
(raro irapd^ fwip&v tva, orav "ASyxTyro? ftiWrj 
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vTT^p avTov Ovrjo-Keiv eXrirat,^ 0)9 Be fjXdev fi 
rov 0vtjaK€iv rifiepa, firjre tov irarpo^ fiTJre rrj^ 
fir)Tpo<; virep avrov ffvijafceiv deX6vT(ov/AXKYf<TTL<; 
virepairedave, xal aifrrjv irdXiv dverrep^^ev rj 
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avrbv dv€K6fiia€>^ /wjtX€<7a/iei'09"AtS77. 
16 Af(7oro9 Be TOV Kprjffeo)^ Kal IloXvfi7]Br)^ t^9 
AvToXv/cov ^Idacov, o5to9 fp/cei iv ^IcoXfc^, t^9 

^ iKtlvov Heyne, Hercher, Wagner: 4Ktiv<f MSS., Wester- 
mann, Miiller, Bekker. 

2 iirayy€i\aix4vov. The MSS. add irtWlov {Utkiov), which 
is deleted by Hercher and Wagner, following Heyne. 

* \4ovTos Koi ndirpov Heyne : \€6pt<uv Kal Kdwpotp A. 

* trirtipdfiaffi Heyne : aireipttina A. 
» iropA RRa : ircpl A. 

* lAT/Tot. The MSS. add woT^p fj fi'firrip fi yvvii. These 
words are retained by Westermann and Miiller, but omitted 
by Bekker, Hercher, and Wagner, following Heyne. 

^ < irphs abrhv iivtK6fn<rt > . Omitted in the MSS. : restored 
by Fischer and Wagner from Zenobius, Cent. i. 18. 

^ Compare Hyginus, Fab. 50 and 51. 
^ That is, Persephone. 

' This pathetic story is immortalized by Euripides in his 
noble tragedy AlcesHs, happily still extant. Compare 


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THE LIBRARY, I. ix. 15-16 

wooed Alcestis, daughter of Pelias. Now Pelias 
had promised to give his daughter to him who should 
yoke a lion and a boar to a ear, and Apollo yoked and 
gave them to Admetus, who brought them to Pelias 
and so obtained Alcestis.^ But in offering a sacrifice 
at his marriage, he forgot to sacrifice to Artemis ; 
therefore when he opened the marriage chamber he 
found it full of coiled snakes. Apollo bade him 
appease the goddess and obtained as a favour of the 
Fates that, when Admetus should be about to die, 
he might be released from death if someone should 
choose voluntarily to die for him. And when 
the day of his death came neither his father nor his 
mother would die for him, but Alcestis died in his 
stead. But the Maiden ^ sent her up again, or, as 
some say, Hercules fought with Hades and brought 
her up to him.^ 

Aeson, son of Cretheus, had a son Jason by 
Poly mede, daughter of Autolycus. Now Jason dwelt in 

Zenobius, Cent. i. 18, which to a certain extent agrees 
verbally with this passage of Apollodorus. The tale of 
Admetus and Alcestis has its parallel in history. Once 
when Philip II. of Spain had fallen ill and seemed like to 
die, his fourth wife, Anne of Austria, *'in her distress, 
implored the Almighty to spare a life so important to the 
welfare of the kingdom and of the church, and instead of 
it to accept the sacrifice of her own. Heaven, says the 
chronicler, as the result showed, listened to her prayer. The 
king recovered ; and the queen fell ill of a disorder which in 
a few days terminated fatally." So they laid the dead queen 
to her last rest, with the kings of Spain, in the gloomy pile 
of the Escurial among the wild and barren mountains of 
Castile ; but there was no Hercules to complete the parallel 
with the Greek legend by restoring her in the bloom of life 
and beauty to the arms of her husband. See W. H. Prescott, 
History of the Reign oj Philip the Second^ bk. vi. chap. 2, at 
the end. 


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eyvd). TeX&v yap iirl tj} daXdaari Jlo(T€ihS>vi 
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^ Ida ova fieTCTrefiylraTO, 6 Se irodtp yeaypyia^; iv 
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Sia^aivayv Se iroTafiov "Avavpov i^rjXde fwvoadv- 
Sa\o9, TO €T€pov diroXeaa^ iv T(p peiBpo) irehiXov. 
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crv/jLJ3aXa}v 7}pQ>Ta irpoaeXffciv, tL ^ &v iiroi'qa^v 
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XpvaofiaXXov Bepa^ " €<f>r) " irpoaeTaTTOv &v <f>€' 
peiv avT^.^* TOVTO TleXia^ dfcovaa<; ev0v^ iirl to 
hkpa^; iXOelv^ ifceXeutrev avTov, tovto Be iv 
Ko\Yot9 V^ <iv> *'A/0€O9 dXa-ei Kp€/jAp,€vov ix 
Bpvo^, i^povpeiTO hk vtto BpaxovTO*; dinrvov. 

'EttI tovto 7r€fnr6fi€vo<; ^Idacov ^Apyov Trapexd- 
Xeae tov ^pi^ov, KaKelvo^ *Adr}vd<; virodefievr)^ 

* Bvffiav ER, Zenobius, Cent. iv. 92 : Ovalat A. 
2 ri E, Zenobius, Cmt. iv. 92 : rls A. 

• i\Buv A, Zenobius, Gent. iv. 92 : irXctv E. 

^ For the story of Pelias and Jason, see Pindar, Pyth. iv. 
73 (129) aqq.y with the Scholia ; ApoUonius Rhodius, Argon. 
i. 5 8qq.\ Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron^ i. 175; Hygiuus, 
Fab. 12 and 13 ; Servius, on Virgil, Ed. iv. 34 ; Lactantius 
Placidus, on Statins, Tfid). iii. 516. The present passage of 
ApoUodorus is copied almost literally, but as usual without 
acKnowledgment, by Zenobius, Cent, iv. 92. It was the 


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THE LIBRARY, I. ix. i6 

lolcus, of which Pelias was king after Cretheus.^ 
But when Pelias consulted the oracle concerning 
the kingdom, the god warned him to beware of the 
man with a single sandal. At first the king under- 
stood not the oracle, but afterwards he apprehended 
it. For when he was offering a sacrifice at the sea to 
Poseidon, he sent for Jason, among many others, to 
participate in it. Now Jason loved husbandry and 
therefore abode in the country, but he hastened to 
the sacrifice, and in crossing the river Anaurushe lost 
a sandal in the stream and landed with only one. 
When Pelias saw him, he bethought him of the oracle, 
and going up to Jason asked him what, supposing he 
had the power, he would do if he had received an 
oracle that he should be murdered by one of the 
citizens. Jason answered, whether at haphazard or 
instigated by the angry Hera in order that Medea 
should prove a curse to Pelias, who did not honour 
Hera, " I would command him," said he, "to bring 
the Golden Fleece.** No sooner did Pelias hear 
that than he bade him go in quest of the fleece. 
Now it was at Colchis in a grove of Ares, hanging on 
an oak and guarded by a sleepless dragon. ^ 

Sent to fetch the fleece, Jason called in the help of 
. Argus, son of Phrixus ; and Argus, by Athena's advice, 

regular custom of Aetolian warriors to go with the left foot 
shod and the right foot unshod. See Macrobius, Sat. v. 18- 
21, quoting Euripides and Aristotle ; Scholiast on Pindar, 
JPyth. iv. 133. So the two hundred men who broke through 
the Spartan lines at the siege of Plataea were shod on the left 
foot only (Thucydides, iii. 22). Virgil represents some of the 
rustic militia of Latium marching to war with their right feet 
shod and their left feet bare {Aen. vii. 689 sq.). As to the 
custom, see Taboo and the Perils of the Soid^ pp. 311 sqq. 

2 See ApoUonius Rhodius, Argon, ii. 1268-1270, iv. 123 
sqq. 163. 


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<f>r]yov T7J^ Aa)SQ)vi8o<; ^vXov, ft)9 Be rj vav^ xare- 
axevdadr}, XP^M'^^^ ^ ^^09 avr^ irXelv iirerpe^e 
avvadpaiaavTi tou9 dpLarov^ t?)? 'EXXaSo?. oi 
hk (TwaOpoiaOiine^ eialv oIlSc Tl<f>v^ 'Ayviov,^ 
S9 €Kvj3€pva rijv vavv, 'Op<^€U9 Oldypov, Zt]T7j<; 
fcal Ka\a£9 Bopeov, Kdarcop koI TIo\vS€vk¥)<; 
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AaepTf)^ ^ApKeiaiov, AvtoXvko^ 'Epfiov, 'Ara- 
XdvTfj Sxoivewf;^ Meromo9 "A/cropo^:, "Aicrtop 
'linrdaov, ''AS/ai?to9 4>€/>77to9, "AKaaro^ HeXLoVy 
Evpvro^ ^Epp,ov, MeXiaypo^; Olv€(o<;, ^ Ay fcaio^ 
AvKovpyov, Ev<l>i]fio<s noaeiB&vof;, Hoia^ 0au- 
p^dxov, BouT?;9 T€X€Oi/to9> ^dvo<; xal 2Ta<^uXo9 
Aiovvtrov, *F,pyivo^ lIo<T€iSa)vo<;, HepiKXvp^vof; 
Nr)Xeco<;, Avyea^ 'HXtoi;, *'I<^a^\o9 ^eariov, "Ap- 
709 ^pi^ov, Eu/?ua\o9 Mr)KiaTia)<;y Ilr)viX€Ci}^ 
'iTnrdXfiov,^ ArjiTO^ *AX€fcropo<;J ^I(f>Lro<; Nav- 

^ (pcovrifv ER : (potv^ A. ^ *Ayvlov Aegius : iyplov A. 
' Orifftbs Aiy4ws Aegius : alytbs ihi<r4(as A. 

* *OiK\4ovs Aegius : Iok\4ovs A. 

^ Kaivcws K(jpwvos Aegius : K6p»yo5 Kaiycws Clavier, Heroher. 

* 'lirvdXfiov A : 'lirird\Kfiov Scholiast on Homer, //. ii. 494 : 
'linra\KifjLov Diodorus Siculus, iv. 67. 7. 

^ *A\tKrpv6yos Homer, H. xvii. 602, with the Scholiast: 
'HAc/cTpv((i/of Diodorus Siculus, iv. 67. 7. 

^ Compare ApoUonius Rhodius, Argon, i. 524 aqq.^ iv. 580 
sqq.; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron^ 175. The following 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, I. ix. i6 

built a ship of fifty oars named Argo after its builder; 
and at the prow Athena fitted in a speaking timber 
from the oak of Dodona.^ When the ship was built, 
and he inquired of the oracle, the god gave him 
leave to assemble the nobles of Greece and sail 
away. And those who assembled were as follow : ^ 
Tiphys, son of Hagnias, who steered the ship ; 
Orpheus, son of Oeagrus ; Zetes and Calais, sons of 
Boreas ; Castor and Pollux, sons of Zeus ; Telamon 
and Peleus, sons of Aeacus ; Hercules, son of Zeus ; 
Theseus, son of Aegeus ; Idas and Lynceus, sons of 
Aphareus ; Amphiaraus, son of Oicles ; Caeneus, 
son of Coronus ; Palaemon, son of Hephaestus or of 
Aetolus ; Cepheus, son of Aleus ; Laertes son of Arci- 
sius ; Autolycus, son of Hermes ; Atalanta, daughter 
of Schoeneus; Menoetius, son of Actor; Actor, 
son of Hippasus ; Admetus, son of Pheres ; Acastus, 
son of Pelias; Eurytus, son of Hermes; Meleager, 
son of Oeneus ; Ancaeus, son of Lycurgus ; Euphe- 
mus, son of Poseidon; Poeas, son of Thaumacus; 
Butes, son of Teleon ; Phanus and Staphylus, sons 
of Dionysus ; Erginus, son of Poseidon ; Pericly- 
menus, son of Neleus ; Augeas, son of the Sun ; 
Iphiclus, son of Thestius ; Argus, son of Phrixus ; 
Euryalus, son of Mecisteus ; Peneleus, son of Hippal- 
mus; Leitus,son of Alector; Iphitus, sonof Naubolus; 

narrative of the voyage of the Argo is based mainly on the 
Argonautica of Apollonius Rhodius. As to the voyage of the 
Argonauts, see further Pindar, Pyth. iv. 156 (276) sqq. ; Dio- 
dorus Siculus, iv. 40-49 ; Orphica, Argonautica ; Tzetzes, 
Schol. on I/ycophrony 175 ; Hyginus, Fah, 12, 14-23 ; Ovid, 
Metamorph. vii. 1 sqq,; Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica. 

' For lists of the Argonauts, see Pindar, Pyth. iv. 171 sqq.; 
Apollonius Rhodius, Argon, i. 20 sqq.; Orphica, Argonaviica, 
119 sqq.; Valerius Flaccus, Argon, i. 352 sqq.; Hyginus, 
Fab, 14. 


VOL. I. H 

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fioXov, *A<TKd\a<f>o<; /cal ^ld\fi€VO<; ^ *'A/)€09, 'A<r- 
ripio^ Y^o^TjTOV, lIo\v<br}fio<; 'EXarov. 

17 Oiroi vavapxovvTo^ Ida-ovo^; dva'^devre^ irpoa- 
ia")(pva-i Arjfivtp, eTi;%€ Bk 17 Arjfivo<; dvBp&v Tore 
ovca €prjfio^, ffaaiXevofievrj Bk viro 'TylnirvXtj^ 
rrj<; 6oai/T09 Bi airCav rijvBe, ai KrifivtaL rrjv 
^A<f>poBiTr)v oifK irifiayv* 17 Be avrai^ ifijSdWei 
Bvaocfilav, kuI Biii rdvro ol yijfjLavTe^ avrct^ €k 
Trj<; irX'qaLov Spdfcr)<; Xal36vT€<; alxp^^oDriBa^ 
avv€vvd^ovTO avrai^* drifia^ofievaL Bk * ai A17- 
p^viai Tov? T€ waripa^ koX rov<i avBpa^ <l>ovevova'r 
fiovrj Bk eacDaev 'TslriTrvKr) rbv iavrrj^ iraripa 
Kpvylraaa Soavra, irpo<T<T')(6vT€% oiv Tore 71;- 
vatKOfcparovfiivp rf) Arjfivfp fiiayovTai Tat9 yvvat- 
^iv, 'TylrnrvXr) Be ^Idaovi avvewd^crai, xal 
yevva iralBa^; ^vvrjov Kal N€J3po<f>6pov, 

18 'Atto A^fivov B^ TTpoaiaxova-i Aokioaiv,^ &v 
i/SaaiXeve Kv^iko<;, ovto<; avTOv<; vireBe^aro 
<l)i\o<l>p6va)<;, vvKrb<; Bk dvaxOevTe^; ivrevOev koX 
irepiireaovTe^ dvTt7rpoiac<;, dyvoovvre^ irdXiv to?? 

^ idXfitvos Homer, IL ii. 512 : li\fx€vos A. 
^ ^oXioaiv Aegius : ^oklois EA. 

^ As to the visit of the Argonauts to Lemnos, see Apollo- 
nius Rhodius, Argon, i. 607 aqq.; Orphica, Argonautica, 473 
8qq.\ Scholiast on Homer, II, vii. 468 ; Valerius Flaccus, 
Argon, ii. 77 8qq,\ Hyginus, Fah, 15. As to the massacre of 
the men of Lemnos by the women, see further Herodotus, vi. 
138 ; Apostolius, Cent. x. 65 ; Zenobius, Cent, iv, 91 ; Scholiast 
on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon, i. 609, 615. The visit of the 
Argonauts to Lemnos was the theme of plays by Aeschylus 
and Sophocles. See Tragicorwn Oraecorum Fragmenta, ed. 
A. Nauck**, pp. 79, 215 aqq.; The Fragmenta of Sophodea, ed. 
A. C. Pearson, ii. 51 aqq. The Lemnian traditions have been 
interpreted as evidence of a former custom of gynocracy, or 


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THE LIBRARY, I. ix. 16-18 

Ascalaphus and lalmenus, sons of Ares; Asterius, 
son of Cometes ; Polyphemus, son of Elatus. 

These with Jason as admiral put to sea and 
touched at Lemnos.^ At that time it chanced that 
Lemnos was bereft of men and ruled over by a queen, 
Hypsipyle, daughter of Thoas, the reason of which was 
as follows. The Lemnian women did not honour 
Aphrodite, and she visited them with a noisome 
smell; therefore their spouses took captive women 
from the neighbouring country of Thrace and bedded 
with them. Thus dishonoured, the Lemnian women 
murdered their fathers and husbands, but Hypsipyle 
alone saved her father Thoas by hiding him. So having 
put in to Lemnos, at that time ruled by women, the 
Argonauts had intercourse with the women, and 
Hypsipyle bedded with Jason and bore sons, Euneus 
and Nebrophonus. 

And after Lemnos they landed among the Do- 
liones, of whom Cyzicus was king.^ He received 
them kindly. But having put to sea from there by 
night and met with contrary winds, they lost their 
bearings and landed again among the Doliones. 

the rule of men by women, in the island. See J. J. Bachofen, 
Daa MtUterrecht (Stuttgart, 1861), pp. 84 aqq. Every year 
the island of Lemnos was purified from the euilt of the 
massacre and sacrifices were offered to the dead. The cere- 
monies lasted nine days, during which all fires were extin- 
guished in the island, and a new fire was brought by ship 
From Delos. If the vessel arrived before the sacrifices to 
the dead htfd been offered, it might not put in to shore or 
anchor, but had to cruise in the offing till they were com- 
pleted. See Philostratus, Heroicat xx. 24. 

* As to the visit oi the Argonauts to the Doliones and the 
death of King Cyzicus, see ApoUonius Rhodius, Argon, i. 
935-1077 ; Orphica^ ArgonaiUica, 486 aqq.; Valerius Flaccus, 
Argon, ii. 634 sqq,, iii. 1 sqq,; Hyginus, Fab, 16. 

H 2 

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fi€0* f}fi€pav, CB9 eyvotxrav, airohvpdfievoL rd^ t6 
fco/jua^ iKeipavTo xal tov Kv^im:ov TroXureXS? 
eOwslrav, fcal fjierct, rrjv Ta<f>rfP ifKevaavre^ Mucrta 
19 ^^vravda he 'H/oaAcX^a Koi Tlo\v(f>7jP'OV fcari- 
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fcXiov^ Sk €pcofjL€VO<i, a7roo"Ta\€t9 vSpevaaa-Oai Bih 
fcd\\o<; viro vvfi<l>&v fjpirdyrj, TloXv<l>r)fio^ Se 
cLKoiawi avTOv porjtravTO^;, airacdfievo^ to ^L<f>o^ 
eimK€v} VTTO Xrf(TT&v dyeaOai vofii^wv, koX hrfK.oi 
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Tov'^tXav 17 vaif^ dv^x^V* ^^^ Ilo\v(f)7ifjLo^ fikv iv 
Mvaia Kriaa^; iroktv Kiov^ i/SaaiXevaev, 'Hpa- 
K\rj<; ok viriarpeylrev eh "A/yyo?. 'HpoBwpo^^ Sk 
avTov ovhk Trjv dp^vv ^rjai nXevcai rore, dWcL 
Trap* *Ofi<l)d\r) SovXeveiv. <PepeKvS7j^ Sk avrov iv 
'A^€Tat9 T^9 0€<T<raXia9 d'rroXei<f>6rjva!, Xeyei, rrj^ 
*Apyov<; <l)0€y^a/JL€Prj<; fir) BvvaaOai (fyepeiv to tov- 

^ iZluKtv Zenobius, Cent. vi. 21, Hercher, Wagner : ^8{»|ev 
EA. a kIov E : Kiov A 

' 'Hp66(upos Faber : *Hp66oros A. 

^ They lamented for three days and tore ou^ their hair ; 
they raised a mound over the grave, marched round it 
thrice in armour, performed funeral rites, and celebrated 
games in honour of the dead man. The mound was to be 
seen down to later days, and the people of Chrzicus continued 
to pour libations at it every year. See Apollonius Rhodiua, 
Argon, i. 1057-1077. Compare Orphica, Argonautica, 671 aqq, ; 
Valerius Flaccus, Argon, in. 332 sqq. 

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THE LIBRARY, I. ix. 18-19 

However, the Doliones, taking them for a Pelasgian 
army (for they were constantly harassed by the Pelas- 
gians), joined battle with them by night in mutual 
ignorance of each other. The Argonauts slew many 
and among the rest Cyzicus ; but by day, when they 
knew what they had done, they mourned and cut off 
their hair and gave Cyzicus a costly burial;^ and after 
the burial they sailed away and touched at Mysia.* 

There they left Hercules and Polyphemus. For 
Hylas, son of Thiodamas, a minion of Hercules, had 
been sent to draw water and was ravished away by 
nynaphs on account of his beauty.^ But Polyphemus 
heard him cry out, and drawing his sword gave chase 
in the belief that he was being carried off by robbers. 
Falling in with Hercules, he told him ; and while the 
two were seeking for Hylas, the ship put to sea. So 
Polyphemus founded a city Cius in Mysia and reigned 
as king;* but Hercules returned to Argos. How- 
ever Herodorus says that Hercules did not sail at all 
at that time, but served as a slave at the court of 
Omphale. But Pherecydes says that he was left 
behind at Aphetae in Thessaly, the Argo having de- 
clared with human voice that she could not bear 

* Compare Apollonius Rhodius, Argon, i. 1172 aqq, ; 
Valerius Flaccus, Argon, iii. 481 aqq. 

^ As to Hylas and Hercules, compare Apollonius Rhodius, 
Argon, i. 1207 sqq.; Theocritus, Id. xiii.; Antoninus Libera- 
lis, TraTwr/orm. 26 ; Orphica, Argonautica, 646 aqq.; Valerius 
Flaccus, Argon, iii. 521 8qq.\ Propertius, i. 20. 17 sqq.y Hy- 
ginus, Fab. 14 ; Scriptorea rerum mythicarwm, Latini, ed. 
G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 18, 140 (First Vatican Mythographer, 
49; Second Vatican Mythographer, 199). It is said that 
down to comparatively late times the natives continued to 
sacrifice to Hylas at the spring where he had disappeared, 
that the priest used to call on him thrice by name, and that 
the echo answered thrice (Antoninus Liberalis, I.e.), 

* Compare Apollonius Rhodius, Argon, i. 1321 aqq.^ 1345 aqq. 


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20 'Atto he Mu<rta9 airrfkOov eh rrfv ^e/SpvKcov 
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direKTevve, r&v Se ^e^pvKtov opfiTfadvTtov irpo^ 
avTov, dpirdaavTe^ ol dpiaTeU Tct oirXa iroWov^ 
(f>evyovTa<: (f>ovevov<Tiv avT&v. 

21 ^EvTevdev dvax^vTc^ fcaTavT&aiv eh ttjv tt}? 
%pj,Kri^ ^aXfivSrjo'a'ov, evda tpKei ^cveif^ fidvTi<; 
tA? oyjrei^ TreTrrjpcofievo^. tovtov oi fiev ^Ay-q- 

* vliiipris added by Hercher, comparinc Scholiast on Plato, 
Laws, vii. p. 796 a. * irpocKaAetro Faber : irpoaeKaKuro A. 

^ The opinions of the ancients were much divided as to 
the share Hercules took in the voyage of the Argo. See 
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon, i. 1290. In saying 
that Hercules was left behind in Mysia and returned to 
Argos, our author follows, as usual, the version of Apollonius 
Rhodius {Argon, i. 1273 eqq,). According to another version, 
after Hercules was left behind by the Argo in Mysia, he 
made his way on foot to Colchis (Theocritus, Id. xiii. 73 sqq.), 
Herodotus says (i. 193) that at Aphetae in Thessaly the hero 
landed from the Argo to fetch water and was left behind by 
Jason and his fellows. From the present passage of ApoUo- 
dorus it would seem that in this account Herodotus was f ollow- 
inff Pherecydes. Compare Stephanus Byzantius, 8.v. *K<p€Tal, 

^ As to the visit of the Argonauts to the Bebryces, and the 
boxing-match of Pollux with Amycus, see Apollonius Rhodius, 
Argon, ii. 1 eqq. ; Theocritus, xxii. 27 sqq. ; Orphica, Argo- 
nauHcaf 661 sqq.; Valerius Flaccus, Argon, iv. 99 eqq.; Hygi- 


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THE LIBRARY, I. ix, 19-21 

his weight. Nevertheless Demaratus has recorded 
that Hercules sailed to Colchis ; for Dionysius even 
affirms that he was the leader of the Argonauts.^ 

From Mysia they departed to the land of the 
Bebryces, which was ruled by King Amycus, son of 
Poseidon and a Bithynian nymph.^ Being a doughty 
man he compelled the strangers that landed to box 
and in that way made an end of them. So going to 
the Argo as usual, he challenged the best man of the 
crew to a boxing match. Pollux undertook to box 
against him and killed him with a blow on the elbow. 
When the Bebryces made a rush at him, the chiefs 
snatched up their arms and put them to flight with 
great slaughter. 

Thence they put to sea and came to land at 
Salmydessus in Thrace, where dwelt Phineus, a seer 
who had lost the sight of both eyes.* Some say he 

nus, Fab. 17 ; Lactantius Placid us, on Statius, Theb, iii. 353 ; 
Scriptorea rerum mythicarum LoHni, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. 
pp. 31, 123 (First Vatican Mythographer, 93 ; Second Vatican 
Mythographer, 140). The name of the Bithynian nymph, 
mother of Amycus, was Melie (Apollonius Rhodius, Argon, 
ii. 4 ; Hy^us, Ftib, 17 ; Servius, on Virgil, Aen, v. 373). 

' As to Phineus and the Harpies, see Apollonius Rhodius, 
Argon, ii. 176 sgq.t with the Scholia on w. 177, 178, 181 ; 
Scholiast on Homer, Od. xii. 69 ; Valerius Flaccus, Argon, iv. 
422 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 19; Servius, on Virgil, Aen. iii. 209 ; 
Scriptorea rerum mythicarum Laiinit ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. 
pp. 9 aq., 124 (First Vatican Mythographer, 27 ; Second 
Vatican Mythographer, 142). Aeschylus and Sophocles 
composed tragedies on the subject of Phineus. See Tragico- 
rum Oraecorum Fragmenta^ ed. A. Nauck*, pp. 83, 284 aqq.; 
The FragmerUa of Sophodeay ed. A. C. Pearson, vol. ii. pp. 
311 aqq. The classical description of the Harpies is that of 
Virgil (Aen. iii. 225 aqq.). Compare Hesiod, Theog. 265-269. 
In his account of the visit of the Argonauts to Phineus, the 
rationalistic Diodorus Siculus (iv. 43 aq.) omits all mention 
of the Harpies. 


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* iv€iZ^ Bekker : iirttZiiv EA : iirctZiiP . . . iraparleoiro (for 
MS. irap€rl$€ro) Hercher. " ffpraaap E : 9ipwa(ov A. 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, I. ix. 21 

was a son of Agenor,^ but others that he was a son 
of Poseidon, and he is variously alleged to have been 
blinded by the gods for foretelling men the future ; or 
by Boreas and the Argonauts because he blinded his 
own sons at the instigation of their stepmother ; * or 
by Poseidon, because he revealed to the children of 
Phrixus how they could sail from Colchis to Greece. 
The gods also sent the Harpies to him. These were 
winged female creatures, and when a table was laid 
for Phineus, they flew down from the sky and snatched 
up most of the victuals, and what little they left stank 
so that nobody could touch it. When the Argonauts 
would have consulted him about the voyage, he 
said that he would advise them about it if they 
would rid him of the Harpies. So the Argonauts 
laid a table of viands beside him; and the Harpies 
with a shriek suddenly pounced dawn and snatched 
away the food. When Zetes and Calais, the sons of 
Boreas, saw that, they drew their swords and, being 
winged, pursued them through the air. Now it was 
fated that the Harpies should perish by the sons of 
Boreas, and that the sons of Boreas should die when 
they could not catch up a fugitive. So the Harpies 
were pursued and one of them fell into the river 
Tigres in Peloponnese, the river that is now called 
Harpys after her ; some call her Nicothoe, but others 
Aellopus. But the other, named Ocypete or, according 
to others, Ocythoe (but Hesiod calls her Ocypode) * 
fled by the Propontis till she came to the Echinadian 
Islands, which are now called Strophades after her ; 

* So ApoUonius Rhodius (Argon, ii. 237, 240) and Hyginus 
(Fab. 19). 
' See below, iii. 15. 3 note. 
» Heaiod [Theog. 267) calls her Ocypete. 

y Google 


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yepofihn) /caret rrfp tjiova viro Kafidrov irlirrei, citv 
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Ta«9 ?o)9 ^Tpof^dhmv vrjamv (fyrjalv avrh^ Oimydrj- 
vat teal fiTfSiv iraOelv, Sovaa^ op/eov tov 4>ivia 
fiTffciri aSiKTJaai. 
22 ^AiraWayeU Be r&v dpirvi&v ^ivev^ ifiijvvae 
TOV irXovv ToU ^ApyovavTai<;, /cal irepX t&v av/i- 
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elpeaia^; ivTovov,^ avX\afiop.€vrj^ "Hpa^, Sirj'XBov, 

1 6x\p Bekker : &t* EA : iir* Clavier, Hercher. 
^ Zif\$€iv £ : ^A9«iy A. 

' ikiroWvfxiyriv EA, Wagner: &iroAa^^K7}v Heyne, Wester-, 
mann, Miiller, Bekker, Hercher. 

* kT^Oepivev A : kiriepiltv E : kwfepiatv Wagner. 
'^ 4vt6vov a : ^hr6vov E, Wagner. 

* Compare Apollonius Rhodius, Argon, ii. 284-298, who 
says that previously the islands were called the Floating Isles 

^ The Clashing Rocks are the islands which the Greeks 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, I. ix. 21-22 

for when she came to them she turned {estraphe) and 
being at the shore fell for very weariness with her 
pursuer. But ApoUonius in the Argonautica says that 
the Harpies were pursued to the Strophades Islands 
and suffered no harm, having sworn an oath that they 
would wrong Phineus no more.^ 

Being rid of the Harpies, Phineas revealed to 
the Argonauts the course of their voyage, and ad- 
vised them about the Clashing Rocks ^ in the sea. 
These were huge cliffs, which, dashed together by the 
force of the winds, closed the sea passage. Thick 
was the mist that swept over them, and loud the 
crash, and it was impossible for even the birds to 
jMiss between them. So he told them to let fly a 
dove between the rocks, and, if they saw it pass 
safe through, to thread the narrows with an easy 
mind, but if they saw it perish, then not to force a 
passage. When they heard that, they put to sea, and 
on nearing the rocks let fly a dove from the prow, 
and as she flew the clash of the rocks nipped off" the 
tip of her tail. So, waiting till the rocks had recoiled, 
with hard rowing and the help of Hera, they passed 
through, the extremity of the ship's ornamented 

called Symplegades. Another name for them was the 
Wandering Rocks {Planctae) or the Blue Rocks (Cyaneae). 
See Herodotus, iv. 85 ; ApoUonius Rhodius, Argon, ii. 317 sqr, 
Valerius Flaccus, Argon, iv. 561 ^9. ; Pliny, NcU, Hist, vi. 32 ; 
Merry, on Homer, Od, xii. 61; Appendix, **The Clashing 
Rocks." As to the passage of the Argo between them, see 
ApoUonius Rhodius, Argon, ii. 317 aqq,^ 549-610 ; Orphicat 
ArgonaiUica, 683-714 ; Valerius Flaccus, Argon, iv. 561-702; 
Hyginus, Fab, 19. According to the author of the OrpfUca 
the bird which the Argonauts, or rather Athena, let fly 
between the Clashing Kocks was not a dove but a heron 
{ipwdt6s). The heron was specially associated with Athena. 
See lyArcy Wentworth Thompson, Glossary oj Greek Birds, 
p. 58. 


d by Google 


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* vi^s E : vnhs A. 

^ iffrlv 4yKa6opfAiff$9lirris E, Wagner : itrri yrjs* KaBopfju- 
<r$fl<rns A. ' iwiratrat E : ixerdinrtro A. 

* Compare ApoUonius Rhodius, Argon, ii. 720 sqq.; OrphUxh 
Argonautica, 715 8qq.\ Valerius Flaccus, Argon, iv. 733 sqq.^ 
Hyginus, Fab, 18. 

^ Compare ApoUonius Rhodius, Argon, ii. 815 8qq,\ OrpTUca, 
ArgonauHca, 725 sqq,; Valerius Flaccus, Argon, v. 1 sqq,; 
Hyginus, Fab. 14 and 18. According to ApoUonius, the 
barrow of Idmon was surmounted by a wild olive tree, 
which the Nisaeans were commanded by Apollo to worship 
as the guardian of the city. 

y Google 

THE LIBRARY, I. ix, 22-23 

poop being shorn away right round. Henceforth 
the Clashing Rocks stood still ; for it was fated that, 
so soon as a ship had made the passage, they should 
come to rest completely. 

The Argonauts now arrived among the Marian- 
dynians, and there King Lycus received them 
kindly.^ There died Idmon the seer of a wound 
inflicted by a boar ; ^ and there too died Tiphys, and 
Ancaeus undertook to steer the ship.^ 

And having sailed past the Thermodon and the 
Caucasus they came to the river Phasis, which is in 
the Colchian land.* When the ship was brought into 
port, Jason repaired to Aeetes, and setting forth the 
charge laid on him by Pelias invited him to give 
him the fleece. The other promised to give it if 
single-handed he would yoke the brazen-footed bulls. 
These were two wild bulls that he had, of enormous 
size, a gift of Hephaestus; they had brazen feet 
and puffed fire from their mouths. These creatures 
Aeetes ordered him to yoke and to sow dragon's 
teeth ; for he had got from Athena half of the 
dragon's teeth which Cadmus sowed in Thebes.^ 
While Jason puzzled how he could yoke the bulls, 

^ Compare ApoUonius Rhodius, Argon, ii. 851-898 ; Or- 
phica, ArgonatUica, 729 sqq,; Tzetzes, 8chol. on Lycophron, 
890; Valerius Flaccus, Argon, v. IS sqq.; Hyginus, Fab, 14 
and 18. 

^ As to Jason in Colchis, and his winning of the Golden 
Fleece, see ApoUonius Rhodius, Argon, ii. 1260 sqq., iii. 1 sqq,, 
iv. 1-240 ; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 48. 1-5 ; Valerius Flaccus, 
Argon, v. 177-viii. 139 ; Ovid, Metamorph, vii. 1-158. The 
adventures of Jason in Colchis were the subject of a play by 
Sophocles called The Colchian Women, See The Fragments 
of Sophodesy ed. A. C. Pearson, vol. ii. pp. 15 sqq.\ Tragi- 
corufn Oraecorum FragmerUa, ed. A. Nauck 2, pp. 204 sqg. 

' Compare ApoUonius Rhodius, Argon, iii. 401 sqg., 1176 


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^ fpap/xaKls ERA : ipapfidKois A. ' ots ERR^ : hs A. 

• ffv^lpavros E : (nrtlpovros A. * iul>av&s E : k^avus A. 

• Kart(tvyfi4ycDV Faber : Kara(€vyvuiJ.4vtav EA. 

^ As to the yoking of the brazen-footed bulls, compare 
Pindar, Pyth, iv. 224 (399) 8qq,; Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, I. ix. 23 

Medea conceived a passion for him ; now she was a 
witch, daughter of Aeetes and Idyia, daughter of 
Ocean. And fearing lest he might be destroyed 
by the bulls, she, keeping the thing from her 
father, promised to help him to yoke the bulls 
and to deliver to him the fleece, if he would swear 
to have her to wife and would take her with him on 
the voyage to Greece. When Jason swore to do so, 
she gave him a drug with which she bade him anoint 
his shield, spear, and body when he was about to 
yoke the bulls ; for she said that, anointed with it, he 
could for a single day be harmed neither by fire nor 
by iron. And she signified to him that, when the 
teeth were sown, armed men would spring up from 
the ground against him; and when he saw a knot of 
them he was to throw stones into their midst from 
a distance, and when they fought each other about 
that, he was then to kill them.^ On hearing that, 
Jason anointed himself with the drug,^ and being 
come to the grove of the temple he sought the 
bulls, and though they charged him with a flame 
of fire, he yoked them.^ And when he had sowed 
the teeth, there rose armed men from the ground ; 
and where he saw several together, he pelted them 
unseen with stones, and when they fought each other 
he drew near and slew them.^ But though the bulls 

iii. 1026 sqq. As to the drug with which Jason was to anoint 
himself, see further Pindar, Pyth. iv. 221 (394) sq, ; Apol- 
lonius Rbodius, Argon* iii. 844 aqq. It was extracted from a 
plant with a saffron-coloured flower, which was said to grow 
on the Caucasus from the blood of Prometheus. Compare 
Valerius Flaccus, Argon, vii. 355 aqqr, Pseudo-Plutarch, De 
Fluviie, v. 4. 

^ ApoUonius Bhodius, Argon, iii. 1246 sqq^ 

» Ibid. 1278 aqq. * Ibid. 1320-1398. 


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* <rxto"0^i/Te$ER, Wagner: <rx€^«W€sA: 5iaa"x«^^i'T€jHeyne, 
Westermann, Miiller ; Smxc^^vrcs Bekker : Staxvtffi'res 

^ Apollonius Rhodius, Argon, iv. 123-182. 

* Here ApoUodorus departs from the version of Apollonius 
Rhodius, according to whom Apsyrtus, left behind by Jason 
and Medea, pursued them with a band of Colchians, and, 
overtaking them, was treacherously slain by Jason, with the 
connivance of Medea, in an island of the Danube. See 

y Google 

THE LIBRARY, I. ix. 23-24 

were yoked, Aeetes did not give the fleece ; for he 
wished to bum down the Argo and kill the crew. 
But before he could do so, Medea brought Jason by 
night to the fleece, and having lulled to sleep by her 
drugs the dragon that guarded it, she possessed her- 
self of the fleece and in Jason's company came to the 
Argo.i She was attended, too, by her brother 
Apsyrtus.2 And with them the Argonauts put to 
sea by night. 

When Aeetes discovered the daring deeds done 
by Medea, he started ofl* in pursuit of the ship ; 
but when she saw him near, Medea murdered her 
brother and cutting him limb from limb threw the 
pieces into the deep. Gathering the child's limbs, 
Aeetes fell behind in the pursuit; wherefore he 
turned back, and, having buried the rescued limbs 
of his child, he called the place Tomi. But he sent 
out many of the Colchians to search for the Argo, 
threatening that, if they did not bring Medea to him, 
they should suffer the punishment due to her ; so they 
separated and pursued the search in divers places. 

When the Argonauts were already sailing past the 
Eridanus river, Zeus sent a iiirious storm upon them, 
and drove them out of their course, because he was 

Apollonius Rhodius, Argon, iv. 224 sq., 303-481. Apollodorus 
seems to have followed the account given by Pherecydes in 
his seventh book (Scholiast on Apollonius Khodius, Argon, 
iv. 223, 228). The version of Apollonius is followed by 
Hyginus (Fab, 23) and the Orphic poet (Argonaviica, lOST? 
sqq,). According to Sophocles, in his play The Colchian 
Women, Apsyrtus was murdered in the palace of Aeetes 
(Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon, iv. 228) ; and this 
account seems to have been accepted by Euripides {Medea, 
1334). ApoUodorus's version of the murder of Apsyrtus is 
repeated verbally by Zenobius (iv. 92), but as usual without 


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1 iiiv Heyne : tl EA. 
^ AtyvMV Scaliger : \t$6c»v EA. 
' Suuco/AtsBtvTfs E : Ko/Ata$4vr€s A. 

* aialni^ ERB»(7: Alcdap Heyne, Wesfcermann, AJUller, 
Bekker, Hercher. 
' 0OVS EA : fi6as Wagner. 

^ Compare Apollonius Rhodius, Argon, iv. 576-591 ; Or- 
phicat ArgonauHca, 1160 sqq. 

^ Compare Apollonius Rhodius, Argon, iv. 659*717, who 
describes the purificatory rites. A sucking-piff was waved 
over the homicides ; then its throat was cut, and their hands 
were sprinkled with its blood. Similar rites of purification 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, 1. ix. 24-25 

angry at the murder of Apsyrtus. And as they were 
sailing past the Apsyrtides Islands, the ship spoke, 
sajong that the wrath of Zeus would not cease unless 
they journeyed to Ausonia and were purified by Circe 
for the murder of Apsyrtus.^ So when they had 
sailed past the Ligurian and Celtic nations and had 
voyaged through the Sardinian Sea, they skirted 
Tyrrhenia and came to Aeaea, where they supplicated 
Circe and were purified.* 

And as they sailed past the Sirens,^ Orpheus 
restrained the Argonauts by chanting a counter 
melody. Butes alone swam off to the Sirens, but 
Aphrodite carried him away and settled him in Lily- 

After the Sirens, the ship encountered Chary bdis 
and Scylla and the Wandering Rocks,* above which 
a great flame and smoke were seen rising. But Thetis 
with the Nereids steered the ship through them at 
the summons of Hera. 

Having passed by the Island of Thrinacia, where 
are the kine of the Sun,^ they came to Corcyra, the 
island of the Phaeacians, of which Alcinous was 
king.* But when the Colchians could not find the 

for homicide are represented on Greek vases. See my note 
on Pausanias, ii. 31. 8 (vol. iii. p. 277). 

* About the Argonauts and the Sirens, see ApoUonius 
Rhodius, Argon, iv. 891-921 ; OrpMcQj ArgonauticOf 1270- 
1297 ; Hyginus, Fab, 14. 

* Comp€u:e ApoUonius Rhodius, Argon, iv. 922 sqq. These 
Wandering Rocks are supposed to be the Lipari islands, two 
of which are still active volcanoes. 

* Compare ApoUonius Rhodius, Argon, iv. 964-979, accord- 
ing to whom the kine of the Sun were milk-white, with 
golden horns. 

* About the Argonauts among the Phaeacians, see Apol- 
lonius Rhodius, Argon, iv. 982 eqq,; Orphica, ArgonatdHca, 
1298-1364 ; Hyginus, Fab, 23. 

1 2 

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T^v vavv evpelv fifj Zwafjukvaav oi fiev to?? Kepav- 
vioi^^ 6 pea- 1 irapwKTjaav, oi Sk el^ rrjv ^iWv piSa 
/cofiiaOivre^ efcriaav 'A^uprtSa? vqa-ov^' h/ioi Sk 
7rpo9 ^aiaica^ iXdovTe^ ttjv ^ApyoD KariXa^ov koX 
rifv MrjSeiav airyTovv irap ^AXkivoov. o hk 
elirev, el fikv fjhr} avveXrjkvdev ^Idaovi, Saxreiv 
axnriv eKeivtp, el 8' eri irapdevo^ ecri, r^ irarpl 
aTTOTrefiyjreiv,^ ^AprJTr) Be rj ^AXfcivoov yvvrj i^dd- 
(raca Mrjheiav ^Idcovi awe^ev^ev oOev oi phf 
JLoX'Xpi fierh ^aidKfov KaTtpxriaav, oi he 'Apyo- 
vavrai fierii t))9 M^ySeta? avT^Orjaav. 
26 ItXeovre^ Be vv/cto^ a(f>oBp^ irepiiriirrovai 
X€tfi&Pt» 'AttoXXo)!/ Be (TtA? eirl tA? MeXavriov*;^ 
Beipd^, To^evaa^ t^ /SeXei el^ ttjv ddXaaaav 
/caTTjarpayjrev. oi Bk ifkriclov ededaavro vrjaov, 
T^ Bk iraph TTpoaBofciav dva<l)avrjvai^ irpoaopfu^ 
aOeine^ ^Avd^rfv €Kd\e<rav iBpvad/Jbevoi Be jScofiov 
^AiroWcovof; alyXi^TOV^ Koi OvaidaavTef; eir* 
evcoxiav erpdiTTfa-av. Bodelcai S* viro *Ap7]Tr)^ 
MrfBeia BcoBexa Oepdiracvai tou9 dpiarea^ ea-KODir- 
Tov fieTci Trai^vLa<i' 60 ev en fcal vvv ev t^ Ovaia 
avvr)de<; ecri CKdyjrreiv rah yvvai^iv. 

* Kepavvlois Tzetzes, ScJiol, on Lycophron, 176: KtpKu- 
palots A : K€pKvpalcfv £. ^ air<nr4fi^fiv E : iLvriir4/jL^civ A. 

^ M€\ayrlovs Apollonius Rhodius, Argon, iv. 1707 : /itvoi- 
rlov A. 

* A participle like Karair\ay4vr€s seems wanted. Compare 
ii. 6. 1. 

* aly\'firov ApoUonius Rhodius, Argon, iv. 1716 : alyaiov A. 

1 Compare ApoUonius Rhodius, Argon, iv. 1106 »qq,; Or- 
phica, ArgonaiOica, 1327 sqq, 

2 Compare ApoUonius Rhodius, Argon, iv. 1111-1169; 
Orphica, ArgonauHca, 1342 sqq, 

^ Compare ApoUonius Rhodius, Argon, iv. 1206 aqq, 


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THE LIBRARY, I. ix. 25-26 

ship, some of them settled at the Ceraunian moun- 
tains, and some journeyed to Illyria and colonized 
the Apsyrtides Islands. But some came to the 
Phaeacians, and finding the Argo there, they de- 
manded of Alcinous that he should give up Medea. 
He answered, that if she already knew Jason, he 
would give her to him, but that if she were still a 
maid he would send her away to her father. ^ How- 
ever, Arete, wife of Alcinous, anticipated matters by 
marrying Medea to Jason ; ^ hence the Colchians 
settled down among the Phaeacians ^ and the Argo- 
nauts put to sea with Medea. 

Sailing by night they encountered a violent storm, 
and Apollo, taking his stand on the Melantian ridges, 
flashed lightning down, shooting a shaft into the sea. 
Then they perceived an island close at hand, and 
anchoring there they named it Anaphe, because it 
had loomed up (anaphanenai) unexpectedly. So they 
founded an altar of Radiant Apollo, and having offered 
sacrifice they betook them to feasting ; and twelve 
handmaids, whom Arete had given to Medea, jested 
merrily with the chiefs ; whence it is still customary 
for the women to jest at the sacrifice.* 

* Compare Apolloniiis Rhodius, Argon, iv. 1701-1730; 
Orphica, Argonauticat 1361-1 367. From the description of 
Apollonius we gather that the raillery between men and 
women at these sacrifices was of a ribald character {aitrxpols 
^ireatriv). Here ApoUodorus again departs from Apollonius, 
who places the intervention of Apollo and the appearance of 
the island of Anaphe after the approach of the Argonauts to 
Crete, and their repuse by Talos. Moreover, Apollonius tells 
how, after leaving Phaeacia, the Argonauts were driven by a 
storm to Libya and the Syrtes, where they suffered much 
hardship {Argon, iv. 1228-1628). This Libyan episode in 
the voyage of the Argo is noticed by Diodorus Siculus 
(iv. 66. 6), but entirely omitted by ApoUodorus. 


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*EvT€V0€P avax^hfTe^ /cfoKvovrai Kpi]T'p irpoa- 
ia"x^eiv virb Td\a>, rovrov oi fiev rod x^^*^^^ 
ryivov^ elvai 7\Ay ov(tlv, oi Sh viro *li(bai(TTov Mti/cot 
Soffrjvac &9 fjv 'xaX/cov^ avrjp, oi he ravpov avrov 
Xerfova-iv, eZp^e Se <^\e^a fiiav diro avx^vo^ 
KoraTeLvovaav dxpi' <T<f>vpSiv Kara he to repfia^ 
Tfj^ (l>\€/36<; fj\o<; hii^petaro y^Xxov^. OUT09 6 
TdXco^ Tpl^ e/cdaTTf^ r}fiepa^ r7)v vrjaov irepiTpo- 
X^'^f^v €T7]pef hio fcal Tore ttjv *Apya> irpoa- 
irXeovaav dewp&v Tot9 7d0ot<; efiaXXep. ef aTrariy- 
^€^9 he viro Mrjheiaf; diredavev, <»9 At€i/ evioi 
XeyovaL, hid (jyapfiaKODV avT^ fiaviav Mrfheia^ 
ifi/3a\ovarf<i, w he rive^, viroaxofiivrf^ iroiriaeiv 
dddvarov xal top fjXov i^eXovarj^, i/cpvevTO^ rod 
7rai/T09 lxS>po^ avTOv dirodavelv. Tti/€9 hk avrov 
ro^evdevra viro JJoiavro^ eh ro (T<f>vp6v reXev- 
rrjaat Xiyovai. 

Miap hk evravda vvKra fieivavre<i Alyivr) irpoa-' 
iaxovaiv vhpevtTaaffai ffeXovre^, xal yiverai irepX 
T^9 vhpeia<; avrol<; d/uXXa* eKeWev he hid ri}^ 
Evj3oia<; xal t^9 AoKpiho^ irXevaavre^ 6*9 *I(oXkov 

* r4pfM Faber, Heyne, Bekker, Hercher, Wagner : ^tpfia A, 
Zenobius, Cent, v. 85, Westermann, MtQler. 

* As to Talos, see ApoUonius Rhodius, Argon, iv. 1639— 
1693 ; Orphica, Argonavtica^ 1358-1360 ; Agatharchides, in 
Photius, Bibliotheca, p. 443 6, lines 22-25, ed. &kker ; Lucian, 
De saltatione, 49 ; Zenobius, Cent. v. 85 ; Suidsis, a,v, 2ap8<£- 
vtos y4\a>5 ; Eustathius, on Homer, Odyssey t xx. 302, p. 1893 ; 
Scholiast on Plato, Republic, i. p. 337 a. Talos would seem 
to have been a bronze image of the sun represented as a man 
with a bull's head. See The Dying Ooa, pp. 74 «g.; A. B. 
Cook, Zeusy i. 718 sqq. In his account of the death of Talos 
our author again differs from ApoUonius Rhodius, according 


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THE LIBRARY, I. ix. 26 

Puttmg to sea from there, they were hindered 
from touching at Crete by Talos.^ Some say that 
he was a man of the Brazen Race, others that he was 
given to Minos by Hephaestus ; he was a brazen man, 
but some say that he was a bull. He had a single 
vein extending from his neck to his ankles, and a 
bronze nail was rammed home at the end of the vein. 
This Talos kept guard, running round the island 
thrice every day ; wherefore, when he saw the Argo 
standing inshore, he pelted it as usual with stones. 
His death was brought about by the wiles of Medea, 
whether, as some say, she drove him mad by drugs, 
or, as others say, she promised to make him immortal 
and then drew out the nail, so that all the ichor 
gushed out and he died. But some say that Poeas 
shot him dead in the ankle. 

After tarrying a single night there they put in to 
Aegina to draw water, and a contest arose among 
them concerning the drawing of the water.^ Thence 
thej sailed betwixt Euboea and Locris and came to 

to whom Talos perished through grazing his ankle against a 
jagged rock, so that all the ichor in his body eushed out. This 
incident seems to have been narrated by oophocles in one 
of his plays (Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon, iv. 
1638 ; The Fragments of Sophocles, ed. A. C. Pearson, i. 110 
sqq.). The account, mentioned by ApoUodorus, which re- 
ferred the death of Talos to the spells of Medea, is illustrated 
by a magnificent vase-painting, in the finest style, which 
represents Talos swooning to death in presence of the Argo- 
nauts, while the enchantress Medea stands by, gazing grimly 
at her victim and holding in one hand a basket from which 
she seems to be drawing with the other the fatal herbs. See 
A. B. Cook, Zeust i. p. 721, with plate xu. 

^ Compare Apollonius Rhodius, Argon,, iv. 1765-1772, from 
whose account we gather that this story was told to explain 
the origin of a foot-race in Aegina, in which young men ran 
with jars full of water on their shoulders. 


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ffKdov, TOP irdma irXovv iv rerrapai, firjal reXctcJ- 
27 IleAia? S^ d'7royvov<; Tr)v vTroarpo<l>rjv t&v 
^ApyovavT&v rov Attrova /creivecv fideKev o Sc 
airrjcdfievo^; kavrov dveXelv dvaiav iTrcreX&p 
aSew Tov ravpeiov airaadfievo^ aXfiaro^^ dire" 
dav€v, 7} hk 'la<70i/09 f^vrrfp iirapaaafievi] TleXia,^ 
vrjinov diroXiirovfra iralSa Ilpofiaxov eavrtjv 
dvrjpTTjae' n€Xta9 Sk fcal tov avry fcara\€i<f>d€VTa 
TralSa direKTeivev. 6 ie ^Idatov KaT€\da>v to fikv 
hepa^ eSoDKC, irepX &v Si ^Btfcijdi] /xeTeXdetv edektov 
Kacpov i^eSex'^TO, zeal tote fikv eU ^ladfiov fieTCt 
T&v dpiaT€€ov irkevaa^ dv4dfffC€ ttjv vavv Ilocret- 
i&viy av0i<f Se MijSeiav irapaKoXel ^rjTelv ottcd? 
TleKiaf; avTip BUa^ viroayrj. 17 Se eh Tct /Saai- 
\€La TOV TleXiov irapekuovaa ireLdei Td<; dv^a- 
Tcpa^ avTov tov iraTepa Kpeovpyrjo'ai koI xaffe- 
yfrrjaai, Bid (l>apfid/C€Ov ainov eTrayyeWofiivf) 
ironfjaeiv viov xal tov iriaTevacu X'^P^^ fcptbv 
fieklaaaa KaX Kade'>^<Ta<ra iiroiqaev dpva. ai 
Bk inaTewaaai tov iraTipa Kpeovpyovai xal 
Kodiyfrovaiv. "AfcaaTO^ ^ Sk fieTd t&v t^v ^layXxov 

^ ravptlov (Tiratrdfifvos alfxaros E : raipov alfia ciraffJkfitvos A. 

2 irtXitf E : ir€A./ov A. 

• "AxcMTTOf Aegius : fiZpaeros EA. 

* Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 50. 1 ; Valerius Flaccus, 
Argon, i. 777 sq. The ancients believed that bull's blood was 
poisonous. Similarly Themistocles was popularly supposed 
to have killed himself by drinking bulrs blood (Plutarch, 
Th&miatoclea, 31). 

^ Her name was Perimede, according to Apollodorus (i. 9. 
16). Diodorus Siculus calls her Amphinome, and says that 
she stabbed herself after cursing Pelias (iv. 50. 1). 


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THE LIBRARY, I. ix. 26-27 

lolcus, having completed the whole voyage in four 

Now Pelias, despairing of the return of the 
Argonauts, would have killed Aeson; but he re- 
quested to be allowed to take his own life, and in 
offering a sacrifice drank freely of the bull's blood 
and died.^ And Jason's mother cursed Pelias and 
hanged herself,^ leaving behind an infant son 
Promachus; but Pelias slew even the son whom 
she had left behind.* On his return Jason surren- 
dered the fleece, but though he longed to avenge 
his wrongs he bided his time. At that time he sailed 
with the chiefs to the Isthmus and dedicated the ship 
to Poseidon, but afterwards he exhorted Medea to 
devise how he could punish Pelias. So she repaired 
to the palace of Pelias and persuaded his daughters 
to make mince meat of their father and boil him, 
promising to make him young again by her drugs ; 
and to win their confidence she cut up a ram and 
made it into a lamb by boiling it. So they believed 
her, made mince meat of their father and boiled 
him.* But Acastus buried his father with the help 

' Compare Diodoms Siculus, iv. 50. 1. 

* With this account of the death of Pelias compare Dio- 
doms Siculus, iv. 51 sq.; Pausanias, viii. II. 2 sq.; Zenobius, 
Cent, iv. 92 ; Plautus, Paeudolus, Act iii. w. 868 sqq, ; Cicero, 
De seneciute, xxiii. 83 ; Ovid, Metamorph. vii. 297-349 ; 
Hyginus, Fab. 24. The story of the fraud practised by Medea 
on Pelias is illustrated by Greek vase-paintings. For example, 
on a black-figured vase the ram is seen issuing from the 
boiling cauldron, while Medea and the two daughters of Pelias 
stand by watching it with gestures of glad surprise, and the 
aged white-haired king himself sits looking on expectant. See 
Miss J. E. Harrison, Greek Vase Paintings (London, 1894), 
plate ii; A. Baumeister, Denkmaler des klassischen Alter- 
turns, ii. 1201 sq.^ with fig, 1394. According to the author of 


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oiKovvroDv TOP iraripa Bdirrei, top Bi ^Idcrova 

28 Ol Sk fj/eov €h Koptpdov, koI BcKa fikv err) 
hieriXovv eifTvyovvre^, avOi^ hk tov t^9 K.opivdov 
fiatriXeo}^ Kpiovro^ rijv dvyaripa rXavxTfv 
*Id(rovi iyyv&vTO<;, irapairefi'^^dfievo^ ^IdcoDV M^- 
ieiav iydfi€i. 17 Se, ov^ t€ &fjLO(T€v *\da(ov deov^ 
hnKoKeaapAvri koI Ttfv 'Ia<roi/o9 d')(apiaTLav 
fiBfiylrafievfj iroWaKi^, rrj p>€V yafiovfievrf iriiiKov 
fiefiayfiivov^ (fyapfiaKoi^^ en-efiyfrev, hv dpLtfueaa- 
fianf fierct tov ^otjOovvto^ iruTpo^ irvpl Xd^ptp 
ieaT€<f>\ix^V»^ '^ov^ Be naZBa^ ot^ el^ev i^ ^Idaovo^, 
Mipfiepov KoX ^eprjTa, direfCTecve, Koi Xa^ovaa 
irapii 'HXiov apfia TTTqv&v^ hpaKovTwv eirX 
TovTov ^€vyov<ra ffKdev eU *A0i]va^. \iyerai 8k 
<Kal> OTi ^€vyov(Ta tov^ TratSa^ It* vqirLov^ 
6vTa^ /eaTeXcirev, i/ceTa^ fcaOiaaaa iirl top ^cofibv 

^ fA€fMyfi4yoy E : fUfiay€Vfi4woy A. 

' ^op^uiKots ER : ^dpfieucoy A. 

' Kar€^\4x^ E : icaro0X^7€< A. 

^ icrjivwv EC Some MSS. read mjivhv. 

the epic Returns (Nostoi), Medea in like manner restored to 
youth Jason's old father, Aeson ; according to Pherecydes and 
Simonides, she applied the magical restorative with success 
to her husband, Jason. Again, Aeschylus wrote a play called 
The Nurses oj Dionysus, in which he related how Medea 
similarly renovated not only the nurses but their husbands by 
the simple process of decoction. See the Greek Argument to 
the Medea of Euripides, and the Scholiast on Aristophanes, 
KnigfUSy 1321. (According to Ovid, Metamorph, vii. 261- 
294, Medea restored Aeson to youth, not by boiling him, but 
by draining his body of his effete old blood and replacing it by 
a magic brew.) Again, when Pelops bad been killed and 


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THE LIBRARY, I. ix. 27-28 

of the inhabitants of lolcus, and he expelled Jason 
and Medea from lolcus. 

They went to Corinth, and lived there happily 
for ten years, till Creon, king of Corinth, betrothed 
his daughter Glauce to Jason, who married 
her and divorced Medea. But she invoked the 
gods by whom Jason had sworn, and after often 
upbraiding him with his ingratitude she sent the 
bride a robe steeped in poison, which when Glauce 
had put on, she was consumed with fierce fire along 
with her father, who went to her rescue.* But 
Mermerus and Pheres, the children whom Medea had 
by Jason, she killed, and having got from the Sun 
a car drawn by winged dragons she fled on it to 
Athens. 2 Another tradition is that on her flight she 
lefl behind her children, who were still infants, 
setting them as suppliants on the altar of Hera of the 

served up at a banquet of the gods by his cruel father Tanta- 
lus, the deities in pity restored him to life by boiling him in 
a cauldron from which he emerged well and whole except for 
the loss of his shoulder, of which Demeter had inadvertently 
partaken. See Pindar, Olymp. i. 26. (40) a^., with the Schol- 
iast; Tzetzes, SchoL on Lycophron, 162-153. For similar 
stories of the magical restoration of youth and life, see 
Appendix, "The Renewal of Youth." 

^ See Euripides, Medea, 1136 sqq. It is said that in her 
agony Glauce threw herself into a fountain, which was 
thenceforth named after her (Pausanias, ii. 2. 6). The fountain 
has been discovered and excavated in recent years. See 
G. W. Elderkin, **The Fountain of Glauce at Corinth," 
American Journal of Archaeology , xiv. (1910), pp. 19-50. 

^ In this account of the tragic end of Medea's stay at 
Corinth our author has followed the Medea of Euripides. 
Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 54 ; Ovid, Metamorph. vii. 
391 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab, 25. According to Apuleius {Meta- 
morph. i. 10), Medea contrived to bum the king's palace and 
the king himself in it, as well as his daughter. 


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T^9 '-H/oa^ T7}9 cLKpaia^' KopivOioc Se avrov^ ava- 
a'Ti](TaPT€<} fearer pavfidTiaav. 

Mi]S€ia Sk fj/eev eh ^Kdrjva^, KaKel ya/irjdeiaa 
Alyei iraiSa yevva MrjSop. iirc/SovXevovaa Be 
varepov &rj(T€t ^vy^<f i^ ^Adrfv&p fierci rov 7ra*8o9 
etc^aXKerai, aXV o5to9 p^v iroXK&v Kparrfaa^ 
Bapl3dp(t)v rr)v v<f) eavrov ')(a>pav airaaav MrjSiav 
eKaXeae, kuX arparevofxevo^ iirl ^IvBoif^ airedave* 
Mi]BeLa Be eh Ko\%oi;9 ^Xdev ayvmaro^, /cal 
KaraXa/Sovaa Al'^rr)p viro rov aBe\(f>ov Tl^paov 
rrj<i ^aaiXeia^ eareprffiivov, Kreivaaa rovrov r^ 
irarpl rrjv /SaaiXeiav airoKariarrfaev. 

^ Compare Pausanias, ii. 3. 6 ; Aelian, Varia Historia^ v. 
21 ; Scholiast on Euripides, Medea, 9 and 264. Down to a 
comparatively late date the Corinthians used to offer annual 
sacrifices and perform other rites for the sake of expiating the 
murder of the children. Seven boys and seven girls, clad in 
black and with their hair shorn, had to spend a year in the 
sanctuary of Hera of the Height, where the murder had been 
perpetrated. These customs fell into desuetude after Corinth 
was captured by the Romans. See Pausanias, ii. 3. 7 ; 
Scholiast on Euripides, Medea, 264 ; compare Philostratus, 
Heroica, xx. 24. 

2 According to one account, Medea attempted to poison 
Theseus, but his father dashed the poison cup from his lips. 
See below. Epitome, i. 5 eq. ; Plutarch, Theseus, 12 ; Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 55. 4-6 ; Pausanias, ii. 3. 8 ; Scholiast on Homer, 
II. xi. 741 ; Eustathius, Comment, on Dionysius Perieg. 
1017 ; Ovid, Metamorph. vii. 406-424. According to Ovid, 


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THE LIBRARY, I. ix. 28 

Height ; but the Corinthians removed them and 
wounded them to death.^ 

Medea came to Athens, and being there married 
to Aegeus bore him a son Medus. Afterwards, 
however, plotting against Theseus, she was driven 
a fugitive from Athens with her son.^ But he con- 
quered many barbarians and called the whole 
country under him Media,^ and marching against 
the Indians he met his death. And Medea came 
unknown to Colchis, and finding that Aeetes had 
been deposed by his brother Perses, she killed Perses 
and restored the kingdom to her father.* 

the poison which Medea made use of to take off Theseus was 

' For the etymology, compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 65. 5 
and 7, iv. 66. 1 ; Strabo, xi. 13. 10, j). 526 ; Pausanias, ii. 3. 
8 ; Eustathius, Oomment, on Dionysms Perieg, 1017 ; Hygi- 
nus, Fab, 27. 

* According to others, it was not Medea but her son Medus 
who killed Perses. See Diodorus Siculus, iv. 66. 1 ; Hyginus, 
Fab, 27. Cicero quotes from an otherwise unknown Latin 
tragedy some lines in which the deposed Aeetes is repre- 
sented mourning his forlorn state in an unkingly and 
unmanly strain ( Tuacvlan, Disput. iii. 12. 26). The narrative 
of Hyginus has all the appearance of being derived from a 
tragedy, perhaps the same tragedy from which Cicero quotes. 
But that tragedy itself was probably based on a Greek 
original ; for Diodorus Siculus introduces his similar account 
of the assassination of the usurper with the remark that the 
history of Medea had been embellished and distorted by the 
extravagant fancies of the tragedians. 


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L 'ETretS^ Se to tov AevKaXiayvo^; Sie^eXrfKv- 
dafiev yivo^, €')(pfiiv(o<i Xeycofiev ^ to *Ivd')(€iov. 

^ilKcavov fcai Trj0vo<; yiverai iral^ *'Ivaxo^, aif 
oh TroTafio<; iv *'Apy€c ''Ii/aj^o? KaXelrai. tovtov 
/cal MeXla^^ rrj^ ^ilxeavov ^opcovev^ t€ /cat 
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airaiSo^ diroOavovTO^ rj x^pa airaaa AlyiaXet^a 
i/c\i]dr)y ^opa}V€if<; Bk airdo'Tji; t7J<; varepov IleXo- 
irovvrjffov irpoaayopevdeLa'q^; ivvaareixov ifc TiyXc- 
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%€k^iovo^ Kal TeK')^vo<; iin^ovKevdel^ airai^ 
diredave, /cal vofiurdeU d€0<f iKkrjdr} Xapain^* 
N*o/8i79 Se /cat Ai09 (§ 'irpdry yvvacKt Z€^9 Ovqr^ 
ifuyt)) 7ra?9 " Apyo^ iyivero, ©9 8^ *A/coval\a6^ 

^ \4yc0titv Aegius : \4yofitp A. 

^ MfXias Tzetzes, Schol, on Lycophron, 177, Scholiast on 
Plato, Timaeut, p. 22 A : fxeXiwns A. 

• TitXoZiicns Tzetzes, SchoL on Lycophron, 177, Scholiast 
on Plato, TimaenSy p. 22 A : iK r^f tiaoZixnit Heyne (in the 
text). * hvaiiA<ras Bekker, Wagner (misprint). 

^ As to Inachus and his descendants, see Tzetzes, Schol, 
on Lycophron, 177 (who follows Apollodorus) ; Pausanias, ii. 
15. 5; Scholiast on Euripides, OresteSf 932; Scholiast on 


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I. Having now gone through the family of Deu- 
calion, .we have next to speak of that of Inaehus. 

Ocean and Tethys had a son Inaehus^ after whom 
a river in Argos is called Inaehus.^ He and Melia^ 
daughter of Ocean, had sons, Phoroneus and Aegia- 
leus. Aegialeus having died childless, the whole 
country was called Aegialia ; and Phoroneus, reigning 
over the whole land afterwards named Peloponnese, 
begat Apis and Niobe by a nymph Teledice. Apis 
converted his power into a tyranny and named the 
Peloponnese after himself Apia ; but being a stem 
tyrant he was conspired against and slain by 
Thelxion and Telchis. He left no child, and being 
deemed a god was called Sarapis.^ But Niobe had 
by Zeus (and she was the first mortal woman with 
whom Zeus cohabited) a son Argus, and also, so says 

Homer, II, i. 22. According to Apion, the flight of the 
Israelites from Egypt took place during the reign of Inaehus 
at Argos. See Eusebius, Prcteparatio MJvangeln, x. 10. 10 sq. 
On the subject of Phoroneus there was an ancient epic 
PhoroniSy of which a few verses have survived. See Epi- 
corum Oraeconim Fragmenta, ed. 6. Kinkel, pp. 209 sqq, 

' Apollodorus identifies the Argive Apis with the Egyptian 
bull Apis, who was in turn identified with Serapis ^Sarapis). 
As to the Egyptian Apis, see Herodotus, ii. 153 (with Wiede- 
mann's note), iii. 27 and 28. As to Apia as a name for 
Peloponnese or Argos, see Aeschylus, Suppl. 260 sqq.; Pau- 
sanias, ii. 5. 7 ; Scholiast on Homer, II, i. 22 ; Tzetzes, 
ScJiol. on Lycophron, 177 ; Stephanus Byzantius, s.v, 'Avia, 


y Google 


{jyrjai, Koi HeXaayo^;, d(f>* ov /cXrjdrjpai tou? T7)p 
TleXoTTovvijaop olKovvTa<; Tiekaa'^ov<;^ 'H<7/oSo9 
2 he TOP YLeXaafyov avrdyOovd <f>r]aip elvai, aXKh 
irepl fi€P TovTov iraXiv epovfiev* *'A/)709 Se Xa/Scbv^ 
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fiivo^ KoX ^eaipa^ iri/cvcoaev "EiK^acrov Heipavra 
^ETriSavpov Kpiaaop, S9 fcal rrjv /Saa-iXeiav irapk- 

*TSiK^d<Tov Be ^Kyrjvoap yiverai, tovtov Be "Apyo^ 
6 7rav67rrfj<i Xeyofievo^. eZ^e Be o5to9 o<f>daXfiov^ 
fiev €P iraPTL t^ acofuiTL, virepfidWayp Be Bvpdfiei 
TOP fiep rfjp 'ApxaBvap XvfiaiPOfiepop ravpop ape- 
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Toif^ ^ApxdBa^ dBiKOvpTa Koi d<f)atpovfi€POP to, 
^oa'Kr)fiaTa vTroaTCt^ direfCTeipe. Xeyerat Be oti 
teal T7)p TapTdpov fcal F^? ''Ex^Bpap, ^ tou9 
wapioPTa^; avprfpira^ep, eiriTrjpijaaf; fcoificofieptjp 
direKTeivep, e^eBUrjae Be Koi top *'A7rtSo9 (I>6pop, 
Toi'9 atTtoi/9 diroKTeipa^* 
8 "Apyov Be fcal ^lafiTJprj^ ttj^ ^ Aaoairov wal^ 
*'Ia(ro9,^ ov (paaip 'Ice) yepeaOai, KdoTcop Be 6 
avyypdyfra^ Tci XPOPiKa koX iroXXoX t(op TpayiK&p 
^Ipd^ov Tfjp 'Ia> XeyovaiP' 'H(rtoSo9 Be koX *Afcov- 

^ After \a$^v the MSS. (A) add waph *opwp4a>s, which is 
omitted by Hercher and Wagner, following Heyne. 
^ "laaos Aegius : 1<tos A. 

^ See below, iii. 8. 1. 

^ Compare Scholiast on Euripides, Orestes^ 932 ; Hyginus, 
Fab, 146. 

' As to Argus and his many eyes, compare Aeschylus, 
Suppl, 303 sqq.; Scholiast on Euripides, Phoen, 1116; Ovid, 
Metamorph, i. 625 sqq. ; Hyginus, Fab, 146 ; Servius, on 
Virgil, Aen. vii. 790 ; Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latini, 

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THE LIBRARY, II. i. 1-3 

Acusilaus^ a son Pelasgus^ after whom the inhabit- 
ants of the Peloponnese were called Pelasgians. 
However^ Hesiod says that Pelasgus was a son of 
the soil. About him I shall speak again.^ But 
Argus received the kingdom and called the Pelo- 
ponnese after himself Argos ; and having married 
Evadne, daughter of Strymon and Neaera, he begat 
Ecbasus, Piras, Epidaurus, and Criasus,* who also 
succeeded to the kingdom. 

Ecbasus had a son Agenor^ and Agenor had a son 
Argus, the one who is called the All seeing. He had 
eyes in the whole of his body,^ and being exceed- 
ingly strong he killed the bull that ravaged Arcadia 
and clad himself in its hide ; * and when a satyr 
wronged the Arcadians and robbed them of their 
cattle, Argus withstood and killed him. It is said, 
too, that Echidna,^ daughter of Tartarus and Earth, 
. who used to carry off passers-by, was caught asleep 
and slain by Argus. He also avenged the murder ot 
Apis by putting the guilty to death. 

Argus and Ismene, daughter of Asopus, had a son 
lasus, who is said to have been the father of lo.^ 
But the annalist Castor and many of the tragedians 
allege that lo was a daugher of Inachus;''^ and Hesiod 

ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 555. (First Vatican Mythographer, 

* Compare Dionysius, quoted by the Scholiast on Euri- 
pides, Pnoeniss. 1116, who says merely that Argus was clad 
in a hide and had eyes all over his body. 

* As to the monster Echidna, half woman, half snake, see 
Hesiod, Theog. 295 aqq. 

* Compare Pausanias, ii. 16. 1 ; Scholiast on Euripides, 
Orestes, 932. 

' Compare Aeschylus, Prometheus, 589 sqq.; Herodotus, i. 
1 ; Plutarch, De malignitcUe Herodoti, 11 ; Lucian, Dial, 
deorwn, iii.; id. Dial. Marin, vii. 1 ; Pausanias, iii. 18. 13 ; 
Ovid, Metamorph. i. 583 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 145. 

K 2 

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aiXao^ Heiprjvo^ avTTjV <f>aa'iv elvai. Tavrrfv 
iepaxTvvfjv t^9 "H/>a9 eypvaav Zeu? €<l>0€cp€. 
(fxapaOeU Se i/<^' ''H/M19 t^9 /a€J' Koprj^; dyjrdfiepo^ 
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8i ''Kpyov KoX ^la/jLTjvrj^ Trj<; 'AcrwTroi) Ovyarpo^' 
^ KKOvaiXaos Se yrjyeprj avrop Xeyei. ovro^ ix 
T^9 ikaia^ ihiafievep avrrjp ^t«9 ep t^ MvKrj- 
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eTreioff XaOelp ovk '^Svputo, \i6<p ^a\a>p dire- 

KT€IP€ TOP "ApyOPf O0€P dpy6l(f>6pTrj^ €K\7]dr), 

"H/3a Bk T^ fiot oiarpop ep.$aK'Kei, rj Be irpSyrop 
fjxep €49 TOP dir eKeLprj<; *I6piop koXttop KXr^depra, 
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fiepop TTopop Spafciop, pvp Bk dir eKeiPt]^ Bo<r- 
TTopop. direXOovaa * Be eU Xfcvdiap koI Trjp 
KifjLfiepiBa yrjp, ttoWtjp 'X^epaop irXaprjOetaa /cal 
iroWrjp Biaprj^afiepr] ddXaaaap Evpa>7rfj^ t€ koI 

' Tavrji Wagner : ravrriv E : avr^v A : kpxh^ Hercher. 

^ ^tptMjjs . . . 'AffKhriirtdZris ^'»'^'» /«rt»««o..;«« &^\>^^ 
n Euripides, Phoenissaej 1116) 
\<rK\fiirtdZris . . . ^^ptMris A, \ 

^ K4pKa^ Aegius : KfKpoi^ A. 

^ k-weXdovaa E : iirt\Oov<ra A. 

^ Compare Aeschylus, Suppl. 291 sqq. ; Scholiast on Honier, 

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and Acusilaus say that she was a daughter of Piren. 
Zeus seduced her while she held the priesthood of 
Hera, but being detected by Hera he by a touch 
turned lo into a white cow^ and swore that he had 
not known her; wherefore Hesiod remarks that 
lover s oaths do not draw down the anger of the gods. 
But Hera requested the cow from Zeus for herself 
and set Argus the All-seeing to guard it. Pherecydes 
says that this Argus was a son of Arestor ;2 but Asclep- 
iades says that he was a son of Inachus, and Cercops 
says that he was a son of Argus and Ismene, daugh- 
ter of Asopus ; but Acusilaus says that he was earth- 
born.3 He tethered her to the olive tree which was 
in the grove of the Mycenaeans. But Zeus ordered 
Hermes to steal the cow, and as Hermes could not do 
it secretly because Hierax had blabbed, he killed 
Argus by the cast of a stone ; * whence he was called 
Argiphontes.^ Hera next sent a gadfly to infest the 
cow,^ and the animal came first to what is called 
after her the Ionian gulf. Then she journeyed through 
Illyria and having traversed Mount Haemus she 
crossed what was then called the Thracian Straits but 
is now called after her the Bosphorus.^ And having 
gone away to Scythia and the Cimmerian land she 
wandered over great tracts of land and swam wide 
stretches of sea both in Europe and Asia until at last 
II. ii. 103 (who cites the present passage of ApoUodorus) ; 
Ovid, Metamarph. i. 588 aqq, 

* The passage of Pherecydes is quoted by the Scholiast on 
Euripides, Pfwenissaey 1116. 

* 80 Aeschylus, PrometheuSy 305. 

* Compare Scholiast on Aeschylus, Prometheus, 561 ; Scho- 
liast on Homer, lU ii. 103. * That is, slayer of Argus. 

* For the wanderings of lo, goaded by the gadfly, see 
Aeschylus, Suppl 540 aqq., Prometheus, 786(805) «gg.; Ovid 
Metamorph. i. 724 aqq, 

Bosporo8, "Cow's strait " or ** Ox-ford." 


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'Ao'/a9, rekevraiov ^k€v ^ ek AlyvirTOv, ottov ttjv 
apyaiav fiopcfyrfv airoXa^ovaa yevvd irapa t^ 
NetX,^ iroTafjL(p ''E7ra<l>ov TraiBa. tovtov Be "H/ja 
Selrai KovpijTOJV a<l>avfj Troi^aar oi 8k r]<f)dvi(Tav 
avTov. Kol Zeu? /J^ev alcrOofievo^ Kreivei Koi5- 
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fcal TTjp 'Ift) ^laip 6fioL(o^ Trpoaijyopevaav. 
t *'E7ra<^09 Bk ^aatXevmp AiyvTTTL(op yafiel Meytt- 
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a<^' ^9 17 xcipa Ai/Svr) eKXrjdr}. Ac^vrfq Bi Kal 
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B^\o9. ^Ayrjvoip fjukp ovv €49 ^olpIkijp diraX- 
XayeU e^aaiXevae, KcuKel t^9 fM€ydXrj<; pLI^q^ eye- 
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B^Xo9 Be vrrofieLva^ ev AlyvirTtp iSaaiXevei fiev 
AtyvTTTOV, ya/jLel Be ^Ayxtvorjv^ t^i/ ^eiXov 
dvyaTepa, Kal avT^ yivoPTat iralBe^; BiBvfiot, 

^ ^Ktv A : f}fi E. ^ 5ti inserted by Bekker : &s Heyne. 

' ^ a conjecture of Heyne's. * yw^ inserted by Aegius. 

* 'Ayxif^V*' A, Scholiast on Hojner, 11. i. 42 (citing the 
Second Book of ApoUodorus) : 'Ayxippirj Scholiskst on Plato, 
Timaeust p. 25 b : 'Ax**^ Tzetzes, Chtliades, vii. 353, and 
Schol. on Lycophrorif 68S. 

^ Compare Aeschylus, Prometheus, 846(865) aqq.; Herodo- 
tus, ii. 153, iii. 27 ; Ovid, Metamorph. i. 748 8qq.\ Hyginus, 
Fab, 145. 

^ Isis, whom the ancients sometimes identified with lo (see 


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THE LIBRARY, II. i. 3.4 

she came to Egypt, where she recovered her original 
form and gave birth to a son Epaphus beside the 
river Nile.^ Him Hera besought the Curetes to make 
away with, and make away with him they did. When 
Zeus learned of it, he slew the Curetes ; but lo set 
out in search of the child. She roamed all over Sjrria, 
because there it was revealed to her that the wife of 
the king of Byblus was nursing her son ; ^ and having 
found Epaphus she came to Egypt and was married 
to Telegonus, who then reigned over the Egyptians. 
And she set up an image of Demeter, whom the 
Egyptians called Isis,^ and lo likewise they called by 
the name of Isis.* 

Reigningover theEgyptians Epaphus married Mem- 
phis, daughter of Nile, founded and named the city 
of Memphis after her, and begat a daughter Libya, 
after whom the region of Libya was called.^ Libya 
had by Poseidon twin sons, Agenor and Belus.^ Agenor 
departed to Phoenicia and reigned there, and there 
he became the ancestor of the great stock ; hence we 
shall defer our account of him.^ But Belus remained 
in Egypt, reigned over the country, and married 
Anchinoe, daughter of Nile, by whom he had twin 

below), is said to have nursed the infant son of the king of 
Byblus. See Plutarch, Isis et Osiris, 15 sq. Both stories 
probably reflect the search said to have been instituted by 
Isis for the body of the dead Osiris. 

* For the identification of Demeter with Isis, see Herodo- 
tus, ii. 59, 156 ; Diodorus Siculus, i. 13. 5, i. 25. 1, i. 96. 5. 

* Herodotus remarked (ii. 41) that in art Isis was repre- 
sented like To as a woman with cow's horns. For the identifi- 
cation of lo and Isis, see Diodorus Siculus, i. 24. 8 ; Lucian, 
Died, deorwm, iii.; Clement of Alexandria, Strom, i. 21. 106, 
p. 382, ed. Potter; Propertius, iii. 20. 17 sq.; Juvenal, Sat, 
vi. 526 sqq.'y Statins, Sylv. iii. 2. 101 sq.; Hyginus, Fab. 145. 

' Compare Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 894. 

* Compare J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, vii. 349 sq. 

' See below, iii. 1. , ^ ^ 


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A?7i;7rT09 koX Aava6<;, w Si ^aw ^vp^irLhfi^, 
Koi Ktf<f)€v<; zeal ^ivev^ Trpoaeri. Aavabv fuv 
oiv B?7\o9 iv Ai^vTj KaToixiaep, ^ Alyvmov hk iv 
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heooiKW, viroOefiipr)^ ^A0r)va^ avT^ yavv Kare- 
CK€va<T€ irp&TO^ /eal ra^ Ovyarepa^ ivdifievo^ 
€(f>vy€, vpoaax^v ^ hk 'VoStp to t^ Aivhia^ ? 
ayoKfUL *A0r)va<; iSpvaaro, €VTev0€v Se fjfcev el^ 
"Apyo^;, KoX rrjv /SaacXelav avrqt irapaSiSmai 
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•7^9 X^P^^ ^' iavTOv T0U9 ivoiKovvTa<i Aavaov<: 
a>v6fjLaae>.^ dvvSpov 8k t^^ X^/>^9 virapxovarjf;, 

^ KartpKifftv R : Kar<&icfi<r9y A. 

^ Kara<rrpt^dfi€vos Scholiast on Homer, //. i. 42, Scholiast 
on Plato, Timaeus^p. 25 B : KaTa<rKa\lfdfi€vos A. 

' fi€\anir6^uy R, Scholiast on Homer, H, i. 42, Scholiast on 
Plato, Timaeus, p. 25 b, Zenobius, Gent. ii. 6 : fitv Xa/iwd^wv A. 

* &^' iavrov added by Aegius from the Scholiasts on Homer 
and Plato, 

^ irtpi rris itpxrj^ omitted by Heyne and Bekker. Compare 
Scholiast on Homer, //. i. 42, <rra<rtdyTUP Be irpht ^AA^Aovs 
v€pl rris ipXV^' 

^ irpoffffx^v Scholiast on Homer, H. i. 42 : wpo<rdymp A, 

' XiyBlas R : Av8/as A. 

^ TcAfiCwp Heyne; compare Pansanias ii. 16. 1, ii. 19. 3, sq. : 
•wtXdvap A : iwdvcap Scholiast on Homer, //. i. 42. 

^ abrhs Bh Kpariia'as rrjs X'^P^^ ^^* ^avrov rohs ivoiKovmas 
Aavaohs vv6fxa<r9v. These words are cited in the present 
connexion by the Scholiast on Homer, //. i. 42, as from the 
Second Book of Apollodorus. They are inserted by Aegius, 
Commelinus, Gale, and Miiller, but omitted by Heyne, 
Westermann, Bekker, Hercher, and Wagnej:. 

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sons, Egyptus and Daiiaus,^ but according to Euripi- 
des, he had also Cepheus and Phineus. Danaus was 
settled by Belus in Libya, and Egyptus in Arabia ; 
but Egyptus subjugated the country of the Melad 
pods and named it Egypt after himself. Both had 
children by many wives ; Egyptus had fifty sons, and 
Danaus fifty daughters. As they afterwards quar- 
relled concerning the kingdom, Danaus feared the 
sons of Egyptus, and by the advice of Athena he built 
a ship, being the first to do so, and having put his 
daughters on board he fled. And touching at Rhodes 
he set up the image of Lindian Athena. * Thence^ 
he came to Argos and the reigning king Gelanor 
surrendered the kingdom to him ; ^ and having made 
himself master of the country he named the inhabi- 
tants Danai after himself. But the country being 

^ The following account of Egyptus and Danaus, including 
the settlement of Danaus and his daughters at Ar^os, is 
quoted verbally, with a few omissions and changes, by the 
Schob'ast on Homer, II, i. 42, who mentions the second book 
of Apollodorus as his authority. Compare Aeschylus, Suppl, 
818 8gq. ; Scholiast on Euripides, Hecvbay 886, and Oreatts, 
872 ; Hyginus, Fob. 168 ; Servius on Virgil, Aen. x. 497. 

' Compare Herodotus, ii. 182 ; Marmor PariiMn, 15-17, 
pp. 644, 546, ed. C. Miiller {Fr<igmenta HUtoricorum 
Qraecorunhy vol. i.) ; Diodorus Siculus, v. 58. 1 ; Strabo, xiv. 
2. 11, p. 655 ; Eusebius, Praeparatio Evangelii, iii. 8. As 
to the worship of the goddess, see Cecil Torr, Rhodes in 
Ancient Times (Cambridge, 1885), pp. 74 sq,y 94 sq. In 
recent years a chronicle of the temple of Lindian Athena has 
been discovered in Rhodes : it is inscribed on a marble slab. 
See Chr. Blinkenberg, La Chronique du temple I/lndien 
(Copenhagen, 1912). 

^ Compare Pausanias, ii. 16. X, ii. 19. 3 sq. » 

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JIo(r€iSS>v T^9 iv Aipvrj 7rr)yct^ ifi'^vvaev, 
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Kol /jLvrjaiKafc&v we pi t^9 4^vyrj<;, &fio\6y€L roh^ 
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Kol Topyo^ovriv^ Ylpoarel' oi)tol ykp ix l3a<nXiSo<; 
yuvaiKo^ *Apyv<f>ir}^ iyeyoveiaav AiyvTrrtp. t&v Se 
XoiTT&v eXuxov Bovaipi^ fiev koX ^^KeKaho^ Kal 
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avTai Be ix ^aatKLBo^; eyivovro Aava^, ifc Be 
*Ft\e^avTLBo^ Vopyo^ovq koX ^Tirepp^vrjaTpa,^ 

^ "HpcLi Heyne, comparing Pausanias, ii. 15, 5 : 'Mtivas A. 

2 Topyo<p6vriv Aegius : yopyo<p6vTnv A. 

^ After 'TTepfip-fiffTpa the MSS. (A) add AujKehs 8c Ka\vNi}v 
lAax**'. These words are rightly omitted by Hercher and 
Wagner, following Heyne : they are bracketed by C. Miiller, 
but retained by Westermann and Bekker. 

* Compare Pausanias, ii. 15. 5. 

* Compare Euripides, Phoenisaae, ISI sqq.; Lucian, Dial, 
Marin, vi. ; Philostratus, Imagines, i. 8 ; Scholiast on Homer, 


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THE LIBRARY, II. i. 4-5 

waterless, because Poseidon had dried up even the 
springs out of anger at Inachus for testifying that the 
land belonged to Hera,^ Danaus sent his daughters 
to draw water. One of them, Am3maone, in her search 
for water threw a dart at a deer and hit a sleeping 
satyr, and he, starting up, desired to force her ; but 
Poseidon appearing on the scene, the satyr fled, and 
Amymone lay with Poseidon, and he revealed to her 
the springs at Lema.^ 

But the sons of Egyptus came to Argos, and exhor- 
ted Danaus to lay aside his enmity, and begged 
to marry his daughters. Now Danaus distrusted 
their professions and bore them a grudge on account 
of his exile ; nevertheless he consented to the marriage 
and allotted the damsels among them.* First, they 
picked out Hypermnestra as the eldest to be the 
wife of Lynceus, and Gorgophone to be the wife of 
Proteus; for Lynceus and Proteus had been borne 
to Egyptus by a woman of royal blood, Argyphia ; 
but of the rest Busiris, Enceladus, Lycus, and 
Daiphron obtained by lot the daughters that 
had been borne to Danaus by Europe, to wit. 
Automate, Amjmione, Agave, and Scaea. These 
daughters were borne to Danaus by a queen; but 
Gorgophone and Hypermnestra were borne to him 

II, iv. 171 ; Propertius, iii. 18. 47 «g.; Hyginus, Fab, 169. 
There was a stream called Amymone at Lema. See Strabo, 
viii. 6. 8, p. 371 ; Pausanias, ii. 37. 1 and 4 ; Hyginus, l,c, 

^ For the marriage of the sons of Egyptus with the 
daughters of Danaus, and its tragic sequel, see Zenobius, 
Cent, ii. 6 ; Scholiast on Euripides, Hecuba, 886, and Orestes, 
872 ; Scholiast on Homer, II, iv. 171 ; Hyginus, Fab. 168 ; 
Servius, on Virgil, Aen. x. 497. With the list of names of 
the bridal pairs as recorded by ApoUodorus, compare the 
list given by Hyginus, Fab, 170. 


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I<rTD09 Se ^IfriroSdfjLeiav, XaXfC(i>8(ov 'PoBiav, 
^Aytfvwp KXeoTrdrpav, Xairo^ ^Aa-repiav, Ato- 
Kopvari)^ ^lirirohafielavy^ "A'kKr)^'^ T\avKrjv, 'AX- 
KfirjvcDp 'iTTTTOfiiSovaav, 'Iinrodoo^ Topyqv, Ei- 
XVV(op *I<l>ifjL€Bov(rav, 'IttttoXuto? 'PoSrjv, ovroi 
pkv oi SeKa i^ *Apaj3ia<; yvvaiK6<;, ai ik irapOevoi 
i^ dfiaSpvaBoyv vvfiif>&v, ai fiev *ATXavT€irj^, ai 
hi i/e ^oi^rj^. * AyairToKefjLO^: Se ekaye Ileipijvrjp, 
Kepfcirrj^ Be Acopiov, lStvpv8dfui<; ^apriv,^ AIyt,o<i 
Mvija-Tpav, ''Apyio^ Eviinrrjv, 'A/>;^^\ao9 ^Ava- 
^i^lr)v, Mevifiax^^ NryXci, oi <pkv> kind ix 
<Poivia'<rq<; yvvatKo^, ai Se irapdevoi Ai6ioiriio<;. 
aKXrjptarl 8e eXa^ov Sc ofuovvfiiav rd^i Mip^iBo^ 
oi i/e Tvpia<;, K\€*to9 KXeirijp, %0€V€Xo<i XOeve- 
Xyjv, Upvaiinro^ Xpya-iirTrrfv, oi Se ix KaTudBvrf^ 
vr)iBo^ vvfjL<f)r)^ iralSe^ BtoBexa iKXriptoaavTO irepl 
T&v i/e UoXv^ov^ vrjiBo^ vvfjul>rj^' rfaav Be oi fiev 
iravBe^ ^vpvXo')(p<i ^dvTrj^ HepiaOevr)^ ''Epfio^ 
Apva*; IloTafiayv Kia-a-eif^ Ai^o<; "Ifju^po^ Bpofdo<; 
IloXvKTo>p Xdovio^, ai Be Kopai AvTOVorj Seavw 
^HXexTpa KXeoTrdrpa ^vpvBiKrf VXavKlinrrj 'Ai/- 
07]X€ia KXeoBoopff Ftviinn] 'E/jarct) Xrvyvrj 3pvKr), 
oi Be <eK> Topy6vo<; AlyvTrrtp yevofievoi eKXrjpd' 
aavTO irepX t&v ex Iliepia^, xal Xayxdve^ Ilepi- 
<^a9 fJLev ^Afcrairjv, Olveif<; Bk IloBdpKrjv, A^/uttto? 

^ 'Iinro8(£juetav. This name has already occurred two 
lines higher up ; hence Heyne conjectured KXeo8ci/uctai' or 
^iXo^dfietaPy comparing Pausanias, iv. 30. 2 (where the 
better reading seems to be *v\oBdfitta), Wagner conjec- 
tured *linroe6riVy comparing Hyginus, Fah. 170. 

» "AA/njj R : HKkis A. 

• ^dprtv R : (pdfniiv A ; ^aivapirriv Hercher. Heyne con- 
jectured ^<ifn)v. 


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by Elephantis. And Istrus got Hippodamia ; Chal- 
codon got Rhodia; Agenor got Cleopatra; Chaetus 
got Asteria ; Diocorystes got Hippodamia ; Alces 
got Glauce; Alcmenor got Hippomedusa ; Hippo- 
thous got Gorge ; Euchenor got Iphimedusa ; Hip- 
pol3rtus got Rhode. These ten sons were begotten 
on an Arabian woman ; but the maidens were 
begotten on Hamadryad njmaphs, some being 
daughters of Atlantia, and others of Phoebe. 
Agaptolemus got Pirene; Cercetes got Dorium; 
Eurydamas got Phartis ; Aegius got Mnestra ; 
Argius got Evippe ; Archelaus got Anaxibia ; 
Menemachus got Nelo. These seven sons were be- 
gotten on a Phoenician woman, and the maidens on 
an Ethiopian woman. The sons of Egyptus by Tyria 
got as their wives, without drawing lots, the daugh- 
ters of Danaus by Memphis in virtue of the similarity 
of their names ; thus Clitus got Clite ; Sthenelus got 
Sthenele; Chrysippus got Chrysippe. The twelve 
sons of Egyptus by the Naiad n3maph Caliadne cast 
lots for the daughters of Danaus by the Naiad nymph 
Polyxo : the sons were Eurylochus, Phantes, Peri- 
sthenes, Hermus, Dryas, Potamon, Cisseus, Lixus, 
Imbrus, Bromius, Polyctor, Chthonius ; and the dam- 
sels were Autonoe, Theano, Electra, Cleopatra, Eury- 
dice, Glaucippe, Anthelia, Cleodore, Evippe, Erato, 
Stygne, Bryce. The sons of Egyptus by Gorgo, 
cast lots for the daughters of Danaus by Pieria, and 
Periphas got Actaea, Oeneus got Podarce, Egyptus 


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AKo^imTTjv, MevaXjct)^ ^ASlttji/, Adfimo^ ^HfcvTrd- 
rrjVf^lBfjLCDV HvXdpyrjp. oifTOi^ Si elai pedoraTor 
"ISa^ ^IirTToSifCTjv, Aat(f>pa)P *A8idpTrjp (avTai Be 
ifc fir)Tp6<; iy€POPTo"Ep<Tr}<i), IlapBicop KaWiBUrjv, 
*'Ap^rfKo^ OcfiY)p, 'Tirip/Sio^ KeXaiPcOy 'Itttto- 
KOpvarrjf; 'TTrepiTnrrjv ovtoc i^ ' H<^ aicrr 11/179, al 
Be e/c Kpipov^. 

'fl9 Bk iK\7)pd)aapT0^ tou9 ydfiov^, eaTcdaa^ 
iyYecpuBia BlBoxti tul^ OvyaTpdaip, al Be KoifMco- 
fiepov^ Tot'9 PV/jifl>Lov^ uTrefCTeipap irXrjp 'Tirepfip'^' 
crpa^' avTrj yap Avy fcea Bteamae irapOepop av- 
Tr)p (f>v\d^apTa* Bco icadeip^a<; avrtfp Aapab^ 
€<l>povp€i, al Bk aWai tcop Aapaov dvyarepfov 
ra^ fjL€P K€<l>a\a^ t&p PvpL<f>i(OP ep Tt) Aepprj Kara)- 
pv^ap, ra Be ccofiaTa irpo Trj<; 7roX€ft)9 €Ki]Bev<rdp. 
Kal avra^ eKdOrjpap ^Adrjpd re icaX 'Epfjirj^ Ai6<; 
KekevaaPTo^, Aapao^ Be varepov 'TirepfjiprjaTpap 
Avy tcei avpwKcae, Ta9 Be Xo47ra9 dvyarepa^; eh 
yvfjLPLKOP dy&pa toi<; piK&aiP eBfaxep, 

^ Afivfiiopr} Be etc HoaeiBcopo^ iyipirrja-e Nav- 
wXiop. 0UT09 fJLaKp6^co<; yep6/M€P0<;, irXeoDP ttjp 
ddXaaaap, toI<; ifiTrLirTovaiP iirl dapdrw iirvpao' 

* otfToi Heyne (conjecture), Westermann : ot he yttararoi 
(omitting ei<ri) Hercber : o/ct«(> MSS., Aegius, Conimelinus, 
Gale, Heyne (in text), Bekker : ^oKrio Wagner. 

2 iKKrtpdoffavro EA : itcXriptiaaro Wagner, comparing Zeno- 
bius, Gent. ii. 6, where, however, we should rather read 
iKXrip<i>ffavro instead of 4K\7}pw<raro ; for the middle voice of 
KXripovy cannot be used in the sense of "allotting." 

^ Compare Pindar, JVem. i. 6 (10), with the Scholiast; 
Pausanias, ii. 19. 6, ii. 20. 7, ii. 21. 1 and 2 ; Horace, Odes, 
iii. 11. 30^99.; Ovid, Heroidea, xiv. 

^ Compare Zenobius, Cent, iv. 86. According to Pausanias 


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got Dioxippe, Menalces got Adite, Lampus got Ocy- 
pete, Idmon got Pylarge. The youngest sons of 
Egyptus were these : Idas got Hippodice ; Daiphron 
got Adiante (the mother who bore these damsels was 
Herse) ; Pandion got Callidice ; Arbclus got Oeme ; 
Hyperbius got Celaeno; Hippoeorystes got Hyper- 
ippe ; the mother of these men was Hephaestine, and 
the mother of these damsels was Crino. 

When they had got their brides by lot, Danaus 
made a feast and gave his daughters daggers ; and 
they slew their bridegrooms as they slept, all but 
Hypermnestra ; for she saved Lynceus because he 
had respected her virginity : ^ wherefore Danaus 
shut her up and kept her under ward. But the rest 
of the daughters of Danaus buried the heads of their 
bridegrooms in Lerna 2 and paid funeral honours to 
their bodies in front of the city ; and Athena and 
Hermes purified them at the command of Zeus. 
Danaus afterwards united Hypermnestra to Lynceus ; 
and bestowed his other daughters on the victors in 
an athletic contest.^ 

' Amjmaone had a son Nauplius by Poseidon.^ This 
Nauplius lived to a great age, and sailing the sea he 
used by beacon lights to lure to death such as he fell 

(ii. 24. 2) the heads of the sons of Egyptus were buried on 
the Larisa, the acropolis of Argos, and the headless trunks 
were buried at Lerna. 

* Compare Pindar, Pyth, ix. 112 (195), with the Scholiasts ; 
Pausanias, iii. 12. 2. The legend may reflect an old custom 
of racing for a bride. See The Magic Art and the Evolution 
of Kings, ii. 299 sqq. It is said that Danaus instituted 
games which were celebrated every fifth (or, as we should say, 
every fourth) year, and at which the prize of the victor in 
the foot-race was a shield. See Hyginus, Fab, 170. 

* Compare Strabo, viii. 6. 2, p. 368 ; Pausanias, ii. 38. 2, 
iv. 36. 2. 


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<f>6p€i} avvijSf} oiv koX avrov reXevTrjaai ixeivq} 
T& 0avdT<p.^ irplv Se TekevTrja-ai eyrffie ^ (09 fi€v 
01 rpa/yiKoi \iyovai, KXvfiAvrjv Tr}v KaTpio)^, <&? 
Si 6 T0V9 voarov^ yp/dylra^, ^iXvpav, (»9 §€ 
KipK(oyjr,^ 'll<n6vr)v, Kot iyivvrjae HaXafirjh'qv 
Otaxa NavaifiiSovTa, 

II. Ai;7/c€U9 Bk fierh Aavabv "Apyov^: hvva- 
arevoov i^ 'Tirepfiv^o-Tpa^ rexvol TraiBa "A^avra. 
TOVTov 8k fcal *Ay\ata<; ^ rij^ M.avTiV€(i)<; SiSv/wi 
TTolSe^ iyhfovro *AKpia'io<; fcal UpotTO^, ovtol 
KoX Karii yaarpb^ fiev en ovt€<; ia-Taaia^ov irpb^; 
aW'i]Kov<i, 0)9 Bk averpd^fyriaav, irepl t% ^aaiXeLa^ 
iiroXejiovv, xaX iroXefiovvTe^; evpov d<T7rlBa<; *irp&' 
Toi, Kol Kparijaa^ ^AKpiaio^ JIpoiTov ^AprfOv<i 
i^€\avv€i, 6 S' ^Kev eh Avkluv wpo9 ^lo/Sdrrfv, 
(»9 Be Tive^ ihaai, irpo^ ^Afi<f>cdvaKTa' fcal yafieX 
TTfv TOVTOV uvyaTepa, w fiev "Op>7}po^, "AvTciav, 
©9 Bk oi TpayiKoi, XOeifejSoiav, fcuTd^ei Be 
avTov 6 tcqceaTtj^ fieTcL cTpaTov AvKicov, fcal 

^ iirvp<ro<p6pu J. Kuhn, on Pansanias, ii. 25. 4 : 4Bv(r<b6p€i 

2 iK€tv<^ ry Bavi,rtp. After these words the MSS. add 
$ir€p rwv IkWtav T€\€vrriff<iprt»v 4liv<r<f>6p€tf which appears to 
be a corrupt and ungrammatical gloss on 4k€Iv<p r^ Oavdr^, 
The clause is retained by Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, 
Bekker, and Wagner, but is rightly omitted by Hercher. 
J. Kuhn (I.e.) proposed to retain the clause, but to alter 
4Zv<rip6p^i as before into iTvp<roip6p€i ; but this would not 
suffice to restore the grammar and sense. For such a 
restoration a sentence like firtp HWovs reXevr^o'at iirolti 
irvpffopopwp would be required. 

* irp\v 8^ rtXtmrjaai tyrj/jLt A: irplv rtXevTijaai. ^ytifit 8i 
Wagner (connecting irplv r€\9vrri<rat with the preceding sen- 
tence). ** K4pK(i>\\f Aegius : k4kpo\P A. 

• *Ay\aias Heyne, comparing Scholiast on Euripides, 
Ore8te8,9Q5: i^yaWlasA: 'a/caXelas Aegius, Commelinus, Gale. 

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THE LIBRARY, 11. i. 5-^1. i 

in with.^ It came to pass, therefore, that he himself 
died by that very death. But before his death he 
married a wife; according to the tragic poets, she 
was Cljmaene, daughter of Catreus ; but according to 
the author of The Returns,^ she was Philyra ; and ac- 
cording to Cercops she was Hesione. By her he had 
Palamedes, Oeax, and Nausimedon. 

II. Lynceus reigned over Argos after Danaus and 
begat a son Abas by H3rpermnestra ; and Abas had 
twin sons Acrisius and Proetus ^ by Aglaia, daughter 
of Mantineus. These two quarrelled with each other 
while they were still in the womb, and when they 
were grown up they waged war for the kingdom,* and 
in the course of the war they were the first to invent 
shields. And Acrisius gained the mastery and drove 
Proetus from Argos ; and Proetus went to Lycia to 
the court of lobates or, as some say, of Amphianax, 
and married his daughter, whom Homer calls Antia,^ 
but the tragic poets call her Stheneboea.^ His 
father-in-law restored him to his own land with an 

* See below, Epitome, vi. 7-11. 

2 Nostoif an epic poem describing the return of the Homeric 
heroes from Troy. See Epicorum Oraecorum Fragmenta, 
ed. G. Kinkel, pp. 52 sqq,; Hesiod, in this series, pp. 524 aqq,; 
D. B. Monro, in his edition of Homer, Odyssey, Bks. xiii.- 
xxiv^^P- 378-382. 

• With this and what follows compare Pausanias ii. 16. 2, 
ii. 25. 7. 

* So the twins Esau and Jacob quarrelled both in the 
womb and in after life (Genesis, xxv. 21 sqq.). Compare 
Rendel Harris, Boanerges, pp. 279 sq., who argues that 
Proetus was the elder twin, who, as in the case of Esau and 
Jacob, was worsted by his younger brother. 

« Homer, IL vi. 160. 

• See below, ii. 3. 1, iii. 9. 1. Euripides called her 
Stheneboea (Eustathius, on Homer, II, vi. 158, p 632). 


VOL. I. L 

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KaraXafjL^avei Tipvvda, ravTtjv avr^ KvKKmrcop 
T€iXf'<^ovTo>p. fiepiadfievoi Sk ttjv ^Afyyeiav 
airaaav fcarcofcovv, xal ^Axpiaio^ fihf ''Afyyov^ 
I jSaaiXevei, Tlpolro^ Se Tipvvdo^, koX yiperai 
^Axpiaiip fjbkv i^ ^vpvBiKrjf; Trj<; AaKcSaifiovo^ 
Aavdrj, Upoirtp Se ix Xdeve^oia^ Ava-LTnrrj xal 
*I(f>iv6rj KoX *I(f>idvaaaa. avrai Be ct)9 ereXciO)- 
0r)<rav, ejj^dvrjaap, ct)9 /lwi/ 'H<rtoSo9 (f>r](rip, oti ra^ 
Aiopvcov reXerct^ ov KareSixopro, ©9 8k ^A/cov- 
aiXao^ \iy€i, Siotl to t^9 "H/>a9 ^oopop i^vri- 
Xvaap. yepop^pac he ip,pxipel^ iirXap&PTO dpct 
TTjp ^Apyeiap airaaap, ai0i<; Se ttjp ^ApxaSiap 
xal Ttjp HeXoTTOPprfcop^ BceXOovaai p^er aKoa- 

^ Koi r)iv nthorSvvrjffoy omitted by Hercher and Wagner. 
We should perhaps read koX r^v <AoiiH)i'> nt\ow6yvri<rop. 

^ Compare Bacchylides, Epinic. x. 77 sq, ; Pausanias^ ii. 
25. 8 ; Strabo, viii. 6. 8, p. 371. 

' Compare Bacchyiides, Epinic. x. 40-112 ; Herodotus, ix. 
34 ; Strabo, viii. 3 19, p. 346 ; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 68 ; Pau- 
sanias, ii. 7. 8, ii. 18. 4, v. 5. 10, viii. 18. 7 sq. ; Scholiast on 
Pindar, Nem. ix. 13 (30) ; Clement of Alexandria, Strom, vii. 
4. 26, p. 844, ed. Potter ; Stephanus Byzantius, s.v, *A(avla ; 
Virgil, Eel, vi. 48 sqq.; Ovid, Metamorph. xv. 326 sqq.; 
Pliny, Nat, Hist, xxv. 47 ; Servius, on Virgil, Eel, vi. 48 ; 
Lactantius Placidus, on Statius, Theb, in. 453; Vitruvius, 
viii. 3. 21. Of these writers, Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus, 
and, in one passage (ii. 18. 4), Pausanias, speak of the mad- 
ness of the Argive women in general, without mentioning 
the daughters of Proetus in particular. And, according to 
Diodorus Siculus, with whom Pausanias in the same passage 
(ii. 18. 4) agrees, the king of Argos at the time of the affair 
was not Proetus but Anaxagoras, son of Megapenthes. As 
to Megapenthes, see ApoU^orus, ii. 4. 4. According to 
Virgil the damsels imagined that they were turned into 
cows ; and Servius and Lactantius Placidus inform us that 
this notion was infused into their minds by Hera (Juno) 
to punish them for the airs of superiority which they 


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THE LIBRARY, II. ii. 1-2 

anny of Ljcians, and he occupied Tiryns, which the 
Cyclopes had fortified for him.^ They divided the 
whole of the Argive territory between them and 
settled in it, Acrisius reigning over Argos and 
Proetus over Tiryns. And Acrisius had a daughter 
Danae by Eurydice, daughter of Lacedaemon, and 
Proetus had daughters, Lysippe, Iphinoe, and Iphi- 
anassa, by Stheneboea. When these damsels were 
grown up, they went mad,^ according to Hesiod, 
because they would not accept the rites of Dionysus, 
but according to Acusilaus, because they disparaged 
the wooden image of Hera. In their madness they 
roamed over the whole Argive land, and afterwards, 
passing through Arcadia and the Peloponnese, 

assumed towards her ; indeed, in one place Lactantius 
Placidus says that the angry goddess turned them into 
heifers outright. In these legends Mr. A. B. Cook sees 
reminiscences of priestesses who assumed the attributes and 
assimilated themselves to the likeness of the cow-goddess 
Hera. See his Zet^, i. 451 sqq. But it is possible that the 
tradition describes, with mythical accessories, a real form of 
madness by which the Argive women, or some portion of them, 
were temporarily affected. We may compare a somewhat 
similar form of temporary insanity to which the women of the 
wild Jakun tribe in the Malay Peninsula are said to be liable. 
** A curious complaint was made to the Penghulu of Piang-gu, 
in my presence, by a Jakun man from the Anak Endau. He 
stated that all the women of his settlement were frequently 
seized by a kind of madness — presumably some form of 
hysteria— and that they ran off singing into the jungle, each 
woman by herself, and stopped there for several ^ys and 
nights, finally returning almost naked, or with their clothes 
all torn to shreds. He said that the first outbreak of this 
kind occurred a few years ago, and that they were still 
frequent, one usually taking place every two or three months. 
They were started by one of the women, whereupon all the 
others followed suit." See Ivor H. N. Evans, "Further 
Notes on the Aboriginal Tribes of Pahang," Journal of the 
Federated Malay States Mtiaeums, vol. ix. part 1, January 
ld20, p. 27 (Calcutta, 1920). 

L 2 

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/ua9 a7ra<n;9 Sict tt)? iprj/ua^ irpoxct^ov. Me- 
XdfjLirov^ Sk 6 ^Afivddovo^ /cal lEil8o/JL€vr)<; t^9 
*'Ay8ai/T09, fidvTi^; a>p xal rrjv Slit <l>apfidfca)v fcal 
KaOap/ii&v depaireiav Trpwro? evprj/cax;, vTriaxvcirai 
Oepaireveiv ra^ irapOevov^, el Xd^ou to TpLrov 
fiipo^ tt}? Swaareia^, ovk iiriTpiirovTo^ Se 
TlpOLTOv 0€pairev€Lv iirl fiicdol^; rrjXiKOVTOi^, ert 
IxaXKov ifJLaivovro at irapdevoi Koi Trpoaeri fiCTct 
TovTcov al XoiTTol yvvaiKe^' koX yitp avrai rh^; 
olxCa^; airokiTTOvaai tov<: lBiov<; drrcoXXvop iralBa^; 
Koi eh TTfv iprjfiiav i(f>oiT(ov. Trpo^aivovarf^; Se 
iirl rrXetaTov t?}9 avfi(f>opd<;, Tot'9 aWrjOhfra^ 
fjLVcrdoif^ 6 npotT09 iSiBov, 6 Be vrrea'xeTO depa- 
weveiv orav h'epov toctovtov t^9 yrp; 6 aSeX^o? 
avTOv Xd/Sy ^ia^, Upolro^ Be evXa^r)0€l<i fjurf 
l3paBvvovai]^ t^9 depaireiw; alTtfOeirj koI irXeiov, 
depaireveiv avvex'^p^<^ev eirl tovtoi^. MeXdfi- 
7rou9 Se 7rapaXa^a>v tov<; Bwarcordrov^ t&v 
veavL&v fier dXaXayfiov xai rtvo^ evdeov 'xppeia^ 
eK T<ov op&p avTa<; eh Xifcv&va crvveBico^e. kutu 
Be TOP Bicoyfibv 17 TTpea^vrdrrf t&v dvyarepaov 
*I^i,v6rj /leTijXXa^ev Ta?9 Be XoLirah rvyovaat^ 
Kadapfi&v <T(o(f>povriaat avve/Brj, koX ravra^; fxev 
e^eBoTO 11/006X09 MeXa/iTroS* koX Biavri, iralBa 
B* varepov eyivvrjae MeyairevOrjv. 

III. BeXX€po(f)6vTrf^ Be 6 FXavKOv tov Xia'V(f)ov, 
KTeiva^ dfcovaioD^; dSeX^oi/ Ar)XidBi]v,^ C09 Se Tivi<; 
(f>a<Ti Tieiprfva,^ aKXoi Be ^KXKifiivqv, 7rpo<i TlpOL- 

^ Ari\idhriv J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, vii. 812 : l\idBriy A. 
^ Ueiprjva J. Tzetzes, ChiliadeSf vii. 812 : Utipriv A, Zeno- 
bius, Cent. ii. 87. 


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THE LIBRARY, II. ii. 2-111. i 

they ran through the desert in the most disorderly 
fashion. But Melampus, son of Amythaon by Ido- 
mene, daughter of Abas, being a seer and the first to 
devise the cure by means of drugs and purifications, 
promised to cure the maidens if he should receive the 
third part of the sovereignty. When Proctus 
refused to pay so high a fee for the cure, the 
maidens raved more than ever, and besides that, the 
other women raved with them ; for they also aban- 
doned their houses, destroyed their own children, 
and flocked to the desert. Not until the evil had 
reached a very high pitch did Proetus consent to 
pay the stipulated fee, and Melampus promised to 
effect a cure whenever his brother Bias should re- 
ceive just so much land as himself. Fearing that, if 
the cure were delayed, yet more would be demanded 
of him, Proetus agreed to let the physician proceed 
on these terms. So Melampus, taking with him the 
most stalwart of the young men, chased the women 
in a bevy from the mountains to Sicyon with shouts 
and a sort of frenzied dance. In the pursuit Iphinoe, 
the eldest of the daughters, expired ; but the others 
were lucky enough to be purified and so to re- 
cover their wits.^ Proetus gave them in marriage to 
Melampus and Bias, and afterwards begat a son, 

III. Bellerophon, son of Glaucus, son of Sisyphus, 
having accidentally killed his brother Deliades or, as 
some say, Piren, or, as others will have it, Alcimenes, 

^ According to Baccbylides {Epinic. x. 95 sqq.), the father 
of the damsels vowed to sacrifice twenty red oxen to the Sun, 
if his daughters were healed : the vow was heard, and on the 
intercession of Artemis the angry Hera consented to allow 
the cure. 


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Tov ik0a>v /eaffaiperai. /eat avrov XOevi^oia 
€p(aTa Lax€i, fcal irpoairefiirei ^ Xo^ov^ irepX avv- 
ovaia<;, tov Sk airapvovfievov, Xiyei 7rpo9 
UpOLTOv OTt BcWe/ooi^oi/Tiy? aifTTJ irepl <f>0opd<; 
irpoaeirefiylraTO X070U9. Upoiro^ Se Tnarevaa^ 
eioDKev imaToXa*; avr^ irpof; ^lo^drrjv KOfiLaac,^ 
iv al? iveyeyparrro ^eXKepo<f>6vT7)v airoKTelvai, 
*Io^aTi79 Se avayvoif^^ iirera^ev avT^ ^ifiaipav 
KTelvai, vofd^ODV avrov viro tov drfpiov hia^dapri' 
aeaOar fjv yhp ov fiovov ivl aXXa woXXol^ ov/c 
evdXcoTOv, eZ^e Sk irpoTopJqv puhf Xeomo^, ovpav 
hi hpcLKovTo^, TpiTrfv Sk K€ff>aXr}V fiia-rjp aiyo^, 
St fj<i TTvp avUi, Kal rrfv ')((ai>pav' hiet^deipe, kolL 
Tct ^oaKTJfiaTa iXv/naivcTO* fiLa ycLp <pvai(; Tpi&v 
Orjpioov el%€ Bvvafiiv,^ XiycTat Be /cal ttjv Xt- 
fiaipav TavTTjv ^ rpatfiTJvai piv virb ^Ap,icra>Sdpov, 
Kaddirep etprjKC xal "Op^rjpo^, yevvrfffrjvai Se ix 
Tv^ 0)1/09 /cal ' lEtxCBvrjf;, /caOo)^ 'HaioBo^; laTopei, 
2 dvaj3tl3d<ra^ oiv iavTov 6 BcXXe/Jo^oi^Tiy? €7rl tov 

^ irpQ<nrifji.irti Faber : trpotrifiirii A. 

2 KQfilffai Wagner (comparing Zenobius, Cent. ii. 87) : 
KOfilfftiv A, Heyne, Midler: KOfdCeiv Westermann, Bekker, 

' i,vayvohs Hercher, Wagner (comparing Zenobius, Cent. 
ii. 87) : iwiyvobs A. 

* fiia yhp <t^6<ris rpiuv 0rjpio»v eTxc Zitvafiiv. Wagner would 
transpose this sentence so as to make it follow immediately 
the words xoWoh ovk mvAXootov above, omitting the 
following e7xe Sc. The sentence would then run : ^f ykp ov 
lx6vov kvX hWh icoWois ovk fv<i.\(arov fda yhp <f>v<ris rpiav 
Bilpiav eTxe Bivafiip, trporofi^y /*<>' \4ovtos kt\. The change 
improves the sense and is confirmed by Zenobius, Cent. 
ii. 87. 

^ Koi T^v XlfMtpav ra6rnv omitted by Hercher and Wagner, 
following Heyne. 

y Google 

THE LIBRARY, II. iii. 1-2 

came to Proetus and was purified.^ And Stheneboea 
fell in love with him,^ and sent him proposals for a 
meeting; and when he rejected them, she told 
Proetus that Bellerophon had sent her a vicious pro- 
posal. Proetus believed her, and gave him a letter 
to take to lobates, in which it was written that he 
was to kill Bellerophon. Having read the letter, 
lobates ordered him to kill the Chimera, believing 
that he would be destroyed by the beast, for it was 
more than a match for many, let alone one ; it had the 
fore part of a lion, the tail of a dragon, and its third 
head, the middle one, was that of a goat, through 
which it belched fire. And it devastated the country 
and harried the cattle ; for it was a single creature 
with the power of three beasts. It is said, too, that 
this Chimera was bred by Amisodares, as Homer also 
affirms,^ and that it was begotten by Typhon on 
Echidna, as Hesiod relates.* So Bellerophon mounted 

^ Compare Tzetzes, SchoL on Lycophron, 17 ; id, 
ChUiades, vii. 810 aqq.; Scholiast on Homer, 11. vi. 155. 
According to one account, mentioned by these writers, 
Bellerophon received his name (meaning slayer of Bellerus) 
because he had slain a tyrant of Corinth called Bellerus. 

^ In the following story of Bellerophon, our author follows 
Homer, IL vi. 155 sgq. (where the wife of Proetus is called 
Antia instead of Stheneboea). Compare Tzetzes, Schol, 
on I/ycophron, 17 ; id, Ghiliddes, vii 816 aqq. ; Zenobius, 
Cent. ii. 87 (who probably followed ApoUodorus) ; Hj^ginus, 
Fab. 57 ; id. Astronom. ii. 18 ; Scriptores rerum mythicarum 
Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 24, 119 (First Vatican 
Mythographer, 71 and 72 ; Second Vatican Mythographer, 
131). Euripides composed a tragedy on the subject called 
Stheneboea. See Tragicorum uraecorum Fragmenta, ed, 
A. Nauck^ pp. 567 sqq. According to Tzetzes {Schol. on 
I/yoophron, 17), lobates refrained from slaying BelleroDhon 
with his own hand in virtue of an old custom which forbade 
those who had eaten together to kill each other. 

3 Homer, II. xvi. 328 sq. * Hesiod, Theog. 319 aq. 

y Google 


IlTjyacrov,^ hv elx^v ittttov ix McSouoriy? irTqvhv 
yey ewrj/iivov /cat UoaeiS&vo^:, apdei^ eU i^lro^ 
dirb TovTov Karero^evae ttjv Xifiod^pav. fiera 
Se TOP dy&va tovtov iirera^ev avT^ Xo\vfioi<: 
fia')(€a-0rjvai.^ W Sk ireXevrrjae fcal tovtov, 
^Kfia^ocnv iiriTa^ev dyeovCaacrdai ^ avTov. &<; hk 
Kol Tainan dirifCTeive, tov^ yevvaiOTrjTL * Avklcov 
Bia<f>€p€iv hoKOvma^ imXe^a^ iireTa^ev awo- 
KTelvai Xoxv<^CL^Ta^* w Bk koi tovtov^ diriKTetve 
irdvTa^y Oavfuio-a^ ttjv ZvvafXLV avTov 6 ^loffaTtj^ 
Ta T€ ypdfifjuaTa eSei^e koX irap avT& pAvuv 
^fta>o-€* hov^ Se TTfP 0vyaT€pa ^Ckovorjv koX 
OvrjcrKiov Tr)v fiaatXeiav KUTiXiTrev avTw.^ 

IV. *AKpiai(p Sk irepl iraih&v yevececD^ dppivav 
'XpTl(^T'r]pLa^opAv<p 6 ^€09* €<f>ri yeveadai'^ iralha etc 
T7)9 OvyuTpo^, &9 avTov diToicTevei? heicra^ he 
6^ ^A/epiaio^ tovto, viro yrjv ddXafiov fcaTa- 

^ rhv Uiiyaffov Aegius : rks irriyhs A. 

* fiax^trdrivai MSS. : fiax^traffdai Heyne, Miiller, Bekker, 
Hercher. But for the aorist fiaxfffOrjvai see Pausanias, v. 
4. 9, fxax^ffOriyai ; Plutarch, Be aolertia animalium, 15, /Aax«- 
ffdivra ; and on such forms of the aorist in later Greek, see 
Lobeck, Phrynichus, pp. 731 sq, ; W. G. Rutherford, The 
Nev) Phrynichua, pp. 191 sqq. 

* iycovlffaffdai R»,ST, Zenobius, Cent. ii. 87 : &y<ovi(eff6at 
LN, Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, Hercher. 

* y€i'vai6rrirt Bekker, Hercher : T€ yeSrrrri A : r6re ve6riiTi 
Gale, Westermann, Wagner (comparing Zenobius, Gent, 
robs r6r€ ^d/xi^ veSrrjros tiatpipovras). 

* Sods tk riiv 0uyar4pa . . . Kar4\iv€v avr^ A : Bovs 8i air^ 
r^v Bvyarepa . . . KaTeKivtVj Wagner (comparing Zenobius, 
Cent. ii. 87). « 6 UiBios E. 

' yei/4ffeai EA, Zenobius, Cent. i. 41, Scholiast on Homer, 
n. xiv. 319 : yevfiffeffOai Hercher. Perhaps we should read 
yeveffOai tiv. 

* &iroKrev€i E : iiroKrelvii A, Zenobius, Cent. i. 41. 

^ 8^ 6 E, Zenobius, Cent, i. 41, Scholiast on Homer, 7Z. 
xiv. 319 : oiy A. 

d by Google 

THE LIBRARY, II. iii. 2-iv. i 

his winged steed Pegasus^ offspring of Medusa and 
Poseidon, and soaring on high shot down the Chimera 
from the height.^ After that contest lobates ordered 
him to fight the Solymi, and when he had finished 
that task also, he commanded him to combat the 
Amazons. And when he had killed them also^ he 
picked out the reputed bravest of the Ljcians and 
bade them lay an ambush and slay him. But 
when Bellerophon had killed them also to a man, 
lobates, in admiration of his prowess, showed him 
the letter and begged him to stay with him ; more- 
over he gave him his daughter Philonoe,' and dying 
bequeathed to him the kingdom. 

IV. When Acrisius inquired of the oracle how he 
should get male children, the god said that his 
daughter would give birth to a son who would kill 
him.* Fearing that, Acrisius built a brazen chamber 

^ For the combat of Bellerophon with the Chimera, see 
Homer, II, vi. 179 sqq, ; Hesiod, Theog. 319 sqq. ; Pindar, 
Olymp. xiii. 84 (120) sqq, ; Hyginus, Fab. 67. 

2 Anticlia, according to the Scholiast on Pindar, Olymp, 
xiii 59 (82) ; Casandra, according to the Scholiast on Homer, 
II. vi. 155. 

* The following legend of Perseus (ii. 4. 1^) seems to be 
based on that given by Pherecydes in his second book, which 
is cited as his authority by the Scholiast on Apollonius 
Rhodius, Argon, iv. 1091, 1515, whose narrative agrees 
closely with that of ApoUodorus. The narrative of ApoUo- 
dorus is quoted, for the most part verbally, but as usual 
without acknowledgment, by Zenobius, Cent, i. 41, who, 
however, like the Scholiast on Apollonius {U,cc,), passes over 
in silence the episode of Andromeda. Compare Tzetzes, 
Schol. on Lycopnron^ 838 (who may have followed ApoUo- 
dorus) ; Scholiast on Homer, II. xiv. 319. The story of 
Danae, the mother of Perseus, was the theme of plays by 
Sophocles and Euripides. See Tragicorum Qraecorum Frag- 
merUa, ed. A. Nauck', pp. 143 sqq., 168 aqq., 453 sqq,; The 
Fragments of Sophoclefi, ed* A. C. Pearson, vol. i. pp. 38 
sqq., 115 sqq. 


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cTKevaaa^ waKKeov rrjv Aavdrjv i(f>povp€i. Tavrqv 
flip, 0)9 evioi Xir/ovcTLv, €(t>0eip€ IlpolTO^, odev 
axnol^ teal 17 (ttcuti^ iKivqOTj* C09 ik evioi <f>a<n, 
Zcu? /lerafiopScoffel^ eh ypvaov xal Svei rrj^ 
6po(f>rj^ eh Tov? Aai/ai79 eiffpveh koXttov^ (TVv- 
fjXOev, ala'06fi€vo<i Se ^KKpi<no<; vaTepov €? 
avTtj^ yeyevvf) fjL€vov Hepcrea, firf iriaTevaa^ viro 
A409 i<l>0dp6ai, Tffv 0uyaT€pa psTh tov TraiBo^ 
eh \dpvafca /3a\ja>v ippv^ev eh OaXaaa-av. irpoa- 
€vex0€iarr}<; Be rrj^ Xapvaxo^ Xepi^^ Aifcrv^; apa^ 
2 dveTpe<f>e^ tovtov. ^aaiXevcjv oe t^9 ^epi<f>ov 
Jlo\vheKTrj<; dhe\ff>o^ Alktvo^, Aavd7)<i ipaaOeh, 
Koi rjvSpaofjbipov Hepcrico^; fit) Svvdfievo<; avrfj 
(TweKdelv, (rvvetedXeL tou9 (piXov^, fieff^ &p /cal 
Tlepaea, Xeycop epavov avvdyeiv €7rl tou9 'Itttto- 
hafieiw; T7J9 Oivofidov yd/Jbov^. tov Bk Tlepaeo)^ 
elirovTO^ Kol iirl ry xeipaXfj Trj<; Vopyovo^ ovk 
dvrepAv? irapa fiev t&v Xoitt&v 'prrjaev ittttov^;, 
irapa Be tov Hepaeco^; ov Xa^oiv tov<; ittttov^, 
eireTa^e t^9 Vopyovo^ KOfii^eiv ttjv Ke(l>aXr]v. o 
Be 'Epp^ov Kal *A0rfvd<; 7rpOKa0rfyovp,€Pa)v iirl 7^9 
^optcov TrapayipeTaL ^ 0vyaT€pa^, 'Ei^uw fcal 
TlecjyprjBo) * fcal Aeipco' fjaap Be avTat Ktitov^ t€ 
KoX ^opKOv, Topyopcop dBeX(f>ai, ypalai eK yepeTrjf;. 
€pa T€ o<\)0aXp})P ai Tpeh teal epa oBoPTa elxov, 

^ i,v4rpe<p€ A, Zenobius, Cent, i. 41 ; &v40pf\i/( E, Wagner. 
2 iipr€p(7v Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, Hercher : 
avraiptiv A, Zenobius, Gent, ii. 41 (corrected by Gaisford). 

* xapvyiverai Zenobius, Cent. i. 41 : ylvtrai A, 

* U€<t>prjBii> Heyne (compare Hesiod, Theog, 273) : /tie/a- 

ipplfiii A. 

^ Compare Sophocles, Antigone, 944 aqq, Horace repre- 
sents Danaeas shut up in a brazen tower {jOdes, iii. 16. 1 sqq,)^ 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, II. iv. 1-2 

under ground and there guarded Danae.^ However, 
she was seduced, as some say, by Proetus, whence 
arose the quarrel between them ; *^ but some say that 
Zeus had mtercourse with her in the shape of a 
stream of gold which poured through the roof into 
Danae*s lap. When Acrisius afterwards learned 
that she had got a child Perseus, he would not 
believe that she had been seduced by Zeus, and put- 
ting his daughter with the child in a chest, he cast 
it into the sea. The chest was washed ashore on 
Seriphus, and Dictys took up the boy and reared 
him. Polydectes, brother of Dictys, was then king 
of Seriphus and fell in love with Danae, but could 
not get access to her, because Perseus was grown to 
man's estate. So he called together his friends, 
including Perseus, under the pretext of collecting 
contributions towards a wedding-gift for Hippodamia, 
daughter of Oenomaus.^ Now Perseus having de- 
clared that he would not stick even at the Gorgon's 
head, Polydectes required the others to furnish 
horses, and not getting horses from Perseus ordered 
him to bring the Gorgon's head. So under the 
guidance of Hermes and Athena he made his way 
to the daughters of Phorcus, to wit, Enyo, Pephredo, 
and Dino ; for Phorcus had them by Ceto, and they 
were sisters of the Gorgons, and old women from 
their birth.* The three had but one eye and one 

* That is, between Acrisius and Proetus. See above, ii. 2. 1. 
3 That is, he pretended to be a suitor for the hand of 

Hippodamia and to be collecting a present for her, such as 
suitors were wont to offer to their brides. As to Hippodamia 
and her suitors, see Epitome^ ii. 4 sqq, 

* As to the Phorcides, compare Hesiod, Theog. ^0 sqq,; 
Aeachyhiaf Prometheits, 194: sqq,; Eratosthenes, CcUaster. 22; 
Ovid, Metamorph. iv. 774 aqq, ; Hyginus, AsUronom, ii. 12. 
Aeschylus wrote a satyric play on the subject. See Tragico- 
rum Qraecorum FrtiginerUa, ed. A. Nauck*, pp. 83 aq. 


y Google 


Koi ravra wapct fjApo^ fifjuei^ov iWriKai^, &v 
Kvpicvaa^ 6 itepa-ev^, co9 aTT'pTOVv, €<l>r} Sa>(T€LV 
av vifirjyija'covTai ttjv oBov ttjp iwl tcL^ vvfi^a^ 
(f>€pov<Tav, avrai Se al vvpj^ai irrrfva et^ov 
irehCKa xal Tr)V Ki/Sicriv, fjv (f)aaiv elvai Trrjpav 
\Tliviapo^ Bi Kol 'HaioSo^ iv ^Ao-ttlSc iirl tov 


Ildv Sk fjuerdifipevov elx^ </edpa> heivoto irekcopov 
<ropyov<;>, a/ii<pl Si puiv kI^kti^ 0€€. 

etpTfrai Sk iraph to KelaOat ixec ia-Orjra Koi rrjv 
T/oo^^y.]^ el^xpy Bk koX Tr)v <''AiSo9> fcvvrjv.^ 
v<f>rfyr}(TafJiivG)v Be t&v ^opKiBrnv, airoBov^ tov t€ 
oBovra fcal tov 6<f>0aXfiop airrah, kuI irapayevo- 
psvo^ Trpo<; tA9 vvfi<f>a^, fcal rv^o^v &v iaTrovBa^e, 
Tr}v fi€v Ki^KTiv Trepie^aKeTO, Th Be ireBiXa to?9 
(T(f>vool^ 7rpo(ri]pfio(T€, Tfjv Be Kvvrjv ttj K€ff>aXrj 
iireueTO, TavTtjv ex^v avTo^ fiev 0&9 rjOeXev 
epKeirev, viro aXKxov Be ovx ecopaTO, Xafia>v Be 
Kal irapcL 'IStpfiov aBafia vTivT^v aoTrqv, irerofievo^ 
eh TOV ^ilfceavov fjfce koX KaitKapf^^ Topyova^ 
KOLfioDfiiva^. fftrav Be aJnai ^0eva> TSivpvaXTj 
MeBovaa, p^ovr) Be fjv OvrjTtj MeBovcra* Bict tovto 
iirl Tfjv TavT7)<; Ke(f>aXrjv Jlepcreif^ eTrep^Off. elyov 
Bi ai Topyove^ /cecjyaXit^ p,ev Trepiecriretpap^eva^ 
(I>oXl<tc BpaKovTcov, oBovTa^ Bh psyaXov^ C09 (tv&v, 
Kul x^ipa^ x^^'^^^f ^^^ irripvya^ ^^/oucra?, Bi &v 
eireTovTO. tov^ Be iB6vTa<; XiOov^ iiroiovv. €7n<TTa^ 

^ The passage enclosed in square brackets is probably a 
gloss which has crept into the text. 

^ r^v <" Alios > Kvvrjv Wagner (comparing Zenobius, Cent. 
i. 41 ; Tzetzes, ScJiol. on Lycophron, 838) : tV fcvvijv A. 


y Google 


tooth, and these they passed to each other in turn. 
Perseus got possession of the eye and the tooth, and 
when they asked them back, he said he would 
give them up if they would show him the way to 
the njrmphs. Now these nymphs had winged "1 
sandals and the Mbmf, which they say was a wallet. \ 
But Pindar andT Hesiod in The Shield say of ^ 
Perseus : — ^ 

^^ But all his back had on the head of a dread monster. 
The Gorgon, and round him ran the kibisis" 

The kzhtsis is so called because dress and food are de- 
posited in it. 2 They had also the cap of Hades. 
When th^ Phorcides had shown him the way, he 
gave them i)ack the tooth and the eye, and coming 
to the njrmphs got what he wanted. So he slung 
the wallet (kibisii) about him, fitted the sandals to 
his ankles, and put the cap on his head. Wearing it, 
he saw whom he pleased, but was not seen by 
others. And having received also from Hermes an 
adamantine sickle he fiew to the ocean and caught the 
Gorgons asleep. They were Stheno, Euryale, and 
Medusa. Now Medusa alone was mortal; for that 
reason Perseus was sent to fetch her head. But the 
Gorgons had heads twined about with the scales of 
dragons, and great tusks like swine's, and brazen 
hands, and golden wings, by which they flew ; and 
they turned to stone such as beheld them. So Perseus 

1 Hesiod, Shield of HercuUs, 223 sq. 
• The word kI&ktis is absurdly derived by the writer from 
K€io'6ai and iffdiis. The gloss is probably an interpolation. 

y Google 


ovv avraU 6 Tlepaev^ fcoi/juofievai*;, KaTevOvvovtrrj^ 
Tffv yelpa *A07)va<;, airearpafjLfjAvo^ Koi ^cttcov 
€49 cuTiriha %aX/c^i/, iC ^9 ttjv eixova rrfi Top- 
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Hijyaao^ ttttjpo^ iinro^, xal ^pvadayp 6 Tripvovov 
TraTTjp* T0UT0U9 Be iyevprjaev ix IloaecS&vo^. 6 
fikv ovv Hepaeif^ ivOifievo^ eh ttjv Ki^iaiv ttjv 
K€(l>aXrjv T7)9 M€Sov<TY)<i oiriao) iraKiv ixdipei, ai 
hk Fopyove^ ifc tyj^ Koirr)^ dvaaTa<rai^ rovllepaia 
iBicoKov, zeal avviZelv avTov ovfc rjSvvaPTO Biit Ti)P 
Kvvrjv, aTreKpvTTTeTO yhp vrr avTrj<;, 

Ilapay€p6fi€vo<: Se €t9 AlOioiriav, 1^9 i^aalXeve 
K.7]<l)€v^, €vp€ TTjv TovTov dvyaripu ^AvhpopAhav 
TrapaKeifieprjv jSop^v ffaXaaaitp ktjtci, JSJaaci' 
iireia yhp rj K.rf<f>€a)<; yvvi) Nrfpijiarip ffpiae irepl 
KaX\ov<;, Ka\ rrao'&p elvai Kpeiaacop rjv'xrjo'ev' 
o0€P ai N7)pr)iB€<; ifnjpiaap, Koi IloaeiS&p avTah 
avpopyiaOeU irXijfMfjLvpdp re iirl ttjp x^P^^ 
€7r6/i'^6 Kol fC7JTo<i* "AfjifKOPO^; Sk XprjaapTO^ ttjv 
awaWayrjp rrj^ <rvfi<f>opa^, iav rj Kaaaieneia^ 
dvydrqp ^AvSpOfieSa irporeffy t^ Ki^rei l3opd, 
TOVTO dvayKaadeU 6 K?70€t'9 v^o r&v AlOioTratv 
eirpa^e, /cal irpoaeSrjae ttjp dvyarepa irerpa, 
ravTTjv 0eaadfjL€vo<; 6 Ueptreif^: koI ipaaOei^ 

^ hvavraffai A : kvairrMai Wagner, comparing Zenobiiis, 
Gent. i. 41. 

^ Compare Ovid, Metamorph. iv. 782 eg, 

• Compare Hesiod, Theog. 280 sqq.; Ovid, Metamorph. iv . 
784 sqq., vi. 119 aq.; Hyginus, Fab, 161. 

* For the story of Andromeda, see Tzetzes, Schol, on 
Lycophron, 836; Conon, Narrat, 40 (who rationalizes the 


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THE LIBRARY, 11. iv. a-3 

stood over them as they slept, and while Athena 
' guided his hand and he looked with averted gaze on 
a brazen shield, in which he beheld the image of the 
Gorgon,^ he beheaded her. When her head was cut 
off, there sprang from the Gorgon the winged horse 
Pegasus and Chrysaor, the father of Geryon ; these 
she had by Poseidon. 2 So Perseus put the head 
of Medusa in the wallet (kibisis) and went back 
again ; but the Gorgons started up from their slum- 
ber and pursued Perseus : but they could not see 
him on account of the cap, for he was hidden by it. 

Being come to Ethiopia, of which Cepheus was 
king, he found the king's daughter Andromeda set 
out to be the prey of a sea monster.^ For Cassiepea, 
the wife of Cepheus, vied with the Nereids in beauty 
and boasted to be better than them all ; hence the 
Nereids were angry, and Poseidon, sharing their 
wrath, sent a flood and a monster to invade the 
land. But Ammon having predicted deliverance 
from the calamity if Cassiepea's daughter Andromeda 
were exposed as a prey to the monster, Cepheus was 
compelled by the Ethiopians to do it, and he bound 
his daughter to a rock. When Perseus beheld her, 
he loved her and promised Cepheus that he would 

story) ; Eratosthenes, Cataster. 16, 17, and 36 ; Ovid, Meta- 
morph, iv. 665 sqq. ; H^ginus, Fab, 64 ; id. Aatronom, ii. 11 ; 
Scriptorea rerum myihtcarum LcUini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. 
pp. 24 sq. (First Vatican Mythographer, 73). According to 
the first two of these writers, the scene of the tale was laid 
at Jopjpa. The traces of Andromeda's fetters were still 
pointed out on the rocks at Joppa in the time of Josephus 
{BeU. Jud. iii. 9. 2). Sophocles and Euripides composed 
tragedies on the subject, of which some fragments remain. 
See Tragicorum Qraecorum FragmerUa, ed. A. Nauck^ pp. 
157 sqq,, 392 sqq, ; The Fragments 0} Sophocles, ed. A. C. 
Pearson, i. 78 sqq, 


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avaiprjaeiv vir€<T')(€TO ^r}<f>el to Krjro^, ei /liXXet 
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Tr79 %epi(f>ov AIktvv ^aaiXia, airehcDKe tA fjuev 
TreStXa fcal Ti)v Kifiiaiv koX ttiv kvvPjv 'Epfiij, ttjv 
he /c€(j)a\rjv t?}9 Vopyovo^ 'AOrjva. 'Ep/i-979 fiev 
oZv Ta TTpoeiprjfiiva irdTuv aTreSayfce TaU vvfju^ai<;, 
^AOrjva 0€ iv /J^at) t^ aairiSi Trj^ Topyovo^ Tr}v 
fC€<f)a\r)v iviOrjKe,* XiycTav Be vir iviwv oti Bl 
^A6rjvdv rj MeBovaa i/capaTOfiijOrj' <l>aal Be oti 
Kol Trepl KoXKov^ rjdeXrjaev rj Topyo) avTjj o-vy- 

Hepaev^; Bk fieTa Aavdrj<; koI ^ AvBpofieBa^; 
ecirevBev eU "Apyo^:, Xva ^Afcpiaiov dedarjTai. 6 
Be <TovTO jxaOodv Ka\> ^ BeBoiKO)^ tov XPV^/^^* 

1 iYY€yvrifi4vos R : iYyev6fi€Vos A : iyyvi^fjitvos Heyne, 
Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, Hercher. 

* Tpoo-wttptvyviay Tzetzes, SchoL on Lycophron, 838 : irpo- 
irtipevyviav A. ' rh fia<ri\€ia R : rhv $a<n\4a A. 

* iv46riK€ Heyne : iiviBriKt A. 

5 rovro fia0&>y Kah These words, absent in the MSS., are 
restored by Wagner from Zenobius, Cent. i. 41. 

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THE LIBRARY, II. iv. 3-4 

kill the monster, if he would give him the rescued 
damsel to wife. These terms having been sworn 
to, Perseus withstood and slew the monster and 
released Andromeda. However, Phineus, who was 
a brother of Cepheus, and to whom Andromeda 
had been first betrothed, plotted against him; but 
Perseus discovered the plot, and by showing the 
Gorgon turned him and his fellow conspirators at 
once into stone. And having come to Seriphus he 
found that his mother and Dictys had taken refuge 
at the altars on account of the violence of Poly- 
dectes ; so he entered the palace, where Polydectes 
had gathered his friends, and with averted face he 
showed the Gorgon's head ; and all who beheld it 
were turned to stone, each in the attitude which he 
happened to have struck. Having appointed Dictys 
king of Seriphus, he gave back the sandals and the 
wallet (Jnbisis) and the cap to Hermes, but the 
Gorgon's head he gave to Athena. Hermes restored 
the aforesaid things to the nymphs and Athena 
inserted the Gorgon's head in the middle of her 
shield. But it is alleged by some that Medusa was 
beheaded for Athena's sake ; and they say that the 
Gorgon was fain to match herself with the "goddess 
even in beauty. 

Perseus hastened with Danae and Andromeda to 
Argos in order that he might behold Acrisius. 
But he, learning of this and dreading the oracle,^ 

1 That is, the oracle which declared that he would be 
killed by the son of Danae. See above, ii. 4. 1. 


VOL. I. M 

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diroXnrwv *'Apyo^ el^ rrjv WeKaaf^i&Ttv i)(^d)pr)(T€ 
yrjv, TevTa/jiiSov ^ Be rod AapiaacUcov ^ PacrCkiw^ 
iirl KaTOixof^vq) tw irarpl ScUTcOivTO^i ^ yvfivifcov 
ay&va, irapeydvero kol o Hepaeh^ dyayviaraarffai 
6eK(ov, dya>vt^6fi€vo<; Be irevTadXov, top Blckov 
€7rl TOP ^A/cpiaiov iroBa fiaXmy TrapaxpVH^ 
diri/CTeivev avrov. alaOofievo^ Be rov XPV^H'^^ 
T€T e\e COD fievov ^ tov fiev ^AKpiacov If© t^9 ttoXco)? 
edayfrev, alaxyvofievo^ Be eU "Kpyo^ eiraveyjdelv 
efrl TOV Kkrjpov tov Bl airrov T€T€\€VTrf/coTO<;, 
irapayevofievo^ eh Tipvvda^ irpo^ tov TlIooltov 
iralBa MeyaTrevOrjv fjXKd^aTO, tovt^ t€ to "Ap- 
709 €V€X€ipL(T€, KoX MeyaTTevdi]^ pi^v i/SaaCKevaev 
^Apyemv, Tlepaeif^ Be Hipvvdo^, TrpocrTeixiaa^ 
5 WiBeiav ^ KoX Mvx'^va^. iyivovTO Bk e^ ^AvBpo- 
fieBa^ TTolBe^ avT^, irplv fikv iXffelv el^ ttjv 
*E\\dBa Tle/xri;?, hv irapd Kfr^i^el fcaTiXiwev 
(a-TTo TOVTov Be Toif<; Uepar&v /3a<TiX€a<; XeyeTaL 
yeveaOai), ev Mv/crjvai^ Be 'AX«ato9 /cal X0ev€\o<f 
Koi "E\€£09^ Mi]<TT(op Te Kal ^liXe/cTpv€i)v, kol 
ffvydTfjp ropyo(f>6v7), fjv Hepttjprj^ eyrjfiev. 

^ Tcura/iiSov E, Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 838 (com- 
pare Dionysius Halicarnasensis, ArdiquiU Rom. i. 28. 3), 
Hercher, Wagner : rfvrafita A, Westermann : Tevrafitovj 
Heyne, MUller, Bekker. 

- Aapiffaatci>y EA, Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron^ 838, 
Zenobius, Cent. i. 41 ; \apicaiwv R», Bekker, Hercher, 

^ liaridivros E, Zenobius, GeiU. i. 41 : ItartBivTos A. 

* rtT€\€i<i>n4vov R : rtrtKtafiivov A. 

* ripvvda R : ripwdov A. 

* Mlieiav Aegius : fi-fiittav A : MiBtap Heyne. See below, 
ii. 4. 6, p. 170, note. 

' *'E\6ioj Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 838 : tKris R : 
6Aas RaC: tWat B. 


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THE LIBRARY, II. iv. 4-5 

forsook Argos and departed to the Pelasgian land. 
Now Teutamides, king of Larissa^ was holding 
athletic games in honour of his dead father, and 
Perseus came to compete. He engaged in the 
pentathlum, but in throwing the quoit he struck 
Acrisius on the foot and killed him instantly.^ Per- 
ceiving that the oracle was fulfilled, he buried 
Acrisius outside the city ,2 and being ashamed to 
return to Argos to claim the inheritance of him 
who had died by his hand, he went to Megapenthes, 
son of Proetus, at Tiryns and effected an exchange 
with him, surrendering Argos into his hands. ^ So 
Megapenthes reigned over the Argives, and Perseus 
reigned over Tiryns, after fortifying also Midea and 
Mycenae.* And he had sons by Andromeda : before 
he came to Greece he had Perses, whom he lefl 
behind with Cepheus (and from him it is said that 
the kings of Persia are descended) ; and in Mycenae 
he had Alcaeus and Sthenelus and Helens and 
Mestor and Electryon,^ and a daughter Gorgophone, 
whom Perieres married.^ 

^ Compare Pausanias, ii. 16. 2. 

^ According to another account, the grave of Acrisius was 
in the temple of Athena on the acropolis of Larissa. See 
Clement of Alexandria, Protrept, iii. 45, p. 39, ed. Potter. 

^ As to this exchange of kingdoms, compare Pausanias. 
ii. 16. 3. 

* As to the fortification or foundation of Mycenae by Per- 
seus, see Pausanias, ii. 15. 4, ii. 16. 3. 

^ As to the sons of Perseus and Andromeda, compare 
Scholiast on Homer, IL xix. 116; Scholiast on Apollonius 
Rhodius, Argon, i. 747. The former agrees with ApoUodorus 
as to the five sons born to Perseus in Mycenae, except that 
he calls one of them Aelius instead of Heleus ; the latter 
mentions only four sons, Alcaeus, Sthenelus, Mestor, and 

« See below, iii. 10. 3. 

M 2 

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'E/c fjLcv ovv ^AXKaiov xal ^Aarvhafieia^ t^9 
n€\o7ro9, ft)9 he evLoi Xiyovai Aaov6/j.i]<; t^9 
Tovviox:, (w? Bk aXXoi iraXtv 'liTTrovofirj^ rrj^ 
MevoiKiax;, ^AfKf>LTpv(ap iyivcTO Kal duydrrjp 
''Ava^d), ifc Be Mi]<TTopo<; xal AvartBi/crj^ t^9 
IHkoTTO^ 'iTTTTodor), TavTrjv apirdaa^ XloaeLB&v 
KaX Kop.iaa^ iirl tA? 'E;^*i/aSa9 vi]aov<; p^iyvvTai, 
Koi yevva Td<f>tov, 09 ^fciae Td^ov Kal tou9 Xaou9 
Tr)\€/36a<; ifcdXeaev, otl rrfkov rr}^ irarplBo^ e/Si]. 
ifc Ta<f>Lov Be waU HrepeTuiof: eyevero* tovtov 
dddvaiov iiroirjae HoaeiB&v, ev rfj K€<f>a\7J xpv- 
<T7]v epdeU T/)t;^a. HrepeXda) Bk eyevovro iralBe^i 
^pofJiio<i Tvpavvo<; ^Avrioxo^ ^€p(rtBdp,a<; ^ijarwp 

*li\€KTpva)v Be yi]fia<; Tr)v *AXfcaLov dvyarepa 
^ Ava^w, eyevvqae dvyarepa p.ev ^ AXKp^rjvrjv, iral- 
Sa9 Be <ltTpaTol3dTi]v>^ Topyo^ovov ^vKovofiov^ 
KeXaivia *AfKf>ip,axov Avaivofiov ^eipLpwyov 
^ AvdfCTopa ^ApxiXaov, p^era Be TOi/rof 9 fcal vodov 
€K ^pvyia<; yvvaLKo<; M^iBea^ ^ Acfcvpviov, 

^ :^Tparo$drriv added by Aegius from Tzetzes, Schd. on 
Lycophrcm, 932 ; compare Scholiast on Pindar, Olymp. vii. 
28 (49). 

* ^v\6vofiov RR»5, Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 932 : 
tpi\ov6fxov C. 

' MiS^os Pindar, 01. vii. 29 (53), Heyne, Westermann, 
Miiller, Bekker, Hercher, Wagner: Mriielas A, Tzetzes, 
Schol. on Lycophrmi, 932, where Miiller, the editor, reads 
MiSeas in the text ** auctoritate Apollodori" but adds that 
^^ Nostri Godd. conaentiunt in firidclas." 

1 The name Teleboans is derived by the writer from telou 
cbe {rriKov IjSt?), "he went far." The same false etymology 
is accepted by Tzetzes {Schol. on Lycophron, 932). Strabo 


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Alcaeus had a son Amphitryon and a daughter 
Anaxo by Astydamia, daughter of Pelops ; but some 
say he had them by Laonome, daughter of Guneus, 
others that he had them by Hipponome, daughter 
of Menoeceus ; and Mestor had Hippothoe by 
Lysidice, daughter of Pelops. This Hippothoe was 
carried off by Poseidon, who brought her to the 
Echinadian Islands, and there had intercourse with 
her, and begat Taphius, who colonized Taphos 
and called the people Teleboans, because he had 
gone far^ from his native land. And Taphius had a 
son Pterelaus, whom Poseidon made immortal by 
implanting a golden hair in his head.^ And to 
Pterelaus were born sons, to wit, Chromius, Tyrannus, 
Antiochus, Chersidamas, Mestor, and Eueres. 

Electryon married Anaxo, daughter of Alcaeus,^ 
and begat a daughter Alcmena,* and sons, to wit, 
Stratobates, Gorgophonus, Phylonomus, Celaeneus, 
Amphimachus, Lysinomus, Chirimachus, Anactor, 
and Archelaus; and after these he had also a 
bastard son, Licymnius, by a Phrygian woman 

says (x. 2. 20, p. 459) that the Taphiaus were formerly called 
Teleboans. • See below, ii. 4. 7. 

' Thus Electryon married his niece, the daughter of his 
brother Alcaeus (see above, ii. 4. 5). Similarly Butes is said 
to have married the daughter of his brother Erechtheus (iii. 
15. 1), and Phineus is reported to have been betrothed 
to the daughter of his brother Cepheus (ii. 4. 3). Taken 
together, these traditions perhaps point to a custom of 
marriage with a niece, the daughter of a brother. 

* According to another account, the mother of Alcmena 
was a daughter of Pelops (Euripides, Heraclidaey 210 sq.)y her 
name being variously given as Lysidice (Scholiast on Pindar, 
Olymp. vii. 27 (49) ; Plutarch, Theseus, 6) and Eurydice 
(Diodorus Siculus, iv. 9. 1). 

' Compare Scholiast on Pindar, Olymp. vii. 27 (49). 


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'^deviXov Be /cat Ni/ciirTrrjf; rrj^ IleXoTro? 'AX- 
Kvovri ^ KoX McSovaa, varepov Be Kal E,vpv<T0€v^ 
iyivero, 09 xal Mv/crfv&p ifiaaiXevaev, ot€ yap 
'HpaKXrj^ IfieWe yevvaaffat, Zeu? iv deol<; ^^r) 
Tov dnb TlepcecD^ yevptfdrjcro/iepop Tore jSactKeV' 
aecp MvKi]P&p, "Hpa Be Bca^ ^tjXop l&t\ei0vla^^ 
eTreiare top fihp ^AXfCfirjprj^ to/cop iinarxciP^ Evpv- 
<T0€a Be TOP XffepiXou irapeafcevaae yeppijdrjvai 
iwTafirjptaiop oPTa, 

'il\e/cTpvopo<: Bk /SaatXevoPTO^; Mv/ctjp&p, fieTa 
Taibiayp * oi UTepeXdov iralBef; iXOoPTe^ Ttfv 
MrjcTTopo^ apxv^ [tov firjTpo7rdTOpo<;] ^ dfrr^TOVP, 
Koifirj irpoarexoPTO^:^ ^HXefCTpvopof; dirrfKavpop tcl^ 

1 *k\Kv6v7i Wagner (comparing Diodorus Siculus, iv. 12. 7) : 
a\Kvv6ii R : kKKiv6n A. ^ 8i3t E : hih. rhv A. 

' ZlXtiBvias EA, Wagner : E(Ac/9v(ay Heyne, Westermaun, 
MUUer, Bekker, Hercher. 

^ Ta(piav Heyne: Ta<piov MSS., Westermann, Miiller, 
Bekker, Hercher, Wagner. 

• TOW firfrpoiniTopos (compend. ) R : t«> firirpoirdrcDpos R* ; Ty 
firiTpeirdTopi A. As Heyne saw, the words are probably a 
gloss which has crept into the text. Wagner does not 
bracket them. 

^ Tpoa^xovros Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 932: irpoa4- 
Xovrts A. 

^ According to other accounts, her name was Antibia 
(Scholiast on Homer, II, xix. 119) or Archippe (J. Tzetzes, 
Ohiliadea, ii. 172, 192). 

* Compare Homer, U, xix. 95-133, where (v. 119) the 
Ilithyias, the goddesses of childbirth, are also spoken of in 
the plural. According to Ovid {Metamorph, ix. 292 «gg.)> 
the coddess of childbirth (Lucina, the Roman equivalent 
of iTithyia) delayed the birth of Hercules by sitting at 
the door of the room with crossed legs and clasped hands 
until, deceived by a false report that Alcmena had been 
delivered, she relaxed her posture and so allowed the birth 
to take place. Compare rausanias, ix. 11. 3 Antoninus 

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THE LIBRARY, II. iv. 5-6 

Stheuelus had daughters, Alcyone and Medusa, by 
Nicippe,^ daughter of Pelops; and he had after- 
wards a son Eurystheus, who reigned also over 
Mycenae. For when Hercules was about to be born, 
Zeus declared among the gods that the descendant 
of Perseus then about to be born would reign over 
Mycenae, and Hera out of jealousy persuaded the 
Ilithyias to retard Alcmena's delivery ,3 and contrived 
that Eurystheus, son of Sthenelus, should be born a 
seven-month child. ^ 

When Electryon reigned over Mycenae, the sons 
of Pterelaus came with some Taphians and claimed 
the kingdom of Mestor, their maternal grand- 
father,* and as Electryon paid no heed to the claim, 

Liberalis, Transform. 29, according to whom it was the 
Fates and Ilithyia who thus retarded the birth of Hercules. 
AmoDg the Efiks and Ibibios, of Southern Nigeria, ** the 
ancient custom still obtains that locks should be undone 
and knots untied in the house of a woman who is about to 
bear a babe, since all such are thought, by sympathetic magic, 
to retard delivery. A case was related of a jealous wife, 
who, on the advice of a witch doctor versed in the mysteries 
of her sex, hid a selection of padlocks beneath her garments, 
then went and sat down near the sick woman's door and 
surreptitiously turned the key in each. She had previously 
stolen an old waist- cloth from her rival, which she knotted 
so tiebtly over and over that it formed a ball, and, as an 
added precaution, she locked her fingers closely tocether and 
sat with crossed legs, exactly as did Juno Lucina of old when 
determined to prevent the birth of the infant Hercules" 
(D. Amaury Talbot, Woman^s Mysteries of a Primitive 
People, the Ibibios of Southern Nigeria (London, etc. 1915), 
p. 22). See further Taboo and the Perils of the Soul, pp. 294 sqq. 

3 Compare Scholiast on Homer, II. xix. 119 ; J. Tzetzes, 
Chiliadea, ii. 172 sqq., 192 sqq. 

* Taphius, the father of Pterelaus, was a son of Hippothoe, 
who was a daughter of Mestor. See above, ii. 4. 5. Thus 
Mestor was not the maternal grandfather, but the great- 
great-grandfather of the sons of Pterelaus. Who the maternal 


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^6a<;' dfivvofievayv Se t&v 'HXe/fT/oi/oro? iraihtov, 
i/c IT pOK\rja€<»)^ ^ aWrfKov^ aTrifcreivav. itra^rj 
Be T&v *li\€/CTpvopo^ TraiBcov At/cvfivio^ ert 1/609 
vTrdpyayv, t&v Be HTcpeXdov Ei^p^;?, S9 xal Ta<; 
vav<; €(f>v\aa'<Te. t&v Sk Ta(f>ia)v oi Bia^vyovTe^ 
direTrXevaav Ta9 ikaOeiaa^ fioa^ ekovTC'i, fcal 
irapedevTO t^ ^aaiXec t&v ^HXeicav IloXv^evtiy 
^ Afju^iTpvav Be iraph, UoXv^ivov XvTpaxrdfievof; 
avTa^ rjyayev el^ Mvfcijva^.^ 6 Be *liXe/cTpv<0V 
Tov T&v iraiBayv OdvaTOV ^ovXofievo^ ifcBi/crjcrai, 
vapaBoif^ ttjv /SaariXelav ^Afi<f)LTpv(ovi koX ttjv 
OvyaTepa ^AXfCfii]vr)v, i^opfciaa^ Xva fiexpt' Ttj^ 
evavoBov irapdevov avTfjv (fyvXd^rj, aTpUTevecv hrl 
Ti]Xe/36a<; BievoeiTO. diroXafi^dvovTO^ Be avTov 
Ta9 i8oa9, fiid^ €/c6opova'f)^ *AfKf>iTpv(ov iir avTtfv 
d<j>rJK€V o fieTh yelpa<; el^^ poiraXov, to Be dtro' 
Kpovtrdev diro t(»>v KepdTfov eh Tr)v ^HXe/CTpvovo^ 
K€^aXi)v iXffov diriKTeivev avTov, oOev Xa/3oi>v 
TavTTjv TTjv 'irp6(f>a(TCV ^OeveXo^ iravTo^ ''Apyovf; 

^ irpoK\'fia€us Gale : vpofik-fiatas A. 

^ MvKiivas Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophroiiy 932: Mi/k^i^v 

grandfather of the sons of Pterelaus was we do not know, 
since the name of their mother is not recorded. The words 
*' their maternal grandfather" are probably a gloss which has 
crept into the text. See the Critical Note. Apart from the 
difficulty created by these words, it is hard to suppose that 
Electryon was still reigning over Mycenae at the time of this 
expedition of the sons of Pterelaus, since, being a son of 
Perseus, he was a brother of their great-great-grandfather 

^ Compare ApoUonius Rhodius, Argon, i. 747^751, with the 
Scholiast on f . 747 ; Tzetzes, SchoL on Lycophron, 932, 
whose account seems based on that of ApoUodorus. 


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they drove away his kine ; and when the sons of 
Electryon stood on their defence, they challenged 
and slew each other. ^ But of the sons of Electryon 
there survived Licymnius, who was still young; 
and of the sons of Pterelaus there survived Everes, 
who guarded the ships. Those of the Taphians 
who escaped sailed away, taking with them the 
cattle they had lifted, and entrusted them to 
Polyxenus, king of the Eleans ; but Amphitryon 
ransomed them from Polyxenus and brought them 
to Mycenae. Wishing to avenge his sons* death, 
Electryon purposed to make war on the Teleboans, 
but first he committed the kingdom to Amphitryon 
along with his daughter Alcmena, binding him 
by oath to keep her a virgin until his return. ^ 
However, as he was receiving the cows back, one 
of them charged, and Amphitryon threw at her the 
club which he had in his hands. But the club 
rebounded from the cow's horns and striking 
Electryon's head killed him.* Hence Sthenelus 
laid hold of this pretext to banish Amphitryon from 

2 Compare Hesiod, Shield of Hercuhs, 14 sqq., where it is 
said that Amphitryon might nob go in to his wife Alcmena 
until he had avenged the death of her brothers, the sons of 
Electryon, who had been slain in the fi^ht with the Taphians. 
The tiudition points to a custom which enjoined an avenger 
of blood to observe strict chastity until he had taken the life 
of his enemy. 

' A similar account of the death of Electryon is given 
by Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron^ 932, who seems to follow 
ApoUodorus. According to this version of the legend, the 
slaying of Electryon by Amphitryon was purely accidental. 
But according to Hesiod {Shield of Herctdea, 11 aq,, 79 aqq,) 
the two men quarrelled over the cattle, and Amphitryon 
killed Electryon in hot blood. Compare the Scholiast on 
Homer, II. xiv. 323. 


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i^€^a\€V ^Afi(f)tTpvoi>va, fcai rfjv apxv^ tcjv Mvkt]- 
v&v /cal T^9 TtpvvOo^ aiT09 KaTeax^' rrfv he 
MtSetaz/,^ fi€Ta7refiy{rdfi€vo'i tou9 HeXoiro^ iratSa^ 
^ At pea Koi &ve<TTi]v, irapkOero tovtoi^. 

^ApA^npvcdV 8k (Tvv ^AXKfirjvri koX AiKVfivL^ 
Trapayepofievo^ inl %ri^a^ viro KpeovTO^ '^ypiadrj, 
Kot SiSaxTV Tfjp aBe7<xf)rjv TleptfiijBrjv At/cu/xviq), 
Xeyovarjf; Se ^ A\/cfii]vr)^ ya/j/qdrjareaffai avr^^ r&v 
aBeX^&v avTrj^ iKBiKi^aavri top davarop, vTroaxo- 
fiepo^ inl Trj\€^6a<; arparevei *Afi<f>LTpva)p, kcu 
irapeKoXei arvXKa/SecrOai Kpeopra, 6 he i<f>r) 
arpaTevaetp, icLp nporepop eKeiPO^ ttjp Kah/Jieiap ^ 
T^ aX(07re/co<; diraWdl^Tf' €<f>0€tp€ yhp rrjp* KaS- 
fielap aXcoTrrj^ 0r)piov, hiroaTaPTO^ 8k Ofi€o<; 
elfiapfiepop Ijp avrrjp firjSe ripa fcaraXa^eip. 
dSiKovfieprj^ Bk t^9 ;^ft)/>a9, Ipa t&p dar&p iraiBa 
ol @i]l3atot Kara firjpa irpoeTidetrap avTrj, 7roX\ou9 
dpira^ovar),^ tovt el fit] ykpoiro. diraXKayeX^; 

* M(8cta)/ Bekker, Hercher: MiScaf Heyne, Westermann, 
Miiller: fi-hifiav A. Both forms, M(8cia and MiBea, are 
recognized by Strabo (viii. 6. 11, p. 373) and Stephanus 
Byzantius {s.v. M/5«m), but Strabo preferred the form Mliea 
for the city in Argolis, and the form Ml^^ia for the similarly 
named city in Boeotia. In the manuscripts of Pausanias 
the name is reported to occur in the forms Mi^^la, Mi5^a, 
M^Scia, MriUfla, and MrjS^a, of which the forms MiScfa, M^Scia, 
and Miidela appear to be the best attested. See Pausanias, 
ii. 16. 2, ii. 25. 9, vi. 20. 7, viii. 27. 1, with the critical 
commentaries of Schubart and Walz, of Hitzig and Bliimner. 
The editors of Pausanias do not consistently adopt any one 
of these forms. For example, the latest editor (F. Spire) 
adopts the form MiSc/a in one passage (ii. 16. 2), M^Sctain a 
second (ii. 25. 9), Mi^ea in a third (vi. 20. 7), and Mi?l€ia in a 
fourth (viii. 27. 1). 

2 avr^ Wagner, following Eberhard and comparing 
Scholiast on Homer, //. xiv. 323; Hesiod, Shield of Her- 


d by Google ' 

THE LIBRARY, II. iv. 6-7 

the whole of Argos, while he himself seized the 
throne of Mycenae and Tiryns ; and he entrusted 
Midea to Atreus and Thyestes, the sons of Pelops, 
whom he had sent for. 

Amphitryon went with Alcmena and Licynmius to 
Thebes and was purified by Creon^ and gave his 
sister Perimede to liicjrmnius. And as Alcmena 
said she would marry him when he had avenged her 
brothers' deaths Amphitryon engaged to do so, and 
undertook an expedition against the Teleboans, and 
invited Creon to assist him. Creon said he would 
join in the expedition if Amphitryon would first rid 
the Cadmea of the vixen ; for a brute of a vixen was 
ravaging the Cadmea.^ But though Amphitryon 
undertook the task, it was fated that nobody should 
catch her. As the country suffered thereby, the 
Thebans every month exposed a son of one of the 
citizens to the brute, which would have carried 
off many if that were not done. So Amphitryon 

^ That is, for the killing of Electryon. Compare Hesiod, 
Shield of Hercules^ 79 sqq,; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 
932 ; Euripides, Hercules Furena, 16 aq. 

^ The animal had its lair at Teumessus, and hence was 
known as the Teumessian fox. See Pausanias, ix. 19. 1 
Antoninus Liberalis, Transform. 41 ; Apostolius, Cent, xvi 
42; Suidas, «.t;. T<u/ur;<r(a ; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, i. 553 «gg. 
(who refers to Apollodorus as his authority) ; Ovid, Meta- 
tnorph. vii. 762 sqq. By an easy application of the rational- 
istic instrument, which cuts so many mythological knots, the 
late Greek writer Palaephatus (De Incredib, 8) converted the 
ferocious animal into a gentleman («aA.b$ K&7a0bs) named Fox, 
of a truculent disposition and predatory habits, who proved 
a thorn in the flesh to the Thebans, until Cephalus ria them 
of the nuisance by knocking him on the head. 

cuIeSi 14 sqq.: r^ A, Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, 
Hercher. ' r^v Kaifieiav A : rohs KaJ/uefouf Hercher. 

** r^y A : yrjv Hercher. ^ apira^ov(rri Palmer : apira(ovffrt A. 

y Google 


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Afjioveo)^, avpeireidev iirl jxepei t&v cltto T^Xe- 
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YlpoKpi^ fjyayev ix Kp?/T»;9 Trapa MtVwo? Xafiov- 
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Bi(o/C7f, XafjL^dvew. hi(OKop.evri<; ovv viro rov fcvvos 
T^9 a\(i>w€/co^, Zev^ dfi(l>oT€pov<; Xidov^ iTrolrjo'ev, 
^A/ii(f>iTpvci)v Se excav ix fiev &opCKOv rrj^ ^Atthctj^ 
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€K Sk "EX.0 1/9 ^ T^9 'A/37€ta9 "E\€tOV TOP n6/0(r€O)9, 

CK Be &rjl3&v K.p€OVTa, Ta9 t&v Ta(f>La>v vrjaov^ 
eiropOei. avp* A*^'' o3i/ efV; Hrepekao^, ovk iSu- 
varo rrjv Ta^ov iXeiv 0)9 Be 17 IlT€pe\dov dvydrrjp 
Kofiaidoi) ipa<T0€L(Ta 'AfKf>CTpv€i)vo^ Tr}v XP^^W 
Tpix^ ToO 7raT/oo9 iu: t?79 K€<f>aXi]<i e^etXero, 
TlrepeXdov TekevTrjO-avTO^i ix^cpaxraTO Ta9 vrfcov^ 
dwdaa^. ttjv fjuev ovv Kofiai0Q) Kreivet^ ^ Afjufii- 
rpvGyv /cat rrjv \eiav ex^^v €t9 0»/)Sa9 eirXei, koX 
rd^ vri<TOV<; 'EXet^ Koi ^e<^d\(p BiBcoac. /caKelvoi 
TToXei^ avT&v €Trcovv/iiov<; KjicravTe*; KarodKriaav, 

Yipo Tov Be ^Afi^LTpv(ova irapayeveadai eh 
%riPa<; Zei/9, Bid vu/cto^ eXOoov fcal rrjv fiiav 
TpiTrXaaidaa^ vv/cra,^ ofioLo<; ^ Afi(f>cTpv(ovL yevo- 

^ "EKovs Aegius : kXovarit A. ^ KTflvti RR» : Kreivas A. 

^ T^v fitav TpiTXaa-idaas vvKra MSS. and editioDS. The 
Vatican Epitome (E) reads as follows : r))v fiiav v^Kra irtma- 
irXaaidaas fj Kard rivas rpixKaffidtras, ot Koi Sxa rovro rpUffirtpov 
kliovffi \4yta0at, rhv 'UpoKKta : ** having multiplied the single 
night fivefold or threefold, according to some, who on that 
account claim for Hercules the title of Triesperus (He of the 
Three Evenings)." The title of Triesperus is similarly ex- 
plained by Tzetzes, SchoL on Lycophroriy 33. The multi- 
plication of the night fivefold appears to be mentioned by 
no other ancient writer Compare R. Wagner, Epitoma 
Vaticana, p. 98. 


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THE LIBRARY, II. iv. 7-8 

betook him to Cephalus, son of Deioneus, at 
Athens, and persuaded him, in return for a share 
of the Teleboan spoils, to bring to the chase 
the dog which Procris had brought from Crete 
as a gift from Minos ^ ; for that dog was destined 
to catch whatever it pursued. So then, when the 
vixen was chased by the dog, Zeus turned both of 
them into stone. Supported by his allies, to wit, 
Cephalus from Thoricus in Attica, Panopeus from 
Phocis, Heleus, son of Perseus, from Helos in Ar- 
golis, and Creon from Thebes, Amphitryon ravaged 
the islands of the Taphians. Now, so long as Ptere- 
laus lived, he could not take Taphos; but when 
Comaetho, daughter of Pterelaus, falling in love 
with Amphitryon, pulled out the golden hair from 
her father s head, Pterelaus died,^ and Amphitryon 
subjugated all the islands. He slew Comaetho, and 
sailed with the booty to Thebes,^ and gave the 
islands to Heleus and Cephalus ; and they founded 
cities named after themselves and dwelt in them. 

But before Amphitryon reached Thebes, Zeus 
came by night and prolonging the one night threefold 
he assumed the likeness of Amphitryon and bedded 

* As to Procris, see below, iii. 15. I. 

* Compare Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 932. For the 
similar story of Nisus and his daughter Megara, see below, 
iii. 15. 8. 

* In the sanctuary of Ismenian Apollo at Thebes, the 
historian Herodotus saw a tripod bearing an inscription in 
"Cadmean letters," which set forth that the vessel had been 
dedicated by Amphitryon from the spoils of the Teleboans. 
See Herodotus, v. 69. Among the booty was a famous goblet 
which Poseidon had given to his son Teleboes, and which 
Teleboes had given to Pterelaus. See Athenaeus, xi. 99, 
p. 498 c ; Plautus, AmphUryo, 256 sq. For the expedition of 
Amphitryon against the Teleboans or Taphians, see alsoStrabo, 
X. 2. 20 ; Pausanias, i. 37. 6 ; Plautus, Amphitryo, 183-256. 


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avTOP T7)p yvvaiKa, iirvvOdveTO rrjv alriav el- 
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TraiBo^ OPTO^ oKTap^fjpiaiov Bvo Bpaxopra^ virep- 
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TO /3p€(f>o^ dekovaa. ein>Po(op,epri^ Be *AXKfjL'^vr)<; 
^AfjL^iTpvcopa, 'HpaxXi]^ Biapaarhf; ay^top eKare- 
pai<; Tat9 X€/3<rti' avrov^ Bt€<f>0€tpe. ^^pexuBrj^ Bi 
i^TjaiP ^Ap^iTpvciPa, fiovX6p£POP fiaOeiP oirorepo^ 
riP T&p iraLBtop eKetpov, tou9 BpaKOPra^ eh ttjp 
evpffp ifi/3aXelp, fcal rov p,€P *I<l>(,KXiov^ f^vyopro^ 
TOV Be ^HpafcX€OV<; vTroaTaPTO'; p^OeiP w *I<f>i/cXrj^ 
e^ avTov yeyeppfjTai. 
I ^EBiBax^V ^^^ 'Hpa/cXfj^ dpfiaT^XaTeip p,ep 
VTTO *Ap,<f>iTpva)Po<:, iraXaieip Be vtto AvtoXv/cov, 
To^eveip Be vtto FivpvTov, 67rXop4iX€iP Be viro 

^ -KtpX (compend. ) E, Bekker, Hercher : iraph. A. 
2 5^ R : ti\v A. 

* For the deception of Alcmena bv Zeus and the birth of 
Hercules and Iphicles, see Hesiod, Shield of HerctUe3,2^~5&; 
Diodorus Siculus, iv. 9 ; Scholiast on Homer, //. xiv. 323, 
and Od. xi. 266 ; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 33 ; Hy- 
ginus, Fab, 29. The story was the subject of plays by 
bophocles and Euripides which have perished (Tragicorum 
Oraecorum Fragmenta, ed. A. Nauck^, pp. 166, 386 sqq.; 
The Fragments of Sophocles, ed. A. C Pearson, i. 76 sqq.); 
and it is the theme of a ■well-known comedy of Plautus, the 
Amphitryo, which is extant. In that play (Prologue, II2599.), 


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THE LIBRARY, II. iv. 8-9 

with Alcmena ^ and related what had happened con- 
cerning the Teleboans. But when Amphitryon 
arrived and saw that he was not welcomed by his 
wife, he inquired the cause ; and when she told him 
that he had come the night before and slept 
with her, he learned from Tiresias how Zeus had 
enjoyed her. And Alcmena bore two sons, to wit, 
Hercules, whom she had by Zeus and who was the 
elder by one night, and Iphicles, whom she had by 
Amphitryon. When the child was eight months 
old, Hera desired the destruction of the babe and 
sent two huge serpents to the bed. Alcmena called 
Amphitryon to her help, but Hercules arose and 
killed the serpents by strangling them with both his 
hands.2 However, Pherecydes says that it was 
Amphitryon who put the serpents in the bed, be- 
cause he would know which of the two children was 
his, and that when Iphicles fled, and Hercules stood 
his ground, he knew that Iphicles was begotten of 
his body. 

Hercules was taught to drive a chariot by Amphi- 
tryon, to wrestle by Autolycus, to shoot with the 
bow by Eurytus, to fence by Castor, and to play the 

Plautus mentions the lensthening of the night in which 
Jupiter (Zeus) begat Hercules. The Scholiast on Homer {II, 
xiv. 323) says that Zeus persuaded the Sun not to rise for 
three days ; and the threefold night is mentioned also bj^ 
Diodorus Siculus (iv. 9. 2). The whole story was told by 
P.herecydes, as we learn from the Scholiasts on Homer (//. 
xiv. 323 ; Od, xi. 266) ; and it is likely that ApoUodorus here 
follows him, for he refers to Pherecydes a few lines below. 

* As to the infant Hercules and the serpents, compare 
Pindar, Nem, i. 33 (50) sqq. ; Theocritus, xxiv. ; Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 10. 1 ; Pausanias, i. 24. 2 ; Plautus, Amphitryo, 
1123 sqq.; Virgil, Aen. viii. 288 sq.; Hyginus, Fab, 30. 
According to Theocritus (xxiv. 1), Hercules was ten months 
old when he strangled the serpents. 


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Kdaropo<;, Kidaptpielv he viro Aivov. ovro^ he ^v 
aSekifyb^ ^Op(f>ia)<;* a^iKOfievo^ he €t9 ^rj^a^ icai 
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irXtjyei^ airWavev eiriifKri^avTa yap avrov op- 
ycarOeU uTri/CTeive. SUrjv Bh iirayovroDV tiv&v 
avT^ (f)6vov, 7rapap€yp(o pofiov 'VahapApOvo^ 
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Beiaa^ Si * Afi(f)iTpvG>p fit) irdXiP ri Troitjcrrj toiov- 
TOP, errefiylrep avrop eh ra /3ov^6p^ia. KUKel 
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pey/cep, fjp he koI deoypr^OeU <\iapepo^^ on A^o9 
7ra?9 ^P' T€T pa'jrr)Xvaiop fiep yhp el^e to a-A/jua, 
TTVpo^ h* i^ 6fi/jLdTa>p eXapmep atyXrjp, ovk jJctto- 
p^€t he ovre ro^evoyp oure dfcopri^ciyp. 

'Ev hk Toh ^ovKoXioi^ virdp')(o)p oKTcoKaihe- 

Kaerr}^ top KtOatpoopetop dpcTXe Xiopra. OVT09 

yctp 6pfjL(i>fjLepo<; ix rov Ki0aip&po^ 7^9 ^Kfi^i- 

10 rpvcopof; €<f)0€ip€ ^6a<; Kal Tct^ ^eairiov,^ fiatrt- 

* Kardp^ayra E : Hp^ama A. ^ i^rcAi/dii ERR* : iTcActtfij R. 
' ^av€phs R : (pavtp&s E : (pofiephs A. 

* 0€airlov Bekker, Hercher, Wagner : Btariov E A, Heyne, 
Westermann, Miiller. This king's name is variously re- 
ported by the ancients in the forms B4airios and Bfarios. In 
favour of the form &4(rinos, see below, ii. 7. 6; Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 29. 2. In favour of the form etanos, see below, 
ii. 4. 12, ii. 7. 8 (where etfTrlov occurs in the MSS.) ; Pausa- 
nias, iii. 19. 6, ix. 27. 6. When we consider the variation 
of the MSS. on this point, the extreme sUghtness of the 
difference (a single stroke of the pen) between the two forms, 
and the appropriateness of the form 04airios for the name of 
a king of Tnespiae, we may surmise that the true form is 
e^Virios, and that it should everywhere replace 94<rTios in 
our editions of Greek authors. There is at all events no 
doubt that Diodorus Siculus read the name in this form, 
for he speaks of Btffvios as fiaffiXfvwv rrji dfiavvfiov x<ip«j. 


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THE LIBRARY, II. iv. 9-10 

lyre by Linus.^ This Linus was a brother of Orpheus ; 
he came to Thebes and became a Theban, but was 
killed by Hercules with a blow of the lyre; for 
being struck by him, Hercules flew into a rage and 
slew him.2 When he was tried for murder, Hercules 
quoted a law of Rhadamanthys, who laid it down 
that whoever defends himself against a wrongful 
aggressor shall go free, and so he was acquitted. But 
fearing he might do the like again, Amphitryon sent 
him to the cattle farm ; and there he was nurtured 
and outdid all in stature and strength. Even by the 
look of him it was plain that he was a son of Zeus ; 
for his body measured four cubits,^ and he flashed a 
gleam of fire from his eyes ; and he did not miss, 
neither with the bow nor with the javelin. 

While he was with the herds and had reached 
his eighteenth year he slew the lion of Cithaeron, 
for that animal, sallying from Cithaeron, harried 
the kine of Amphitryon and of Thespius.* Now 

* As to the education of Hercules, see Theocritus, xxiv. 104 
sqq., according to whom Hercules learned wrestling not from 
Autolycus but from Harpalycus, son of Hermes. 

2 Compare Diodorus Siculus, iii. 67. 2 ; Pausanias, ix. 29. 9 ; 
J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 213 sq, 

' Four cubits and one foot, according to the exact measure- 
ment of the historian Herodorus. See J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, 
ii. 210 sq.; id. Schol. on Lycophron, 662. 

* According to another account, the lion of Cithaeron was 
killed by Alcathous (Pausanias, i. 41. 3 sq.). But J. Tzetzes 
{Chiliades, ii. 216 sq.) agrees with ApoUodorus, whose 
account of Hercules he seems to follow. 

Heyne, though he admits that he liad not been consistent 
{^*Animo in graviorihu9 occupato nonfui satis constans in hoc 
nomine") deliberately preferred Bfffinos to Stirrios : **Verum 
tamen necesse est Thespii nomtn^ si quidem Thespiadae dictae 
sunt filiae.'* See his critical note on ii. 7. 8 (vol. i. p. 226). 


VOL. I. N 

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Ovyarepa (irevTiJKovTa Bk avr^ ^aav i/e Meya- 
fii]Sf}(; yeyevvfjfiivai ttj^ ^Apveov)" ia-irovSa^e yap 
irdaa^ ef 'Hpa/cXeot;? TeKVOTrocijaaadai. 'Hpa- 
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fiivr)v, avvYjkOe irdaai^. kcu 'X^eipayadp^vo^ rov 
XiovTa Ttfv fjikv Bopav fjp,if>U<TaTOy t^ %a<r/iaTt he 
iXPrjaaro KOpvOi, 

1 1 AvafcdfJLTTTOVTl Bk UVT^ UTTO T^9 dl]pa^ (TVPijV' 

T7)aav KripvK€^ iraph ^Ftpyivov 7r€fjL(f>0ivT€^, Xva 
iraph &i]$aL(i}V top Baafibv Xd/Sayaiv. ereXovv he 
&r)l3aioi Tov Baafiov ^Ftpyiva> 8t' airlav TrjvBe. 
KXvfjievov TOV Mivvcov ^aaiXea XLd(p ^aXiov 
Mepoifce(i)<; rjpioxo^, ovofia HepLrjprj^, ev 'O7- 
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KOfiiadeh €49 ^Opxoficvbv ^fiiOvr}^ iwttTKijTnei 
reXevT&v ^Epyivq) r^ iraiBl eKBiKfja-ai rov Odva- 
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^a9, KTeiva^ ovk oXiyov^ iairelaaTO fie0^ opKtov, 
OTTOi^ TrefjLTTcoaiv avT^ @r)^aioi Baafibv iirl eiKoaiv 
€Tr]y /caTa Ito? e/caTbv ^6a^, iirl tovtov tov 

^ *OyX'n^r^ Aegius : 'Opxv<''rv A. 

^ As to Hercules and the daughters of Thespius, compai*e 
Diodorus Siculus, iv. 29. 2 9q.; Pausanias, ix. 27. 6 eg.; 
Athenaeus, xiii. 4, p. 556 F ; J. Tzetzes, ChUvades, ii. 221 sqq. 
The father of the damsels is called Thestius by Pausanias and 
Athenaeus, who refers to Herodorus as his authority. See 
the Critical Note. 


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THE LIBRARY, II. iv. lo-ii 

this Thespius was king of Thespiae, and Hercules 
went to him when he wished to catch the 
lion. The king entertained him for fifty days, and 
each night, as Hercules went forth to the hunt, 
Thespius bedded one of his daughters with him 
(fifty daughters having been borne to him by Mcga- 
mede, daughter of Ameus) ; for he was anxious that 
all of them should have children by Hercules. 
Thus Hercules, though he thought that his bed- 
fellow was always the same, had intercourse with 
them all.i And having vanquished the lion, he 
dressed himself in the skin and wore the scalp ^ as a 

As he was returning from the hunt, there met 
him heralds sent by Erginus to receive the tribute 
from the Thebans.^ Now the Thebans paid tribute 
to Erginus for the following reason. Cl3ancnus, 
king of the Minyans, was wounded with a cast of a 
stone by a charioteer of Menoeceus, named Perieres, 
in a precinct of Poseidon at Onchestus ; and being 
carried dying to Orchomenus, he with his last breath 
charged his son Erginus to avenge his death. So 
Erginus marched against Thebes, and after slaughter- 
ing not a few of the Thebans he concluded a treaty 
with them, confirmed by oaths, that they should 
send him tribute for twenty years, a hundred kine 
every year. Falling in with the heralds on their 

2 More exactly, " the gaping mouth." In Greek art 
Hercules is commonly represented wearing the lion's skin, 
often with the lion's scalp as a hood on his head. See, for 
example, A. Baumeister, DenhmdUrdes klassischen AUertums, 
i. figs. 724. 726, 729, 730. 

' As to Hercules and Erginus, compare Diodorus Siculus, 
iv. 10. 3-5 ; Pausanias, ix. 37. 2 aq. ; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, 
ii. 226 sqq, 

N 2 

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pa^; Sijaa^ i/c t&v rpayrjXmv, €<f)rf rovrov ^Ftpyivtp 
fcai Mivvai^ hacfiov KOfd^uv, i<f> oh wyavax- 
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fl€P €KT€tP€, t'0V9 Be MlPVU^ €T/>€l/raTO /Cal TOP 

Baafjiop BiirXovp '^pdyxaae QrjlSaiot,^ (l>€p€ip, <rvv' 
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fiaxofJL€POP Tekevrrjaai, \afi0dpei Bk 'Hpa^X^ 
irapd KpioPTO^ dpKnelop ttjp Trpea-lBvTdTrjp duya- 
ripa Meydpap, i^ ^9 avT^ iracBe^ iyepoPTo rpeh, 
Sf)pifUixo^ KpeoPTidBrj^ ikriiKomp. ttjp Be petore- 
pap dvyarepa Kpeayp *I<I>ikK€i^ BiBayaip, fjBrj iracBa 
^loTuioP exopTi ef AvTOfieBovarj^ t^9 'AXjcdffou, 
eyrjfjie Be /cal ^AXKfMijprjp fierd top 'A/A0tT/>i5a)ro9 
ddparop A409 7ral<; ^TaBdfiapOv^, /caroi/cei Be ep 
'fl/f aX€a£9* T^9 Botft)Tta9 ire^evyw, 

^ Zih (rxon'^euv ab inepto Oraeculo apposita suspicor, Heyne. 
The words are at least misplaced, if, ob seems probable, 
iirore/i^v is to be understood as applying to rhs x*^f>«* *s ^^^^ 
as to T^ ^ira koI r^s fiiivas. 

'^ iLyavaicrmv, Heyne proposed to insert ixuvos or *Zpyivo%. 
The sense seems to require one or the other. 

* 'I0tKX€i Wagner : i<piKX(fi A. For the form 'I^ikX^s, see 
i. 8. 2, ii. 4. 8 (thrice), ii. 7. 3 ; and compare R. Wagner, 
Bpitoma VcUicana, pp. 98 sq. 

* *CiKa\€ats A. In Homer {II. ii. 501), Strabo (ix. 2. 26, 
p. 410), and Stephanus Byzantius (a.v, *A/caX^a) the name 
occurs in the singular, *CiKaK4a (*ClKa\tri Homer). 

* Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 10. 6 ; J. Tzetzes, ChiliadeSt 
ii. 228. As to the sons of Hercules by Megara, compare 
below, ii. 7. 8. The ancients differed considerably as to the 


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THE LIBRARY, II. iv. ii 

way to Thebes to demand this tribute, Hercules out- 
raged them ; for he cut off their ears and noses and 
hands, and having fastened them [by ropes] from their 
necks, he told them to carry that tribute to Erginus 
and the Minyans. Indignant at this outrage, Erginus 
marched against Thebes. But Hercules, having re- 
ceived weapons from Athena and taken the com- 
mand, killed Erginus, put the Minyans to flight, and 
compelled them to pay double the tribute to the 
Thebans. And it chanced that in the fight Amphi- 
tryon fell fighting bravely. And Hercules received 
from Creon his eldest daughter Megara as a prize of 
valour,^ and by her he had three sons, TherimachuS; 
Creontiades, and Deicoon. But Creon gave his 
younger daughter to Iphicles, who already had a son 
lolaus by Automedusa, daughter of Alcathus. And 
Rhadamanthys, son of Zeus, married Alcmena after 
the death of Amphitryon, and dwelt as an exile at 
Ocaleae in Boeotia.^ 

number and names of the cliildren whom Hercules had by 
Megara. According to Pindar (Isthm. iv. 63 sq,) there were 
eight of them. Euripides speaks of three {Hercules Furens^ 
995 sq.). See Scholiast on Pindar, Isthm, iv. 61 (104) ; 
Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophroriy 48 and 663 ; Scholiast on 
Homer, Od. xi. 269 (who agrees with ApoUodorus and quotes 
Asclepiades as his authority) ; Hyginus, Fah. 31 and 32. 
The Thebans celebrated an annual festival, with sacrifices 
and games, in honour of the children. See Pindar, Isthm, 
iv. 61 (104) sqq., with the Scholiast. 

2 Compare Tzetzes, Schol, on Lycophron, 50, who says 
that Rhadamanthys fled from Crete because he had murdered 
his own brother. He agrees with Pausanias that the worthy 
couple took up their abode at Ocaleae (or Ocalea) In Boeotia. 
Their tombs were shown near Haliartus, in Boeotia. See 
Plutarch, Lysander, 28. The grave of Alcmena was excavated 
in antiquity, during the Spartan occupation of the Cadmea, 
It was found to contain a small bronze bracelet, two earthen- 


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llpofJLaOwv ^ Be Trap* 'Evpvrov ^ ttjp to^iktjv 
'HpaKXrjs eXalSe irapa 'Epfiov fuv ^Ufx)^, irap 
* KitoKSmvo^ h\ Tofa, irapk Sk 'H<f>aL<rTOV BoapaKa 
'X^pvaovv, irapa Se ^AOrjvdf; irerrXov poiroKov fiev 
yap auT09 erefiev ifc Ncyitea^* 
12 Mera Se rr)v irpo^ M*i/va9 p-dxw o-vvi^t) avTa> 
Karh ^rjKov ''H/oa? fiavrjvai, Kal rov^ t€ lSCov<; 
7ralBa<:, 0O9 €k Mcyapa? elyev, €t9 irvp ifjufiaXelv 
fcal T&v *I(]>iK\eev<;^ Svo' Bio xaraBiKaaa*; eavrov 
(f)Vfyr)V KaOalperai fiev viro Seairiov* Trapayevo- 
fievo^ Be €l<; AeXi^ou? irvvOdveTai tov deov irov 
fcaroifcijaei. 17 Be Ilv0ia Tore irpArov 'Hpa/cXia 
avTOv 7rpoar)y6p€vae' to Be Trpdarjv ^ *A\KeLBr)<; 

^ TrpofiaOwv A, Heyne, Westernianii, Miiller, Bekker, 
Hercher : vpofffiadwy ER, Wagner. 

* 'EupuTov Aegius, Comraelinus, Gale, Heyne, Wester- 
iiiann, Miiller, Bekker, Hercher : aitrov A, Wagner. 

^ l<piKX€ovs E : i<plK\ov A. 

"* 0€<ririou Bekker, Hercher, Wagner : Q^ffriov EA, Heyne, 
Westerraann, Miiller. ' irptariv E : vparov A. 

ware jars, and a bronze tablet inscribed with ancient and 
unknown characters. See Plutarch, De genio Socratis, 5. 

A different story of the marriage of Rhadamanthys and 
Alcmena was told by Pherecydes. According to him, when 
Alcmena died at n good old age, Zeus commanded Hermes to 
steal her body from the coffin in which the sons of Hercules 
wore conveying it to the grave. Hermes executed the com- 
mission, adroitly substituting a stone for the corpse in the 
coffin. Feeling the coffin very heavy, the sons of Hercules 
set it down, and taking off the lid they discovered the fraud. 
Thev took out the stone and set it up in a sacred grove at 
Thebes, where was a shrine of Alcmena. Meantime Hermes 
had carried off the real Alcmena to the Islands of the Blest, 
where she was married to Rhadamanthys. See Antoninus 
Liberal is, Tran/iform. 33. Tliis quaint story is alluded to by 
Pausanias, who tells us (ix. 16. 7) that there was no tomb of 
Alcmena at Thebes, because at her death she had been turned 
to stone. 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, II. iv. 11-12 

Having first learned from Eurytus the art of 
archery,^ Hercules received a sword from Hermes, a 
bow and arrows from Apollo,^ a golden breastplate 
from Hephaestus, and a robe from Athena ; for he 
had himself cut a club at Nemea. 

Now it came to pass that after the battle with the 
Minyans Hercules was driven mad through the 
jealousy of Hera and flung his own children, whom 
he had by Megara, and two children of Iphicles into 
the fire ; ^ wherefore he condemed himself to exile, 
and was purified by Thespius, and repairing to 
Delphi he inquired of the god where he should 
dwell.* The Pythian priestess then first called 
him Hercules, for hitherto he was called Alcides.^ 

^ See above ii. 4. 9. According to another account, Hercu- 
les learned archery from the exile Rhadamanthys (Tzetzes, 
Schol. on LycophroUy 50), and if we accept the MS. reading 
avrov in the present passage (sec Critical Note), this was the 
version of the story here followed by Apollodorus. But it 
seems more likely that o^toO is a scribe's mistake for Ehp^Tov 
than that Apollodorus should have contradicted himself flatly 
in two passages so near each other. The learned Tzetzes (I.e.) 
mentions no less than three different men— Teutarus, Eurytus, 
and Rhadamanthys — to whom the honour of having taught 
Hercules to shoot was variously assigned by tradition. 

* As to the gifts of the gods to Hercules, see Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 13. 3, who, besides the sword and bow given by 
Hermes and Apollo, mentions horses given by Poseidon. 

^ Compare Euripides, Hercules Furenst 967 sqq.; Moschus, 
iv. 13 sqq.; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 11. 1 sq.; Tzetzes, Schol. 
on Lycophron, 38 ; Nicolaus Damascenus, Frag. 20, in Frag- 
menta Historicorum Oraecorum, ed. C. Miiller, iii. 369 ; 
Hyginus, Fab. 32. 

* Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 10. 7. 

' Hercules was called Alcides after his grandfather Alcaeus, 
the father of Amphitryon. See above, ii. 4. 5. But, accord- 
ing to another account, the hero was himself called Alcaeus 
before he received the name of Hercules from Apollo. See 
Sextus EmpiricuB, pp. 398 «g., ed. Im. Bekker ; Scholiast on 
Pindar, OJymp. vi. 68 (116) 


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TTpoarfyopevero, KarotKelv Be avrov elirev iv 
TipvvOi, "Eivpvcdel Xarpevovra errj BcoSexa, teal 
Toif^ intTaaa-ojjJvov^ a6\ov^ Si/ca^ iinTekelv, Ka\ 
ovTo><: €(l)r}, T&v a6\<ov avvTeXeaOivTODV, dOdvarov 
avTOV eaeaOai, 

V. ToOto oLKOvaa^ 6 'HpaxXr}^ ek TipvvOa 7j\j9e, 
KoX TO irpoaraTTOfievov viro Eipvadito^ iriXei, 
TTp&TOV fiev ovv iirera^ev avrtp rov Nc/iiou Xeov- 
T09 T^i' hopav KOfii^eiv tovto Se ^^ov fjv aTpm- 
TOVy ix Tvd>&vo^ yey €Pvr)fi€Vov,^ Trop€u6/jL€vo<; ovv 
iirl TOP XeovTa fjKBev ek KXewm?, xal ^ePL^erai 
irapa apSpl X^P^V'^V MoXo/>^^. koi Oveip iepelop 
OeXoPTi €L<: fipipap ^<f>Tj Tr)pelp TptaxoaTijp, fcal &p 
/i€P diro T^9 Oripa^ <ra)09 iirapiXdji, Atl afOTrjpi 
dvecp, ictp S^ diroOavr), t6t€ m^ rjpeoL ipayi^etp. 

' 5€Ko Bekker, Hercher, Wagner : S<i9€Ka EA. 
-^ yiyivvfj/x^vov ER* : yeycvrj/iivop A. 
^ r6T€ its Aegius : ry r4ws A. 

^ For the labours of Hercules, see Sophocles, J!*rachini{ie, 
1091 aqq. ; Euripides, Hercules Furens, 359 sqq., 1270 sqq. ; 
Diodorus Siculus, iv. 10 ^^'5'.; Pausanias, v. 10. 9, v. 26. 7; 
Quintus Smymaeus, PostTiomerica, vi. 208 sqq. ; J. Tzetzes, 
Chiliadest 229 «gg.; Virgil, Aen. viii. 287 «^g.; Ovid, Meta- 
morph. ix. 182 sqq,; Hyginus, Fab. 30. 

2 As to the Nemeanlion, compare Hesiod, Theog. ii26sqq.; 
Bacchylidcs, Epinic. viii. 6 sqq.; Sophocles, Trachiniofi., 1091 
sqq.; Theocritus, xxv. 162 sqq. ; Dioaorus Siculus, iv. 11. 3«^.; 
Eratosthenes, Cataster. 12 ; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, u. 232«?.; 
Hyginus, Fab. 30. According to Hesiod, the Nemean lion was 
begotten by Orthus, the hound of Geryon, upon the monster 
Echidna. Hyginus says that the lion was bred by the Moon. 

• As to Hercules and Molorchus, compare Tibullus, iv. 1. 
12 sq.; Virgil, Oeorg. iii. 19, with Servius's note ; Martial, iv. 
64. 30, ix. 43. 13 ; Statins, Sylv. iii. 1. 28. 

* The Greeks had two distinct words for sacrificing, 
according as the sacrifice was offered to a god or to a hero, 
that is, to a worshipful dead man ; the former sacrifice was 
expressed by the verb Oufiv, the latter by the verb ivayl(€iv. 

y Google 

THE LIBRARY, II. iv. 12-v. i 

And she told him to dwell in Tiryns, serving 
Eurystheus for twelve years and to perform the ten 
labours imposed on him, and so, she said, when the 
tasks were accomplished, he would be immortal.^ 

V. When Hercules heard that, he went to Tiryns 
and did as he was bid by Eurystheus. First, Eurys- 
theus ordered him to bring the skin of the Nemean 
lion ; 2 now that was an invulnerable beast begotten 
by Typhon. On his way to attack the lion he came 
to Cleonae and lodged at the house of a day-labourer, 
Molorchus ; ^ and when his host would have offered 
a victim in sacrifice, Hercules told him to wait for 
thirty days, and then, if he had returned safe from 
the hunt, to sacrifice to Saviour Zeus, but if he were 
dead, to sacrifice to him as to a hero.* And having 

The verbal distinction can hardly be preserved in English, 
except by a periphrasis. For the distinction between the 
two, see Pausanias, ii. 10. 1, ii. 11. 7, iii. 19. 3 ; and for more 
instances of 4vayi(eiy in this sense, see Pausanias, iii. 1. S, 
vi. 2J. 11, vii. 17. 8, vii. 19. 10, vii. 20. 9, viii. 14. 10 and 
11, \nii. 41. 1, ix. 5. 14, ix. 18. 3 and 4, ix. 38. 5, x. 24. 6 ; 
Inscriptiones Oraecae MegaridiSy Oropiae, Boeotiae^ ed. 
G. Dittenberger, p. 32, No. 53. For instances of the 
antithesis between Bvtiv and hayiC^tv^ see Herodotus, ii. 44 ; 
Plutarch, De Herodoti mcUignitcUe, 13; Ptolemaens 
Hephaest., Nov. Hist, iii. {Myihographi Graeci, ed. A. 
West^rmann, p. 186); Polhix, viii. 91; Scholiast on Euri- 
pides, Phoenisaae, 274. The corresponding nouns dvalai 
4ind ^vayifffiara are similarly opposed to each other. See 
Aristotle, Constitution of Athens, 58. Another word which 
is used only of sacrificing to heroes or the dead is ivrt/xyuv. 
See, for example, Thucyaides, v. 11, wj ffpul re ivr4/xvovai (of 
the sacrifices offered at Amphipolis to Brasidas). Sometimes 
the verbs ivayiCttv and ivr^inytiv are coupled in this sense. 
See Philostratus, Heroica, xx. 27 and 28. For more evidence 
as to the use of these words, see Fr. Pfister, Der Reliquien- 
ktUt im Altertum (Giessen, 1909-1912), pp. 466 sgq. Compare 
P. Foucart, Le culte des hdros chez les Orecs (Paris, 1918), pp. 
96, 98 (from the Mimoires de VAcad4mie des Inscriptions et 
Belles-Lettres, vol. xlii). 


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€t9 he Ttjv Ncfiiav d<f>iK6fi€vo<; koI top Xeovra 
fuurT€vaa<: iro^evae to trp&Tov* w Si Ifiadev 
aTpcoTOP Svra, avaTecvdfievo^ rb poiraKov iSieoxe. 
avfjL(f>vy6vT0(; Bk e*9 afi<f>laTOfjLOv^ airrjKaiov avrov 
Tr)v €T€pav iv<ji>/coB6fir)a€v^ etaohov, hih he t^9 
€T€/)a9 iireiarjKffe t^ 07)pi<p, koX irepiOeU ttjv 
Xetpa T^ Tpaxv^^ /careaxev d^xi^v ew? eirpt^e, 
Kol 0€fjL€vo^ iirl Tcov wfjLCjp €/c6fii^€P ch KXeoDvd^;,^ 
KUTaTiU^oDP hk TOP MoXopxop ip ttj TeXevTaia 
T&p rjfiepcop 0)9 P€Kp(p p^eXKopTa to iepelop ipayi- 
^€ip, awTrjpi, 0vaa<; Ail ^ep eh MvK^^va^; top 
XeoPTa, Eifpvadeif^ he xaTairXayeU*^ avTOv t^v 
dpSpeiap direiTre to Xoittop^ avT& €l<; Tr)p ttoXiv 
elaiepai, SetKPvetP Be trpo t&p ttvX&p i/ceXeve tov<; 
dffXov<i. <t>aal Be oti Beicra^ koX iridop eaxrr^ 
XclXkovp elaKpvjSrjpai vtto yrjp^ KaTea/cevaae, xal 
TrepTrwp KrfpvKa VioTrpea JleXoiro^ tov 'HXetoi; 
eVeraTTe Tot>9 ddXov<:, ovto^ Be "Ikj^itop KTeipa^, 
<f>vya)p eh Mvkijpu^ Kal tv^^v Trap* Evpva'0€(o<; 
fca0ap(Ti(M>p eKel KaTcoKei. 
\ AevT€pop Be clOXop eiriTa^ep avTtp ttjv Aeppaiap 
vBpap KTeipar avTrj Se eV t& t^9 Aeppt]^ eXei 
iKTpa<f>elaa e^e/SaiPCP eh to treBiop Kal ra re 

^ <rh> kfKpiffrofxov Wagner, comparing Diodorus Siculus, 
iv. 11. 3 sq. ' iv<fKoB6iJ.r](r€v E : avti)Koh6fjLr}(r€v A. 

3 KXtwvds Hercher, Wagner (comparing Pediasmus, De 
Herculis lahorihua, 1) : Miz/c^yos A. 

* KorarXayfis E : KoraXafiiov A. 

* ciirerire rh \oiirhv Bekker, Hercher, Wagner : aircfiroTo 
\oiirhv EA. * ynv E : ttjj A. 

^ Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 12. 1, who however places 
this incident after the adventure with the Erymanthian boar. 

2 As to the herald Copreus, compare Homer, Z|. xv. 639 s^., 
with the note of the Scholiast. 

d by Google 

THE LIBRARY, II. v. 1-2 

come to Nemea and tracked the lion, he first shot an 
arrow at him, but when he perceived that the beast 
was invulnerable, he heaved up his club and made 
after him. And when the lion took refuge in a 
cave with two mouths, Hercules built up the one 
entrance and came in upon the beast through the 
other, and putting his arm round its neck held it 
tight till he had choked it ; so laying it on his 
shoulders he carried it to Cleonae. And finding 
Molorchus on the last of the thirty days about to 
sacrifice the victim to him as to a dead man, he sacri- 
ficed to Saviour Zeus and brought the lion to Mycenae. 
Amazed at his manhood, Eurystheus forbade him 
thenceforth to enter the city, but ordered him to ex- 
hibit the fruits of his labours before the gates. They 
say, too, that in his fear he liad a bronze jar made 
for himself to hide in under the earth,^ and that he 
sent his commands for the labours through a herald, 
Copreus,2 son of Pelops the Elean. This Copreus 
had killed Iphitus and fled to Mycenae, where he was 
purified by Eurystheus and took up his abode. 

As a second labour he ordered him to kill the 
Lernaean hydra.^ That creature, bred in the swamp 
of Lerna, used to go forth into the plain and ravage 

3 Compare Euripides, Hercules Fureiw, 419 aqq.', Dioilorus 
Siculus, iv. 11. 5 8q.\ Pausanias, ii. 37.4, v. 5. 10, v. 1". 11; 
Zenobiiis, Cent. vi. 26 ; Qiiintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica, vi. 
212 sqq.; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 237 sqq.; Virgil, Aen. viii. 
299 sq.; Ovid, Metamwph. ix. 69 sqq.\ Hyginus, Fob. 30. 
Diodorus and Ovid multiply the hydra's heads to a hundred ; 
the sceptical Fausanias (ii. 37. 4) would reduce them to one. 
Both Diodorua and Fausanias, together with Zenobius and 
Hyginus, mention that Hercules poisoned his arrows with 
the gall of the hydra. The account which Zenobius gives of 
the nydra is clearly based on that of ApoUodorus, though 
as usual he does not name his authority. 


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/3o<T/ctjfjiaTa Koi rrjv x^P^^ Bii<f>d€ip€v, elx^ hi 
17 vipa vTrepfxeyedef; aSyfia, K€<f>akci<; €Xov ivvia, 
Ta^ fiev OKTOD OvrjTa^, ttjv Be fji€ar)P dOdvaTov, 
eTTtySa? oJhf apfiaro^, rjviOXovvTo^ 'loXaov, irape- 
^kvero eh Ty]v h.epvqvy /cat tov^ fiev LTnrov<: 
earrjae, ttjv hi vBpav evpcbv ev rivc \6(f>(p ^ irapa 
Ta<i irrjyct^ rrj^ ^Afivfuovr)^, ottov 6 <^o)\609 auT^9 
ifTTrjpye, /3dX\(ov ^iXeai ireirvprnpivoi,^ r)vd^fcaaev 
i^eXOelv, eK/Saivovaav Be avrrjv KpaTf\(ja<i fcarel- 
X€v. f) Bi Oarep^ ^ t&v ttoB&v eveix^TO ^ irepi- 
TrXa/ceio'a. rtp poirdXtp Be ra^ K€<f>a\a^ kotttcov 
ovBev dvveiv rfBifvaro'^ jxia^ yap KOTrrojJLevr}^ 
fC€(]>a\rj^ Bvo dv€<f>vovTO. €7rel3or]0€i Be Kap/civo<; 
TTJ vBpa virepfieyedrjf;, Bd/cpayp tov iroBa, Bio 
TOVTOV d7ro/CT€Lva^ eireKaXeaaro kol avro^ fiot)- 
dov TOV ^loXaov, S9 p^epo^ ri Karairpijaa^ rij^ 
iyyif^ vXt)^ Toh BaXoh iTriKaicov rd^; dvaToXd<: 
T&v K€(f)aX&v ifcdoiXvev dvievai, fcal ^ tovtov tov 
TpoTTov T&v dva<^vop,€V(ov fC€<l>aX&v irepcyevofievo^, 
Trjv dddvuTov diroKo'^a^; KaTtopv^e kuI jSapetav 
eTreOrf/ee ireTpav, irapd Ttjv oBov ttjv <f>epov<Tav Bid 
Aepvrj^ eh ^EXaiovvTa*^ to Be a&fia T7J<; vBpa<; 
dvacx^^^^ '^fl X^^V '^^^^ oiaTOv^ e/Sayjrev. Ev- 
pvaOev^ Be €<f>r) fit) Belv KaTapiOfirjaai tovtov ^ iv 
TOi<; Bexa ® tov ddXov* ov ydp fi6vo<; dXXd Koi 
fieTa ^loXdov t/)? vBpa^ irepteyeveTo, 

' Aj^y EA : T07r<p L, V (first hand, in margin). 
"^ Oardptp E : Oarrov A. 
^ ivtlx^ro E : iiv^lx^ro A. 

* ^Hvo,ro E, Zenobius, CeiU. vi. 26 : Mvaro A. 

* Koi E, Zenobius, Gent, vi. 26 : Kark A. 

* *'E,\aiovvray L. Ross, Reisen nnd lieiserouten durch GrU- 
cfienland, i. (Berlin, 1841), p. 156 note : iKtovura EA. 


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both the cattle and the country. Now the hydra had 
a huge body, with nine heads, eight mortal, but the 
middle one immortal. So mounting a chariot 
driven by lolaus, he came to Lerna, and having 
halted his horses, he discovered the hydra on a hill 
beside the springs of the Amymone, where was its 
den. By pelting it with fiery shafts he forced it to 
come out, and in the act of doing so he seized and 
held it fast. But the hydra wound itself about one 
of his feet and clung to him. Nor could he effect 
anything by smashing its heads with his club, for as 
fast as one head was smashed there grew up two. A 
huge crab also came to the help of the hydra by biting 
his foot,^ So he killed it, and in his turn called for 
help on lolaus who, by setting fire to a piece of the 
neighbouring wood and burning the roots of the 
heads with the brands, prevented them from sprouting. 
Having thus got the better of the sprouting heads, he 
chopped off the immortal head, and buried it, and put 
a heavy rock on it, beside the road that leads through 
Lerna to Elaeus. But the body of the hydra he slit 
up and dipped his arrows in the gall. However, 
Eurystheus said that this labour should not be 
reckoned among the ten because he had not got the 
better of the hydra by himself, but with the help of 

^ For this service the crab was promoted by Hera, the foe 
of Hercules, to the rank of a constellation in the sky. See 
Eratosthenes, Cataster. 11 (who quotes as his authority the 
HeracUa of Panyasis) ; Hyginus, Astronomica, 11. 23. 

7 rovrov E, Pediasmus, De Hercvlis lahoribtiSf 2 {rhv kyuva 
Tovrov) : omitted in A. 

® Z4ica Bekker, Hercher, Wagner : SiScica EA, Pediasmus, 
De Hercidis lahoribus, 2. 


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3 TpLTOv adXov iirira^ev avr^ tyjv Kepvplriv^ 
€\a<j>ov eh MvKtjva^ efiirvovv ivey/celv, rjv he rj 
€\a<f>o<; iv Olvop, xp^<^o/c€pci>^, *ApT€fiiBo^ iepd' 
Sio /cat ^ovKofxevo^ avTr)v 'tlpaK\r]<; fjLrjre aveXetv 
fn^T€ Tpcoaai, avvehioi^ev oXov ivcavrov. iirel Be 
h'd/ivop TO ffrjpiov rfi 8i(o^€i avve^vyev €t9 0/009 
TO Ti^yofievov Aprefiiaiov, /cd/ceWev iirl iroTa/xbv 
AdB<ova, TOVTOv hia^aiveiv pAWovaav TO^evaa<; 
avveka^€y koX 0€fievo<; cttI t&v &fjLa>v Bid rrj^ 
^ApxaBia^ rjireiyeTO, fxer ^ AttoXKcdvo^ Be *'ApT€jjLi<; 
(TVVTvxpvaa d^ypeiro^ fcal to iepov ^^ov auT% 
KTeivovTa^ KaTepbefMf>€To, 6 Be vTroTifJurjadfievo^ 
Tr)v dvdyKrjv, koI top oitlov eliroDV T^ypvaOia 
yeyovevai, 7rpaiiva<; t^v opy^v tyj<; deov to Ot\plov 
eKOficaev e/nrvovv eh MvKi]va<;, 

4 TcTapTov d$\ov eireTa^ev avT& top ^EpvfjLup- 
diop Kanpop ^S>PTa KOfic^eiP* tovto Be to Orjpiop 
rjBLKei TTjp '9a}<t>lBa, 6pfid>p^pop e^ Spov^ h KaXov- 
aip ^EpvfjLapOop, Biepyofi^po^ oZp ^oXorjp hri- 
^epovTac KepTavpq> ^oXco, ^etXrjpov kclI pvpxf>i]^ 

^ Kepvj'trtv Heyne : Kfpyrjriv E : Kepyfirriv A. 
^ Krelvovra Wagner : Kreipavra EA. 

1 Compare Pindar, Olymp. iii. 28 (50) «gg. ; Euripides, 
Hercules Furens, 375 sqq, ; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 13. 1 ; 
J. Tzetzes, Chiliade^, ii. 265 sqq. ; Hyginus, Fab, 30. Pindar 
says that in his quest of the hind with the golden horus 
Hercules had seen " the land at the back of the cold north 
wind." Hence, as the reindeer is said to be the only species 
of deer of which the female has antlers, Sir William Ridgeway 
argues ingeniously that the hind with the golden horns was 
no other than the reindeer. See his EarTy Age of Greece 
i. (Cambridge, 1901), pp. 360 sqq. Later Greek tradition, ;\s 
we see from ApoUodorus, did not place the native land of the 


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THE LIBRARY, II. v. 3-4 

As a third labour he ordered him to bring the 
Cerynitian hind alive to Mycenae.^ Now the hind 
was at Oenoe ; it had golden liorns and was sacred to 
Artemis; so wishing neither to kill nor wound it, 
Hercules hunted it a whole year. But when, weary 
with the chase, the beast took refuge on the moun- 
tain called Artemisius, and thence passed to the 
river Ladon, Hercules shot it just as it was about to 
cross the stream, and catching it put it on his shoul- 
ders and hastened through Arcadia. But Artemis 
with Apollo met him, and would have wrested the 
hind from him, and rebuked him for attempting to 
kill her sacred animal. ^ Howbeit, by pleading ne- 
cessity and laying the blame on Eurystheus, he 
appeased the anger of the goddess and carried the 
beast alive to Mycenae. 

As a fourth labour he ordered him to bring the 
Erymanthian boar alive ; ^ now that animal ravaged 
Psophis, sallying from a mountain which they call 
Erymanthus. So passing through Pholoe he was en- 
tertained by the centaur Pholus, a son of Silenus by a 

hind so far away. Oenoe was a place in Argolis. Mount 
Artemisius is the range which divides Argolis from the plain 
of Mantinea. The Ladon is the most beautiful river of 
Arcadia, if not of Greece. The river Cerynites, from which 
the hind took its name, is a river which rises in Arcadia and 
flows through Achaia into the sea. The modern name of the 
river is Bouphouaia, See Pausanias, vii. 25. 6, with my note. 

2 The hind is said to have borne the inscription. ** Taygete 
dedicated (me) to Artemis." See Pindar, Olymp, iii. 29 (53) 
8q,t with the Scholiast. 

' As to the Erymanthian boar and the centaurs, see 
Sophocles, Trachiniae, 1095 sqq. ; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 12 ; 
J. Tzetzes, OhiUadea, ii. 268 sqq,; Hyginus, Fab, 30. The 
boar's tusks were said to be preserved in a sanctuary of Apollo 
at Cumae in Campania (Pausanias, viii. 24. 5). 


y Google 


/jLeXia^ TrathL ovto^ 'HpafcXei fuv oirra 7rap€i)(€ 
ra Kpia, avT09 Be oDfioi^ ixPV"^^* cutovi/to<: Se olvov 
'H/)a/c\€0i;9, e^rj SeSoifcivai rov koivov r&v Kev- 
Tavpcav dvoi^ai mffov Oappelv 8k jrapafceXevad- 
fi€vo<; 'H/:7a/c\^9 avrov ffvoi^e, kclL fier oif TroXif 
Ti;9 oafjifj^;^ aiaOop^voi iraprjaav oi Kevravpoi, 
TT€Tpai<; d>7r\i<TfjL€voi Koi ikdrat^, iirl ro rov 
^6\ov aTTijTuiiov, rov<; fxev oiv Trp(orov<; toKiitj- 
aairra^ etao) TrapeXOetv "^ Ay )(iov koX ^ Ay piov 
*HpafcXr]^ iTpeyjraro /3dXX(ov BaXol<;, tow Sc 
XoiTToif^ CTo^evae Smxafv axpt t% MaXea?. ifeei- 
dev Sk 7r/)09 Xeiptova avve^vyov, 09 i^XaOeh viro 
AaviOAv Spov^ TlijXiov irapct "MaXiav KaTcoxtjae. 
Tovrtp TrepnreTTTCfyKora^ rov^ Kevravpov^ ro^€va>v 
17)0-1 ^eXo^ 6 'Hpa/cXfj^, to Sk hfex^kv 'EXaToi; 
hik rov fipaxiovo^ r^ yovari rov X€ipa)vo<i iixirrj- 
ywrai, dviaOeU Se 'H/oa«\^ TrpooSpafLoyp ro re 
0€Xo^ i^eiXxvae, koX Sovro^ Xeipavo^ <f>dpfiafcov 
iTriOrjfcev. dvLarov he I^G)i/ to $Xko^ eU ro a"iTrj' 
Xaiov drraXXdaaerai,^ Kaxel reXevrrjaat fiovXo- 
fjL€PO<i, Kol fir) hvvdfievo^ eTreiirep dddvaro^ fjv, 
dvri86vro<; Ad Ylpofir)0€a)<; avrov ^ dvr avrov 
y€vr)a-6iJ£V0v dOdvarov, oi/TO)? diriOavev, oi Xoi- 
TTol Si r&v Kevravpoov ^evyovai^v aXXo<i dXXaxv* 
Ka\ rivk<; fikv irapeyevovro eU opo<; MaXiav, Eu- 
pvritov Se eh ^oX6r)v, l^eaa-o^ Sk €7rl rrorafiov 
^vr)vov, Tou? Be XoiTToif^ v7roSe^dfievo<; Hoaei- 

^ rrjs iafjLTjs E : Stcli rris oafi^s A. 
* iiiraWdfffftrai Scaliger : iiWdfffferai EA. 
^ a&rhv Wagner : rhy EA ; nponrj$4a rhp Hetnsterhuis on 
Lucian, Dialog. Mort. 26. 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, 11. V. 4 

Melian nymph.^ He set roast meat before Hercules^ 
while he himself ate 'his meat raw. When Hercules 
called for wine, he said he feared to open the jar 
which belonged to the centaurs in common.^ But 
Hercules, bidding him be of good courage, opened 
it, and not long afterwards, scenting the smell, the 
centaurs arrived at the cave of Pholus, armed with 
rocks and firs. The first who dared to enter, Anchius 
and Agrius, were repelled by Hercules with a shower 
of brands, and the rest of them he shot and pursued 
as far as Malea. Thence they took refuge with 
Chiron, who, driven by the Lapiths from Mount 
Pelion, took up his abode at Malea. As the centaurs 
cowered about Chiron, Hercules shot an arrow at 
them, which, passing through the arm of Elatus, 
stuck in the knee of Chiron. Distressed at this, 
Hercules ran up to him, drew out the shaft, and 
applied a medicine which Chiron gave him. But the 
hurt proving incurable, Chiron retired to the cave 
and there he wished to die, but he could not, for he 
was immortal. However, Prometheus offered him- 
self to Zeus to be immortal in his stead, and so Chiron 
died. The rest of the centaurs fled in different 
directions, and some came to Mount Malea, and 
Eurytion to Pholoe, and Nessus to the river Evenus. 
The rest of them Poseidon received at Eleusis and 

* As to these nymphs, see Hesiod, Theog, 187. The name 
perhaps means an ash-tree nymph (from ficXia, an ash- 
tree), as Dryad means an oak-tree nymph (from 8/>i;s, an 

2 Compare J. Tzetzes, Chilicuies, ii. 271 ; Theocritus, vii. 
149 aq. The jar had been presented by Dionysus to a 
centaur with orders not to open it till Hercules came 
(Diodorus Siculua, iv. 12. 3). 


VOL. I. O 

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airifcreivev avTov, iiravekOmv Sk e*9 ^0X0171' 
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ifij3poxi<To,^ T€ ifcofiiaep 6*9 MvKijva^, 

nifjLTrrov iirera^ev avr^ id\ov t&v Avy eiov 
/3o<rKrjp,dT(i)P iv flii^pa P'ld fiovop iK(f)oprfaai rifv 
OV0OV, fjv hk Avyeta^ fiaaiKeif^ "HXiSo^;, a)9 
fiiif Ttve^ cIttov, TToi^ 'HXtoi;, ©9 Si rcve^, Tloa-et- 
S&vo^, ft>9 Se evioi, ^6p/3avTo^, iroWA^ Bk clx^ 
^o<TKr)fidTO)V iroifJLva^. rovTtp irpoaekOoav 'Hpa- 
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rfjv Befcdrr^v avr^ t&v fioaKfj/judTCOv. Avyeia^ Se 
diriarSiv inriaxyelTai. pxipTVpdfievo^^ Bk ^Hpa- 
fcXij^ TOV Avyetov TralBa ^vXea, t^9 t€ auX% tov 
6epA\iov BceiXe Kal tov *A\<f>€iov koX tov Hrfveiov 

* *6\o5 8c . . . eiiltas avrhy. This passage has been 
emended by Wagner from the Vatican Epitome (E). In 
the MSS. of Apoilodoms (A) it runs as follows : hraveXBin^ 
8c CIS ^o\6rjy 'HpoKXrjs koI ^6\ov reXcvruyra Otasdfitvos fitrh. 
Koi HWwy woWuVf i\K6aas 4k vtKpov rh $4\os 4$aifM(€y, «i 
robs rriKiKo^rous rh fUKphv Zi4<pB€ip€* rh 8c rrjs X"P^^ 0X10*090-01^ 
^\0ov inl rhtf ircuZa Koi wapaxPVf^^ kit^icruv^v aOrdv. Bdt^as Zh 
*6\ov 'HfMurX^s. 

^ ctVtf^o'af E : omitted in A. Compare Wagner, Epitome 
Vaiicana, pp. 100 sq. ; and for the late form of the aorist 
(ciVwtf^o'af for cloc^oas), see Veitch, Oreek Verba (Oxford, 
1870), p. 715. 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, II. y. 4-5 

hid them in a mountain. But Pholus, drawing the 
arrow from a corpse, wondered that so litttle a 
thing could kill such big fellows ; howbeit, it slipped 
from his hand and lighting on his foot killed him on 
the spot.i So when Hercules returned to Pholoe, he 
beheld Pholus dead ; and he buried him and pro- 
ceeded to the boar-hunt. And when he had chased 
the boar with shouts from a certain thicket, he drove 
the exhausted animal into deep snow, trapped it, and 
brought it to Mycenae. 

The fifth labour he laid on him was to carry out 
the dung of the cattle of Augeas in a single day.- 
Now Augeas was king of Elis ; some say that he was 
a son of the Sun, others that he was a son of Posei- 
don, and others that he was a son of Phorbas ; and 
he had many herds of cattle. Hercules accosted him, 
and without revealing the command of Eurystheus, 
said that he would carry out the dung in one day, 
if Augeas would give him the tithe of the cattle. 
Augeas was incredulous, but promised. Having taken 
Augeas's son Phyleus to witness, Hercules made a 
breach in the foundations of the cattle-yard, and then, 
diverting the courses of the Alpheus and Peneus, 

' Compare Servius, on Virgil, Aen, viii. 294. 

^ As to Augeas and his cattle-stalls, see Theocritus, xxv. 
7 sqq,; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 13. 3 ; Pausanias, v. 1. 9 sq.; 
J. Tzetzes, Chiliades^ ii. 278 sqq. <who seems to follow ApoUo- 
doruB) ; Scholiast on Homer, Ih ii. 629, xi. 700 ; Scholiast 
on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon, i. 172; Hyginus, Fab, 30. 
According to the rationalistic Pausanias, the name of the 
father of Augeas was Eleus (Eleioa), which was popularly 
corrupted into Helios, " Sun " ; Servius, on Virgil, Aen, viii. 

* nafnvpdfi€vos E, Pediasnius, De Htrculia lahoribus, 5 : 
fAuprvpo^fAtyos A. 

o 2 

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<ri;i/€77i;9 piovra^ 7rapox€T€vaa^ iiniyayev, expovv 
Bi a\\r)<i i^oBov iroiijaa^. futOoav Be Airyeia^ or* 
Kar^ iiriTayrfv l^vpva6ea)<; tovto eirt/TeriXeaTai, 
Tov fjLiadov ovK aTreSiSov, Trpoaeri S* rjpveiro koX 
fiiadbv viro(TX'^(T0CLi Bdxretv, teal /eplp€<T0ai irepl 
TOVTOV €TOifjLO<: €X.€y€v elpui. KaOe^ofiivtov Be r&v 
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Be oifBe TOVTOP ep Toh Bexa ^ TrpoaeBe^aro top 
iffXop, Xeycdv eirl p>ta0<p ire'npaxBo.L?' 

"EfCTOP eireTa^ep &0\op aintp tcl^ ^Tvp,ff>aXiBa<i 
oppi0a<; ixBt&^ai. fjp Bk ep ^TVfi<f>dX^ iroXei t% 
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avpYjp€<l>rf<: vXrf eh TavTr)p oppei^ avP€<f>vyop 

* 5^/co Bekker, Hercher, Wagner : fic^ficica EA, Pediosmus, 
De Herctdis lahoribust 6. 

2 vfvpaxOai E, Wagner. The MSS. appear to read ittvpa- 
Xfy^i and so Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker and 

* Compare Homer, 11. ii. 629, with the Scholiast ; Pausa- 
nias, V. 1. 10, v. 3. 1 and 3. 

' Compare Bacchylides, referred to by the Scholiast on 
Homer, Od. xi. 295 ; Bacchylides, ed. R. C. Jebb, p. 430 ; 
Diodorus Siculus, iv. 33. 1 ; Pausanias, vii. 18. 1 ; Hyginus, 
Fa6. 33. 

y Google 

THE LIBRARY, II. v. 5-6 

which flowed near each other, he turned them into 
the yard, having first made an outlet for the water 
through another opening. When Augeas learned 
that this had been accomplished at the command of 
Eurystheus, he would not pay the reward ; nay more, 
he denied that he had promised to pay it, and on 
that point he professed himself ready to submit to 
arbitration. The arbitrators having taken their seats, 
Phyleus was called by Hercules and bore witness 
against his father, affirming that he had agreed to 
give him a reward. In a rage Augeas, before the 
voting took place, ordered both Phyleus and Hercules 
to pack out of Elis. So Phyleus went to Dulichiuni 
and dwelt there,^ and Hercules repaired to Dexa- 
menus at Olenus.^ He found Dexamenus on the 
point of betrothing perforce his daughter Mnesimache 
to the centaur Eurytion, and, being called upon by 
him for help, he slew Eurytion when that centaur 
came to fetch his bride. But Eurystheus would not 
admit this labour either among the ten, alleging 
that it had been performed for hire. 

The sixth labour he enjoined on him was to chase 
away the Stymphalian birds. ^ Now at the city of 
Stymphalus in Arcadia was the lake called Stympha- 
lian, embosomed in a deep wood. To it countless 

* As to the Stymphalian birds, see ApoUonius Rhodiiis, 
Argon, ii. 1052-1057, with the Scholiast on 1064 ; Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 13. 2 ; Strabo, viii. 6. 8, p. 371 ; Pausanias, viii. 
22. 4 ; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica, vi. 227 sqq. ; 
J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 291 sq.; Hyginus, Fab. 20 and 30 ; 
Servius, on Virgil, Aen. viii. 300. These fabulous birds were 
said to shoot their feathers like arrows. Compare lyArcy 
Wentworth Thompson, Glossary oj Qreeh Birds, p. 162. 
From the Scholiast on ApoUonius Rhodius (2.c.) we learn 
that the use of a brazen rattle to frighten the birds was 
mentioned both by Pherecydes and Hellanicus. 


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rh^ SpviOa^ iSofier ai Be top hovirov ovx vtto- 
fiivovaai psra 8iov<s aviirravro, Koi tovtov top 
rpoirov 'H/)a^\^9 iro^evaev avrd^, 

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ap€T0P* Se TrXaprjOeU eh^ X'rrdpTrfP Te Kal 
^ApfcaSiap airaaap, xal SLa/3d<; top ^IcrOpop, €19 

1 M E, Pediasmus, De Htrctdis labprihus, 6 : {nr6 A. 

• TapaK€in4vov E, Pediasmus, De HtrctdU laborihus, 6 : 
v€piK€ifi4yov A, 

• itiro'r4fi^ai E : ixoirtfiifeiy A. ** (rv\\afi€7v E : XajSciv A. 
^ \a0i»v Koi E : koI \a$i»v A. 

• els E, but apparently absent in A : &vk Heyne. who, 
however, would prefer to omit ^vdprriv re icol *ApKaBlar 
ittcurap as an interpolation. 

^ In no other ancient account of the Stymphalian birds, 
so far as I know, are wolves mentioned. There is perhap 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, II. v. 6-7 

birds had flocked for refuge, fearing to be preyed 
upon by the wolves.* So when Hercules was at 
a loss how to drive the birds from the wood, Athena 
gave him brazen castanets, which she had received 
from Hephaestus. By clashing these on a certain 
mountain that overhung the lake, he scared the 
birds. They could not abide the sound, but fluttered 
up in a fright, and in that way Hercules shot 

The seventh labour he enjoined on him was to 
bring the Cretan Bull.^ Acusilaus says that this was 
the bull that ferried across Europafor Zeus; but some 
say it was the bull that Poseidon sent up from the sea 
when Minos promised to sacriflce to Poseidon what 
should appear out of the sea. And they say that 
when he saw the beauty of the bull he sent it away 
to the herds and sacrificed another to Poseidon ; at 
which the god was angry and made the bull savage. 
To attack this bull Hercules came to Crete, and 
when, in reply to his request for aid, Minos told him 
to flght and catch the bull for himself, he caught it 
and brought it to Eurystheus, and having shown it 
to him he let it afterwards go free. But the bull 
roamed to Sparta and all Arcadia, and traversing the 

a reminiscence of an ancient legend in the name of the 
Wolf's Ravine, which is still given to the deep slen, between 
immense pine-covered slopes, through which the road runs 
south-westward from Stymphalus to Orchomenus. The glen 
forms a conspicuous feature in the landscape to anyone 
seated on the site of the ancient city and looking across the 
clear shallow water of the lake to the high mountains that 
bound the valley on the south. See my commentary on 
Pausanias, vol. iv. p. 269. 

* As to the Cretan bull see Diodorus Siculus, iv. 13. 4; 
Pausanias, i. 27. 9 «g., v. 10. 9 ; J. Tzetzes, Ghiliades, ii. 293- 
298 (who seems to follow ApoUodorus) ; Hyginus, ^06. 30. 


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plov^ tl€\Vfiaiv€TO. 

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TToXtP "A^irjpa^ irapd top rd^op rov hia<f>0a' 

* 'A$^ptp, E : av^p^ or &vfi^p^ A, Pediasmus, De Herctdis 
lahorihuSf 8. 

^ For iriffirourdfityai we should perhaps read Jitafftratrdfifvou, 
** by tearing him in pieces." The mares were man-eating. 

* iivdyxave E, Pediasmus, De Herculis lahorihua, 8 : iivdy- 
Ka(€ A. 

* dB^ripa E, Wamier : AvSitpov A : "A^^tipov Heyne, Wester- 
mann, Miiller, Bekker, Hercher. 

^ As to the man-eating mares of Dioraedes, see Diodnrus 
Siculus, iv. 16. 3 8q,\ Philostratus, Imagines ^ ii. 25 ; Quintus 
8myrnaeus, Posthomerica, vi. 245 sqq.; J. Tzetzes, ChUiades^ 
ii. 299-308 (who seems to follow Apollodorus, except that he 
speaks of the animals in the masculine as horses, not mares) ; 
Strabo, vii. p. 331, frags. 44 and 47, ed. A. Meineke ; Stepha- 
nus Byzantius, s.v, "AfiSripa ; Hyginus, Fab. 30 (who cives 
the names of four horses, not mares). According to Diodoms 
Siculus (/.c), Hercules killed the Thracian king Diomedes 
himself by exposing him to his own mares, which devoured 

y Google 

THE LIBRARY, TI. v. 7-8 

Isthmus arrived at Marathon in Attica and harried 
the inhabitants. 

The eighth labour he enjoined on him was to bring 
the mares of Diomedes the Thraeian to Mycenae.^ 
Now this Diomedes was a son of Ares and Cyrene, 
and he was king of the Bistones, a very war-like 
Thraeian people, and he owned man-eating mares. So 
Hercules sailed with a band of volunteers, and having 
overpowered the grooms who were in charge of the 
mangers, he drove the mares to the sea. When the 
Bistones in arms came to the rescue, he committed 
the mares to the guardianship of Abderus, who was 
a son of Hermes, a native of Opus in Locris, and a 
minion of Hercules ; but the mares killed him by 
dragging him after them. But Hercules fought against 
the Bistones, slew Diomedes and compelled the rest 
to flee. And he founded a city Abdera beside the 
grave of Abderus who had been done to death,^ 

him. Further, the historian tells us that when Hercules 
brought the mares to Eurystheus, the king dedicated them 
to Hera, and that their descendants existed down to the time 
of Alexander the Great. 

2 Compare Strabo, vii. p. 531, frags. 44 and 47, ed. A. 
Meineke ; Stephanus Byzantius, s,v. '"AjSSijpa ; Philostratus, 
Imagines, ii. 2.5. From Philostratus we learn that athletic 
games were celebrated in honour of Abderus. They com- 
prised boxing, wrestling, the pancratium, and all the other 
usual contests, with the exception of horse-racing— no 
doubt because Abderus was said to have been killed by 
horses. We may compare the rule which excluded horses 
from the Arician grove, because horses were said t(» have 
killed Hippolytus, with whom Virbius, the traditionary 
founder of the sanctuary, was identified. See Virgil, Aen. 
vii. 761-780 ; Ovid, Fasti, iii. 265 sq. When we remember 
that the Thraeian king Lycurgus is said to have been killed 
by horses in order to restore the fertility of the land (see 
ApoUodoruB, iii. 5. 1), we may conjecture that the tradition 

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^Afia^ovoDV, at teanjoKovv irepl rov SepficoSovra 
TTorafiov, €0vo^ fiiya tA xaTci TroXcfiov tjo-kovv 
yhp avSpiav, fcal et irore fiiyelaai yevinicreiav, ra 
drjkea iTp€<f)ov, koI roif<s fiiv Be^iov^ ftaarov^ 
i^€0\ifiov, iva fit) K(o\va)VTai a/eopri^eiv, rov^ Sk 
aoi(TT€pom elcav, Xva rpi(f>oi€v. eZ^c Si 'IttttoXiJti; 
TOP *'Ap€09 fftXTT^pa, <TVfi/36\ov Tov Trpareveiv 
diraa&v. iirl rovrov tov ^(oaTtjpa npafcXi)^ 
€7r€fi7r€T0, \a0elv avrov i7n0vfiov(ri]^ rr}^ Evpucr- 
ffio)^ dvyarpof; ^ABfjujri]^. irapaXafionv oiv ide- 
Xovrii^ iTVfifid'Xpv^; iv fiia vrjl iifKei,^ koX irpotrL- 
ayci vrjtTtp Haptpt ^v^ KartpKovv oi Mivtoo^ viol 
Eivpvfikhwv \pvar}^ T^r)<f>aXia)V ^CKoXao^. airo- 
/SdvTcop * Be Bvo T&v iv <t§> ^ vrjl avvijSfj reXeu- 
Ttjeai viro T&v Mti/ft)09 vi&v virep &v dyavafCT&v 

1 tA$ ER : rohs A. « ^^^^ E. ^ ^^ y^ber : koI A. 

* kito&avroiv Heyne : 4ir^ -KJannv A. • tJ added by Bekker. 

of the man-eating mares of Diomedes, another Thracian king 
who is said to have been killed by horses, points to a custom 
of human sacrifice performed by means of horses, whether 
the victim was trampled to death by their hoofs or tied to 
their tails and rent asunder. If the sacrifice was offered, as 
the legend of Lycurgus suggests, for the sake of fertilizing 
the ground, the reason for thus tearins the victim to pieces 
may have been to scatter the precious life-civing fragments 
as widely and as quickly as possible over Uie barren earth. 
Compare Adonis, Attis, Osiris*, ii. 97 sgq. The games at 


d by Google 

THE LIBRARY, II. v, 8-9 

and bringing the mares he gave them to Eurystheus. 
But Eurystheus let them go, and they came to Mount 
Oljrnipus, as it is called, and there they were de- 
stroyed by the wild beasts. 

The ninth labour he enjoined on Hercules was to 
bring the belt of Hippoly te.^ She was queen of the 
Amazons, who dwelt about the river Thermodon, a 
people great in war ; for they cultivated the manly 
virtues, and if ever they gave birth to children 
through intercourse with the other sex, they reared 
the females ; and they pinched off the right breasts 
that they might not be trammelled by them in throw- 
ing the javelin, but they kept the left breasts, that they 
might suckle. Now Hippolyte had the belt of Ares 
in token of her superiority to all the rest. Hercules 
was sent to fetch this belt because Admete, daughter 
of Eurystheus, desired to get it. So taking with him a 
band of volunteer comrades in a single ship he set 
sail and put in to the island of Paros, which was in- 
habited by the sons of Minos,^ to wit, Eurymedon, 
Chryses, Nephalion, and Philolaus. But it chanced 
that two of those in the ship landed and were killed 
by the sons of Minos. Indignant at this, Hercules 

Abdera are alluded to by the poet Machon, quoted by 
Athenaeus, viii. 41, p. 349 b. 

^ As to the expedition of Hercules to fetch the belt of the 
Amazon, see Euripides, Hercules Furena, 408 sqq. ; ApoUonius 
Bhodius, Argon, li. 777 sqq., 966 sqq,, with the Scholia on 
w. 778, 780 ; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 16 ; Pausanias, v. 10. 9 ; 
Quintus Smyrnaeus, Poathomerica, vi, 240 sqq.; J. Tzetzes, 
GhiUades, ii. 309 sqq.; id. Schol. on Lycophron, 1327 (who 
follows ApoUodorus and cites him by name) ; Hyginus, 
Fab. 30. 

' According to Diodorus Siculus (v. 79. 2), Rhadamanthys 
bestowed the island of Paros on his son Alcaeus. Combined 
with the evidence of ApoUodorus, the tradition points t-o a 
Cretan colony in Paros.j 


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'HpaKXrj^ Tovrov^ ^v TrapaxpVf^'^ dire/creivet 
rov^ Sk XocTTOv^ KarafcXeia-a^ iTToXiopKCi, em 
i'jr^TTpeirfievo'dfjLevoc irapeKoXovv avrl r&v avaipe- 
Oeirraov Svo Xa^eiv, 069 cLv avTO<i OeXtja-eiev. 
hk Xvaa^ rrjv iroXiopKiav, xal rov^ ^AvSpoyeo) rov 
MLva>o^ viov^ dveXofievo^ ^AXkoIov koI SdiveXov, 
fjKev eh Mvcriav 7rpo9 Avkov rov AacrKvXov, fcal 
^epurOel^ viro^ . . . tov Befipvfccov jSaaiXeo)^ 
avfi/SaXovrap, l3or)0S>v AvK(p iroKXov^ direfcreivey 
fie0^ &v Kal TOV jSaaiXea MvySova, dB€Xxj)ov 
*A/jLvtcov. Kal T^9 ^ ^e^pvKOiv TToXXrjv ^ aTTorefW' 
fievo^ yrjv eBcaxe Avfcqy 6 Se irdaav ifceivrjv ixd- 
Xeaev 'tlpd^iXecav, 

KaraTrXevcrai/To? Se eh rov ev Sefjuaxvpa Xi- 
fieva, 7rapayevofJLevrj<; eh^ avrbv ^iTnroXvTfjq /cal 
tIvo<; rjfcot %ap*i; irvdofievr)^, koX idxreiv rov 
^coa-rijpa vwocxofievrj^,^ '^Hpa fiia r&v 'A/xaJoi/cav 
eifcaaOelaa to TrXrj6o<; eire^oLTa, Xeyovaa oti^ 
Tr)V ^acTiXiSa d(f>ap7rd^ovaiv'^ oi irpoaeXOovTe^ 
^evoL, ai hi fieO* ottXcdv eirl Tr)v vavv KaTedeov 
<Tvv XinroL^i? &<; hi elhev avrd^ KaffcoirXLo-fieva^ 
'HpaKXrj<;, vofiiea^ etc hoXov tovto yeveadat, rriv 
fjL€v 'iTTTToXvTrjv KTCVva^ TOP ^coaTTjpa d^aipeh-aii 
TTpo^ he tA? XoLird^ dytovLo-dfievo^; diroTrXei, koX 
Trpoaiax^i' Tpoia, 

Xvve/3e/3i]Kei he t6t€ xard firjviv 'AttoXXwi/o? 
Kol Hoaeih&vo^ dTv^etv ttjv ttoXlv, ^AiroKXtov 

^ The passage is corrupt and defective. Heyne proposed 
to correct and supply it as follows : koL leviaB^Xs inc* <alrov, > 
rov BefipvKuy fiouriAeas €lffpa\6tfros <cls r^v yvVt>' Boti$oir. 
Sommer conjectured ^ir'<ouTov, roirov Se «ai> tow B€/3p^K«v 
^affi\4as (rvfj^a\6¥ro»v. 

2 T^y Wagner : r^v A. ' xoXK^v Heyne : 'k6\iv A. 


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killed the sons of Minos on the spot and besieged 
the rest closely, till they sent envoys to request that 
in the room of the murdered men he would take 
two, whom he pleased. So he raised the siege, and 
taking on board the sons of Androgens, son of Minos, 
to wit, Alcaeus and Sthenelus, he came to Mysia, to 
the court of Lycus, son of Dascylus, and was enter- 
tained by him ; and in a battle between him and 
the king of the Bebryces Hercules sided with 
Lycus and slew many, amongst others King Mygdon, 
brother of Amycus. And he took much land from 
the Bebryces and gave it to Lycus, who called it all 

Having put in at the harbour of Themiscyra, he 
received a visit from Hippolyte, who inquired why he 
was come, and promised to give him the belt. But 
Hera in the likeness of an Amazon went up and 
down the multitude saying that the strangers who had 
arrived were carrying off the queen. So the Amazons 
in arms charged on horseback down on the ship. 
But when Hercules saw them in arms, he suspected 
treachery, and killing Hippolyte stripped her of her 
belt. And after fighting the rest he sailed away and 
touched at Troy. 

But it chanced that the city was then in distress con- 
sequently on the wrath of Apollo and Poseidon. For 

* eis R, Tzetzea, Schol. on Lycophron, 1327 : &s A. 

' ^o(rj(ofi4trris Pediasmus {De Herculis lahorihuSy 9), Her- 
cher, Wagner : ^io'x»'ot;/i^i'i;y EA. 

* 8rt E, absent apparently in A. 

"^ h.^^iiov(riv ER : apTr&Covffiv A. 

* ahy 7inro(s omitted by Hercher. 


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7a/t) KoX HoaeiZ&v Ttjv AaofiiBovTO^ v/Spiv weipd- 

aai 0eKovT€^, elfcaaOivre^ dvdptoTroc^ viria^ovro 

iirl fjLurd^ reix^eiv ro Tlipyafiov. rot^ Se ret- 

yLaaai rbv fiiaffov ovk aireSlSov. St A tovto 

AiroWiap fikv Xoifwv eTrefiyfre, Tloa-ecS&v Se fefJTo<; 

dvad)€p6fJL€vov inro irXr^fifivpiSo^, o tou9 iv t& 

ireSi^ avvrjpTral^ev dvOpcoirov^, 'Xp^fTfi&v hk Xe- 

y6vT(av diraXkayr^v eaeaffai r&v avp,^op&v, ictv 

irpoOfj^ AaofJL€Sa>v ^H<n6vi]p rrfv dvyaripa airov 

T^ /cijrec jSopdv, ovto^^ irpovOrffce Tai^ TrXrjaiov 

T^9 OaXdaarf^ 7r6T/>ai9 irpoaapTTjaa^, ravrrjv 

^ TpoBp £ : TpoffBf A. 

^ T^ tcfir€i fiopiy, oZros E : $opkv ^rct, 6 if A. 

^ Compare Homer, IL vii. 452 aq,, xxi. 441—457. According 
to the former of these pusages, the walls of Troy were built 
by Poseidon and Apollo jointly for king Laomedon. But 
according to the latter passage the walls were built by 
Poseidon alone, and while he thus toiled as a mason, Apollo 
served as a herdsman, tending the king's cattle in the wooded 
glens of Ida. Their period of service lasted for a year, and 
at the end of it the faithless king not only dismissea the two 
deities without the stipulated wages which they had honestly 
earned, but threatenea that, if they did not take themselves 
off, he would tie Apollo hand and foot and sell him for a slave 
in the islands, not however before he had lopped off the ears 
of both of them with a knife. Thus insulted as well as robbed, 
the two gods retired with wrath and indignation at their 
hearts. This strange tale, told by Homer, is alluded to by 
Pindar {Olymp, viii. 30 (40) 8qq,\ who adds to it the detail 
that the two gods took the hero Aeacus with them to aid 
them in the work of fortification ; and the Scholiast on 
Pindar (pp. 194 aq, ed. Boeckh) explains that, as Troy was 
fated to oe captured, it was necessary that in building the 
walls the immortals should be assisted by a mortal, el»9 the 
city would have been impregnable. The sarcastic Lucian 
tells us {De sacrifldis, 4) that both Apollo and Poseidon 
laboured as bricklayers at the walls of Troy, and that the 
sum of which the king cheated them was more than thirty 


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desiring to put the wantonness of Laomedon to the 
proofs Apollo and Poseidon assumed the likeness ot 
men and undertook to fortify Pergamum for wages. 
But when they had fortified it^ he would not pay 
them their wages.^ Therefore Apollo sent a pest- 
ilence, and Poseidon a sea monster, which, carried 
up by a flood, snatched away the people of the 
plain. But as oracles foretold deliverance from these 
calamities if Laomedon would expose his daughter 
Hesione to be devoured by the sea monster, he ex- 
posed her by fastening her to the rocks near the sea.- 

Trojan drachmas. The fraud is alluded to by Virgil (Oeorg, 
i. 502) and Horace {Odes, iii. 3. 21 8q.). Compare Hyginus, 
Fab, 89 ; Ovid, Metamorph, xi. 194 sqq, ; Servius, on Virgil, 
Aen. viii. 157; Scriptores rerum mythicarum LcUini, ed. 
G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 43 *g., 138 (First Vatican Mytho- 
grapher, 136 ; Second Vatican Mythographer, 193). Homer 
does not explain why Apollo and Poseidon took service with 
Laomedon, but his Scholiast (on II, xxi. 444), in agreement 
with Tzetzes (Schol, on Lycophron, 34), says that their 
service was a punishment inflicted on them by Zeus for a 
conspiracy into which some of the gods had entered for the 
purpose of putting him, the supreme god, in bonds. The 
conspiracy is mentioned by Homer [ll. i. 399 sqq,), who 
names Poseidon, Hera, and Athena, but not Apollo, among 
the conspirators ; their nefarious design was defeated by the 
intervention of Thetis and the hundred-handed giant Bri- 
arens. We have already heard of Apollo serving a man in 
the capacity of neatherd as a punishment for murder per- 
petrated by the deity (see above, i. 9. 15, with the note). 
These backstair chronicles of Olympus shed a curious light 
on the early Greek conception of divinity. 

2 For the story of the rescue of Hesione by Hercules, see 
Diodorus Siculus, iv. 42 ; Scholiast on Homer, //. xx. 146 ; 
Tzetzes, Schol, on Lycophron, 34 ; Gvid, Metamorph, 
xi. 211 sqq,; Valerius Flaccus, Argon, ii. 451 sqq,; Hyginus, 
Fab, 89 ; Servius, on Virgil, Aen, viii. 157 ; Scriptores 
rerum mythicarum LcUini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 44 
(First Vatican Mythographer, 136). A curious variant 


y Google 


iSoifV ifCK^ifiivrfv 'Hpafckrj^ imiax^TO acoaeiv,^ el 
Ta9 tTTTTOu^ Trapi AaofiiSovro^ Xrjyjrerai &9 Zew? 
TToivrjv T^9 TavvfiTjiov^ apirayr)^ eStofce. hdxretv 
8k AaofiiSovTo^ eiTTovTO^, Krelva^ to xrjro^ 'Haio- 
vr}v i(T(oae, firj jSovXofiivov Be top fuaOov airo- 
Bovvai, TToXefirjaeiv Tpoia^ aTreiXijaa^ dviJX'^V' 

Kal frpoaiax^i Aivq), ev6a ^evil^ejai viro UoX- 
Ti;09. aTTOTrXecov Be iirl rfj^ rjiovo^ rrj^ Ama? 
^apirrjBova, UoaeiB&vo^ fikv vlov aBeXSov Be 
IIoXtvo^, v^pKTTTjv ovTa TO^evaa^ airefCTeive, 
Kcu Trapayevo^vo^ eh ^daov koX x^iptoorifievo^ 
rov^ ivoixovvra^ Spaxa^ eBwKe to?9 *AvBp6y€G) 
iraial KaroiKelv. etc €^daov Be opfirjOel^ ewl To- 
pa>pr)p UoXvyovov Koi TrfXiyovov, toik; UpOTio)^ 
Tov TloaetB&vo^ viov^, nraXaieiv irpOKaXovfievov^i 
Kara rr^v 7rdXf)p direKTeive. KOfiiaa^ Be tov 
^warrjpa el^ Mv/cfjva^ eBeofcev ^vpvaOei, 

^ ffdffftv £ : ffdnrtiv abriiv A. ^ Tpoltf E : Tpoiav A. 

of the story is told, without mention of Hesione, hy the 
Second Vatican Mythographer (Fab, 193, vol. i. p. 138, 
ed. (t. H. Bode). Tzetzes says that Hercules, in full armour, 
leaped into the jaws of the sea-monster, and was in its 
belly for three days hewing and hacking it, and that at 
the end of the three days he came forth without any hair 
on his head. The Scholiast on Homer (Z.c.) tells the tale 
similarly, and refers to Hellanicus as his authority. The 
story of Hercules and Hesione corresponds closely to that of 
Perseus and Andromeda (see ApoUodorus, ii. 4. 3). Both 
tales may have originated in a custom of sacrificing maidens 
to be the brides of the Sea. Compare The Magic Art and the 
EvolvJtion of Kings, ii. 150 sqq. 

^ The horses were given by Zeus to Tros, the father of 
Ganymede. See Homer, II, v. 265 aqq. ; Homeric Hymn to 
Aphrodite, 210 sq. ; Pausanias, v. 24. 5. According to 


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Seeing . her exposed, Hercules promised to save 
her on condition of receiving from Laomedon the 
mares which Zeus had given in compensation for the 
rape of Ganymede.^ On Laomedon' s saying that 
he would give them, Hercules killed the monster 
and saved Hesione. But when Laomedon would not 
give the stipulated reward,^ Hercules put to sea 
after threatening to make war on Troy.^ 

And he touched at Aenus, where he was entertained 
by Poltys. And as he was sailing away he shot and 
killed on the Aenian beach a lewd fellow, Sarpedon, 
son of Poseidon and brother of Poltys. And having 
come to Thasos and subjugated the Thracians who 
dwelt in the island, he gave it to the sons of Andro- 
gens to dwell in. From Thasos he proceeded to 
Torone, and there, being challenged to wrestle by 
Polygonus and Telegonus, sons of Proteus, son of 
Poseidon, he killed them in the wrestling match.* 
And having brought the belt to Mycenae he gave it 
to Eurystheus. 

another account, which had the support of a Cyclic poet, the 
compensation given to the bereaved father took the shape, 
not of horses, but of a golden vine wrought by Hephaestus. 
See Scholiast on Euripides, Orestes, 1391. As the duty of 
Ganymede was to pour the red nectar from a golden bowl in 
heaven {Homeric JSymn to Aphrodite, 206), there would be 
a certain suitability in the bestowal of a golden vine to replace 
him in his earthly home. 

^ As to the refusal of Laomedon to give the horses to 
Hercules, see Homer, II v. 638-651, xxi. 441-467 ; Ovid, 
Metamorph. xi. 213 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab» 69. Laomedon twice 
broke his word, first to Poseidon and Apollo and afterwards 
to Hercules. Hence Ovid speaks of ** the twice-perjured 
walls of Troy " {Metamorph, xi. 215). 

• As to the siege and capture of Troy by Hercules, see 
below, ii. 6. 4. 

* Compare J. Tzetzes, OhiliadeSt ii. 320 sq. 

VOL. I. P 

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10 Aifcarov iirerayri^ aOXov ra^ Frjpvopov /36as^ 
i^ ^EpvOeia^; KOfii^eiv, ^EpvOeta Se ffv *£lK€ca/ov 
irXriaiov fceifUvrj vrja-o^, tj vvv TdBeipa Kokeirai. 
ravTTjv KaT^K€i Tr)pv6pr)<: Xpvadopo<: xal Ka\- 
XippoTf^ T^9 ^Clfceavov, rpL&v ^xi^v dvhp&v avfi- 
^v€<; a&fia, avvrfyfiivop^ eh ^v Karh r^v jcLaripa, 
ia'xiafiivov Sc* €49 Tpel<i airo Xayovcov re kuI 
firjp&v, 6l%6 Se ^OLViKa^ ^6a^, &v ^v fiovKoXo^ 
KvpvTLcop, ^v\a^ Be "OpOo^i^ 6 kv(ov SifC€<f>a\o^ i^ 
'E;^tSj/i;9 fcal Tv<f>&vo^ yey evvrjfiivo^.^ iropevo- 
fievo^ ovv €7rl rh^ Trjpvovov fioa^ Bi& rrj^ Evpci- 
TTTj^, aypia iroWh <^£a> dveXcbv'^ Aifivrj^ iiri- 
^aive? Kol 7rap€\0a)v TapTtjaa-ov eaTrjae a-rjfieia 
T^ TTOpeia^ iirl r&v optov Evpa>7rrf<; seal AijSvrf^ 

^ iirtrtiyri E : S^ irdyri A. * fi6as E : fiovs A, 

' ffvtnrffiivov fifv Bekker. * Bt He^ne : tc A 

* "Opdos Pediasmus, De Hercvlis laborihus, 10 : "OpBpos A. 
See exegetical note on this passage. 

* y€ytvriiit4pos BC. 

' it6K\a <.(^a> ivfXioy Wagner (comparing Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 17. 3) : w6\\a iraptxeiiv A. 

* M^i\ Scholiast on Plato, Timaeue, p. 24 e, Hercher. 

^ As to Hercules and the cattle of Geryon, see Hesiod, 
Theog. 287-294, 979-983 ; Pindar, Frag. 169 (151), ed. Sandys ; 
Herodotus, iv. 8 ; Plato, Oorgias, 39, p. 484 b ; Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 17 sq. ; Pausanias, iii. 18. 13, iv. 36. 3 ; Quintus 
Smymaeus, Poathomerica,yi, 249 sqq,; J. Tzetzes, ChUiadea, 
ii. 322-352 (who seems to follow ApoUodorus) ; Scholiast on 
Plato, Timaeus, p. 24 k ; Pliny, Nat, Hist, iv. 120 ; Solinus, 
xxiii. 12 ; Servius, on Virgil, Aen, viii. 300. 

^ Compare Herodotus, iv. 8 ; Strabo, iii. 2. 11, p. 148, 
iii. 5 4, p. 169; Pliny, Nat, Hist, iv. 120; Solinus, xxiiL 12. 
Gadira is Cadiz. According to Pliny (Z.c), the name is de- 
rived from a Punic word gcSir, meaning ** hedge." Compare 
Dionysius, Perieg. 453 eqq. The same word agadir is still 

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As a tenth labour he was ordered to fetch the kine 
of Geryon from Erjthia.^ Now Erjthia was an 
island near the ocean ; it is now called Gadira.^ 
This island was inhabited by Geryon, son of Chrysaor 
by Callirrhoe, daughter of Ocean. He had the body 
of three men grown together and joined in one at 
the waist, but parted in three from the flanks and 
thighs.' He owned red kine, of which Eurytion 
was the herdsman and Orthus,^ the two-headed hound, 
begotten by Typhon on Echidna, was the watch-dog. 
So journeying through Europe to fetch the kine of 
Geryon he destroyed many wild beasts and set foot 
in Libya^** and proceeding to Tartessus he erected as 
tokens of his journey two pillars over against each 

used in the south of Morocco in the sense of ^'fortified house/' 
and many places in that country bear the name. Amongst 
them the port of Agadir is the best known. See £. Douttd, 
En trihu (Paris, 1914), pp. 50 sq. The other name of the 
island is given by Solinus {l.c,) in the form Erythrea, and by 
Mela (iii. 47) in the form Eythria. 

^ As to .the triple form of Geryon, compare Hesiod, Theog. 
287 ; Aeschylus, Agamemnon^ 870 ; Euripides, Hercules 
Furena, 423 aq.\ Scholiast on Plato, Timaeua, p. 24 e ; 
Pausanias, v. 19. 1 : Lucian, Toxa/ris, 62 ; Tzetzes, Schol. 
on Lycophroriy 652; Lucretius, v. 28; Horace, Odea, ii. 14. 
7 sq.; Virgil, Aen. vi. 289; Ovid, Metamorph, ix. 184 sq.; 
Hyginus, Fab, 30 and 151. 

* The watchdog's name is variouslygiven as Orthus (Otihoa) 
and Orthrus {Ormroa), See Hesiod, Theog, 293 (where Orthoa 
seems to be the better reading) ; Quintus Smymaeus, Poat- 
homerica, vi. 253 {Orikroa) ; Scholiast on Pindar, lathm, i. 
\Z(\S)(0r1hoa) ; Scholiast on Plato, Timaeua, p. ^^{Orihroa, 
so Stallbaum); J. Tzetzes, Chiliadea, ii. 333 (Orthroa); 
Pediasmus, De HercvUia laboribua, 10 (Orthoa) ; Servius, on 
Virgil, Aen, viii. 300 {Orthrua), 

^ Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 17. 3 aq,, who says that 
Hercules completely cleared Crete of wild beasts, and that he 
subdued many of the wild beasts in the deserts of Libya and 
rendered the land fertile and prosperous. 

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avTiaToixov^ hvo <nrjka^> depofievo^^ hi xmo 
'HXtou Kara rr^v wopeiav, to to^ov iiri top deov 
€p4t€IV€V 6 Sk TT/v avSpcUiv avTOv davfjidaa^ 
Xpvo-^ov lBa)K€ Siira^, iv c5 tov ^ilfceavbv Bieire- 
pa<T€, fcal irapayevofievo^ €a9 ^Epvdeiav iv opei 
"AfiavTi aif\l^€Tai, ata06fi€vo^ Be 6 xve»>v eir 
avTov &pfia* 6 Be xal tovtov t& poirdX(o iraUi, 

* 0tp6fi9vos R, Pediasmiis, De Herculis lahorihuSf 10 : Otp- 
fxaiv6fjLtvos A. 

^ The opinions of the ancients were much divided on the 
subject of the Pillars of Hercules. See Strabo, iii. 6. 5, 
pp. 169-172. The usual opinion apparently identified them 
with the rock of Calpe (Gibraltar) and the rock of Abyla, 
Abila, or Abylica (Ceuta) on the northern and southern sides 
of the straits. See Strabo, iii. 5. 5, p. 170 ; Tzetzes, 
SchoL on Lycophron, 649 ; Plin^, Nat Htat iii. 4 ; Mela, i. 
27, ii. 95 ; Martianus Capella, vi. 624. Further, it seems to 
have been commonly supposed that before the time of Her- 
cules the two continents were here joined by an isthmus, and 
that the hero cut through the isthmus and so created the 
straits. See Diodorug Siculus, iv. 18. 5 ; Seneca, Hercules 
furens, 235 sqq.; id. Hercules Oetaeus, 1240 ; Pliny, ^.c; Mela, 
i. 27 ; Martianus Capella, vi. 625. Some people, however, on the 
contrary, thought that the straits were formerly wider, and 
that Hercules narrowed them to prevent the monsters of the 
Atlantic ocean from bursting into the Mediterranean (Diodorus 
Siculus, Z.C.). An entirely different opinion identified the 
Pillars of Hercules with two brazen pillars in the sanctuary 
of Hercules at Gadira (Cadiz), on which was engraved an 
inscription recording the cost of buildinc the temple. See 
Strabo, iii. 5. 5, p. 170; compare Pliny, Nat, Hist. ii. 242, 
who speaks of **the columns of Hercules consecrated at 
Gadira." For other references to the Pillars of Hercules, see 
Pindar, Olymp. iii. 43 sq.^ Nem, iii. 21, Isthm. iv. 11 sq.; 
Athenaeus, vii. 98, p. 315 CD ; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 339 
(who here calls the pillars Alybe and Abinna) ; Scholiast on 
Plato, Timaeiis, p. 24 B ; Dionysius, Orbis Descriptio, 64-68, 
with the commentary of Eustathius {Geographi Oraeci 

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other at the boundaries of Europe and Libya. ^ But 
being heated by the Sun on his journey; he bent 
his bow at the god, who in admiration of his hardi- 
hood, gave him a golden goblet in which he crossed 
the ocean. ^ And having reached Erythia he lodged 
on Mount Abas. However the dog, perceiving him, 
rushed at him ; but he smote it with his club, and 

MinoreSf ed. C. Miiller, ii. pp. 107, 228). According to Eusta- 
thius (Z.C.), Calpe was the name given to the rock of Gibraltar 
by the barbarians, but its Greek name was Alybe ; and the 
rock of Ceuta was called Abenna by the barbarians but by 
the Greeks Cynesetica, that is, the Hunter's Rock. He tells 
us further that the pillars were formerly named the Pillars 
of Cronus, and afterwards the Pillars of Briareus. 

^ Apollodorus seems to be here following Pherecydes, as 
we learn from a passage which Athenaeus (xi. 39, p. 470 o d) 
quotes from the third book of Pherecydes as follows : ** And 
Hercules drew his bow at him as if he would shoot, and the 
Sun bade him give over ; so Hercules feared and gave over. 
And in return the Sun bestowed on him the golden goblet 
wliich carried him with his horses, when he set, through the 
Ocean all night to the east, where the Sun rises. Then 
Hercules journeyed in that goblet to £rythia. And when he 
was on the open sea, Ocean, to make trial of him, caused the 
goblet to heave wildly on the waves. Hercules was about to 
shoot him with an arrow ; and the Ocean was afraid, and 
bade him give over." Stesichorus described the Sun embark- 
ing in a golden goblet that he might cross the ocean in the 
darkness of night and come to his mother, his wedded wife, 
and children dear. See Athenaeus, xi. 38, p. 468 E ; compare 
id, xi. 16, p. 781 d. The voyage of Hercules in the colden 
goblet was also related by the early poets Pisander and Pan- 
yasis in the poems, both called Heraclia, which they devoted 
to the exploits of the great hero. See Athenaeus, xi. 38, 
p. 469 d; compare Macrobius, Saturn., v. 21. 16 and 19. 
Another poet, Mimnermus, supposed that at night the weary 
Sun slept in a golden bed, which floated across the sea to 
Ethiopia, where a chariot with fresh horses stood ready for 
him to mount and resume his dail^ journey across the sky. 
See Athenaeus, xi. 39, p. 470 a. 


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direKreive, McvotTiy? Si ixei rh^ ^'AiBov fioa^ 
86<r/ea>v Ttfpvovp ro yeyovo^ atrriyyeiKev. o Be 
fcara\afia)v 'Upa/cXia iraph iroraphv ^ KvOepjovirra 
Ta9 poa^ aTTayopra, avarrjadfievo^ P^X'l^ ro^ev- 
deU aireOavev, 'Hpa/cX?)? Se ivOifievo^ tA? I36a<; 
eh 70 Biira^ xal SiaTrXevaa^ eh TapTtfacov 
'HXt^ TToXip aireBeoKc to Biira^, 

AieXOwp Bk ^AlSBffpiap^ eh AiyvarLPtjp^ fiXJdep, 
€P r} tA? fioa^ cuf>rfpovPTo *Ia\€fiia)P^ re fcal Ae/o- 
Kvpo^ oi UoaeiB&po^ vloC, 0&9 tcreipa^ Bid Tup/wy- 
pia^ ^ei, diro ^Prjyiov Be eh diroppijypvai ravpo^, 

^ *kBh)piav Heyne : abhriplav or itviriplav A : *l$riplav Oale. 

' Avyiffrlvriy Gale (compare Diodorus Sicuhis iv. 19. 4, 
itroltiiraro rh^ Ttoptiay itii rris AtyvariK^s) : Aiy6riv He3me, con- 
jecturing Alyvas : Atfivriv A, J. Tzetzes, ChUiadefi^ ii. 340. 

« XaK^lwv R : kK^&iav A. 

^ Compare Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 652, who 
probably follows Apollodorus. 

• Abderia, the territory of Abdera, a Phoenician city of 
southern Spain, not to m confused with the better known 
Abdera in Thrace. See Strabo, iii. 4. 3, p. 157 ; Stephanna 
Byzantius, a,v, "AB^ripa. 

' Apollodorus has much abridged a famous adventure of 
Hercules in Liguria. Passing through the country with the 
herds of Qeryon, he was attacked by a great multitude of the 
warlike natives, who tried to rob him of the cattle. For a 
time he repelled them with his bow, but his supply of arrows 
running short he was reduced to great straits ; for the 
ground, being soft earth, afforded no stones to be used as 
missiles. So he prayed to his father Zeus, and the god in 
pity rained down stones from the sky ; and by picking them 
up and hurling them at his foes, the hero was able to turn 
the tables on them. The place where this adventure took 
place was said to be a plain between Marseilles and the 
Rhone, which was called the Stony Plain on account of t^e 
vast quantity of stones, about as large sis a man's hand, 


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THE LIBRARY, 11. v. lo 

when the herdsman Eurytion came to the help of the 
dog, Hercules killed him also. But Menoetes, who 
was there pasturing the kine of Hades, reported to 
Gcryon what had occurred, and he, coming up with 
Hercules heside the river Anthemus,^ as he was 
driving away the kine, joined battle with him and 
was shot dead. And Hercules, embarking the kine 
in the goblet and sailing across to Tartessus, gave 
back the goblet to the Sun. 

And passing through Abderia ^ he came to 
Liguria,^ where lalebion and Dercynus, sons of 
Poseidon, attempted to rob him of the kine, but 
he killed them ^ and went on his way through 
Tyrrhenia. But at Rhegium a bull broke away* 

which were scattered thickly over it. In his play Promethetts 
Unbound, Aeschylus introduced this story in the form of a 
prediction put in the mouth of Prometheus and addressed 
to his deliverer Hercules. See Strabo, iv. 1. 7, pp. 182 8q.; 
Dionysius Halicamasensis, Aniiq, Rom. i. 41 ; Euttathius, 
Commentary on Dionyaiua Periegetes, 76 {Otographi Oraeci 
Minores, ed. C. Miiller, ii. 231) ; Hysinns, Aetronom, ii. 6 ; 
Tragicorum Qraecorum Fragmenta, ed. A. Nauck^ pp. 66 *g. 
The Stony Plain is now called the Plaine de la Grau. It 
"attracts the attention of all travellers between Aries and 
Marseilles, since it is intersected by the railway that joins 
those two cities. It forms a wide level area, extending for 
many square miles, which is covered with round rolled stones 
from the size of a pebble to that of a man's head. These are 
supposed to have oeen brought down from the Alps by the 
Durance at some early period, when this plain was submerged 
and formed the bed of what was then a bay of the Mediterra- 
nean at the mouth of that river and the Rhone " (H.F. Tozer, 
Seleetiona from Strabo, p. 117). 

^ Compare J. Tzetzes, OhUiades, ii. 340 aqq,, who calls the 
victims Dercynus and Alebion. 

' The author clearly derives the name of Rhegium from 
this incident {iHiyiov from itiropff4iypv(ri). The story of the 
escape of the bull, or heifer, and the pursuit of it by Hercules 
was told by Hellanicus. See Diunysius Halicarnasensis, 


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{Tvpprjvol yap iraXov top ravpov i/cdXeaav),]^ 
Tjkdev eU ireSiov "'Epvxo^, 09 i^aaiXeuev ^E\vfiG)v. 
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aXKtov iirl rbv ^loviov ijXavve irovrov. 0)9 Se 
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airoXsL^OeiaaL ro Xotnov fjaav aypiai, fioXi^ Sc 
r&v po&v avveXdova&v %rpvfi6va fiefiyjrdfievo^ 
rov irorafiov, rrdXai ro peidpov irXoyrbv ov ifi- 
7rX^<ra9 irkrpai^; airXayrov iiroirja-e, Kal ra^ I36a<; 

^ r^p Air* iKflvov . . . 4Kd\€(rav omitted by Wagner. Heyne 
proposed to omit these words, together with ttie preceding 
Kal rifv ir^rifflov x^^P*" ^'•A^^»', and he is followed by Hercher. 

AnUq. Rom, i. 35. 2. It is somewhat singular that Apollo- 
dorus passes so lightly over the exploits of Hercules in Italy, 
and in particular that he says nothing about those adventures 
of his at Rome, to which the Romans attached much signifi- 
cance. For the Italian adventures of the hero, and his 
sojourn in Rome, see Diodorus Siculua, iv. 20-22 ; Dionysius 
Halicamasensis, Antiq, Rom. i. 34 sq„ 38-44 ; Propertius, 
iv. ; Virgil, Aen, viii. 201 aqq.; Ovid, FiiaU, i. 543 sqq. On 
the popularity of the worship of Hercules in Italy, see 


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and hastily plunging into the sea swam across to 
Sicily^ and having passed through the neighbouring 
country since called Italy after it, for the Tyrrhenians 
called the bull italus,^ came to the plain of Eryx, 
who reigned over the Ely mi. ^ Now Eryx was a son 
of Poseidon, and he mingled the bull with his own 
herds. So Hercules entrusted the kine to Hephaes- 
tus and hurried away in search of the bull. He 
found it in the herds of Eryx, and when the king 
refused to surrender it unless Hercules should beat 
him in a wrestling bout, Hercules beat him thrice, 
killed him in the wrestling, and taking the bull 
drove it with the rest of the herd to the Ionian Sea. 
But when he came to the creeks of the sea, Hera 
afflicted the cows with a gadfly, and they dispersed 
among the skirts of the mountains of Thrace. 
Hercules went in pursuit, and having caught some, 
drove them to the Hellespont ; but the remainder 
were thenceforth wild.* Having with difficulty 
collected the cows, Hercules blamed the river Stry- 
mon, and whereas it had been navigable before, he 
made it unnavigable by filling it with rocks ; and he 

Dionysius Halicamasensis, Aniiq. Rom, i. 40. 6, who says : 
** And in many other parts of Italy (besides Rome) precincts 
are consecrated to the god. and altars are set up both in cities 
and beside roads ; and hardly will you find a place in Italy 
where the god is not honoured " 

^ Some of the ancients supposed that the name of Italy 
was derived from the Latin vitulus, **a calf." See Varro, 
Rerum RuaHcarum, ii. 1. 9; Dionysius Halicamasensis, 
Antiq, Rom, i. 35. 2 ; compare Aulus Gellius, xi. 1. 2. 

^ As to Herculus and Eryx, see Diodorus Siculus, iv. 23. 2 ; 
Pausanias, iii. 16. 4 sq., iv. .36. 4 ; J. Tzetzes, Chiliadea^ ii. 
346 aqq.', id, Schol, on Lycophron^ 866; Virgil, Aen, v. 410 
sqq, ; Servius, on Virgil, Aen, i. 570. 

' The story was apparently told to account for the origin 
of wild cattle in Thrace. 


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KiffwaOet tcofiiaa^ SiBmKCP. 6 &€ airra^ Karre- 

11 T€\€<r0iprav Be r&v aOXtov iv firjvi teal erreaiv 
ofcrd, fit) irpotrSe^dfiepo^ EvpvcOev^ rov re r&v 
Tov \vyeov fio<r/er)fidro9v teal rbv rr}^ vBpa^, evBe- 

^ This period for the completion of the labours of Hercules 
is mentioned also by the Scholiast on Homer {II, viii. 368) 
and Tzetzes {ChUiaaea, ii. 353 ^g.)* both of whom, however, 
may have had the present passage of ApoUodoms before 
them. It is possible that the period refers to the eight years' 
(^cle, which figured prominently in the religious calenaar of 
the ancient Greeks; for example, the Pytman games were 
originally held at intervals of eight years. See Greminus, 
Element, Aetron. viii. 25 aqq, ed. C. Manitius ; Censorinus, 
De die ncUali, 18. It is to be remembered that the period of 
service performed by Hercules for Eurystheus was an expia- 
tion for the murder of his children (see ApoUodoms, ii. 4. 12). 
Now Cadmus is said to have served Ares for eight years as 
an expiation for the slaughter of the dragon, the ofiFspring of 
Ares (see ApoUodoms, iii. 4. 2). But in those days, we are 
told, the ''eternal year'* comprised eight common years 
(ApoUodoms, Z.c). Now Apollo served Admetus for a year 
as an expiation for the slaughter of the Cyclopes (ApoUodoms, 
iii. 10. 4) ; but according to Servius (on Vir^, Aen, vii. 761), 
the period of ApoUo's service was not one but nine years. In 
makmg this statement Servius, or his authority, probably 
had before him a Greek author, who mentioned an iv^taiiipU 
as the period of ApoUo's service. But though ^yveanfpls 
means literally "nine years," the period, in consequence of 
the Greek moae of reckoning, was actually equivalent to eight 
years (compare CJehus, De aie natcUi, 18. 4, " Octaeteria facta, 
quae tunc enneateria vocitcUa, quia primua ejus annus nono 
quoque anno redibat*^). These legends about the servitude 
of Cadmus, Apollo, and Hercules for ei^ht years, render it 
probable that in ancient times Greek homicides were banished 
for eight years, and had during that time to do penance by 
serving a foreigner. Now this period of eight years was 
called a " great year" (Censorinns, De die natali, 18. 5), and 
the period of l)anishment for a homicide was regularly a 


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THE LIBRARY, II. t. io-ii 

conveyed the kine and gave them to Eurystheus, who 
sacrificed them to Hera. 

When the labours had been performed in eight 
years and a month,i Eurystheus ordered Hercules, as 
an eleventh labour, to fetch golden apples from the 

year. See Apollodorus, ii. 8. 3 ; Euripides, Hippolytua, 34-37, 
id, Orestes, 1643-1645 ; Nicolaus Damasceuus, Frag. 20 
. (FragmerUa Historicorum Qraecorum, ed. C. Miiller, iii. 369) ; 
Hesychius, s,v, hxeviavriaiUt ; Saidas, a.v. kw^vavriffai. Hence 
it seems probable that, though u\ later times the period of a 
homicide 8 banishment was a single ordinary year, it may 
formerly have been a "great year," or period of eight 
ordinary years. It deserves to be noted that any god who 
had forsworn himself by the Styx had to expiate his fault by 
silence and fasting for a full year, after which he was 
banished the company of the gods for nine years (Hesiod, 
Theog, 793-804) ; and further that any man who partook of 
human flesh in the rites of Lycaean Zeus was supposed to 
be turned into a wolf for nine years. See Pausanias, viii. 2 ; 
Pliny, Nat, Hist, viii. 81 ; Augustine, De eivitate Dei, xviii. 
17. These notions point to a nine years' period of expiation, 
which may have been observed in some places instead of the 
eight years' period. In the present passage of Apollodorus, 
the addition of a month to the eight years' period creates a 
difficulty which I am unable to exj^ain. Ancient mathemat- 
icians defined a ''great year" as the period at the end of 
which the sun, moon, and planets asain occupy the same 
positions relatively to each other which they occupied at the 
beginning ; but on the length of the period opinions were much 
divided. See Cicero, De natura deiyrum, ii. 20. 61 aq. Differ- 
ent, apparently, from the "great year" was the "revolving" 
{vertens) or "mundane" {mundanus) year, which was the 
period at the end of which, not only the sun, moon, and 
planets, but also the so-called fixed stars again occupy the 
positions relatively to each other which they occupied at the 
beginning; for the ancients recognized that the so-called fixed 
stars do move, though their motion is imperceptible to our 
senses. The length of a "revolving" or "mundane" year 
was calculated by ancient physicists at fifteen thousand years. 
See Cicero, Somnium Scipionis, 7, with the commentary of 
Macrobius, ii. 11. 


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fcarov cTTcrafei/ iffXop trap ^EaneplSayv XP^^^ 
fifjXa KOfd^eiv} ravra hk fiv, ovx ^9 rive^ elirov 
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j3\r}0€U Kcpavpo^ /i€(ro9 afJL<l>OTipa)v BiaXvci ttjv 

^ KoulCfiv Aegius : Ko/ilawp RA. 

^ All <.rn> yfifiatnt^Hpay Valckeoar (comparing Scholiast 
on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon, iv. 1396) : Ati 7^/iavTt*Hpa A. 

' 'Effirtpla *Ap40ov<ra Gale, Aegius : itrria ipiBowa A. 

^ As to the apples of the Hesperides, see Hesiod, Theog. 
216 sq, ; Euripides, Hercules Furens, 394 aqq, ; Apollonius 
Rhodius, Argon, iv. 1396 agg., with the Scholiast on 1396; 
Diodorus Siculus, iv. 26; Pausanias. v. 11. 6, v. 18. 4, 
vi. 19. 8; Eratosthenes, CcUaster, 3; J. Tzetzes, ChUiadeSy 
ii. 355 bqq,\ Ovid, Metamorph. iv. 637 sqq,, ix. 190; 
Hyginus, Fab, 30 ; id, Astronom. ii. 3; Scholia in Cciesaria 
Oermanici Aratea, pp. 382 aq., in Martianus Capella, 
ed. Fr. Eyssenhardt; Scriptorea rerum mythicarum IxUini, 
ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 13 *g., 130 (First Vatican 
Mythographer, 38 ; Second Vatican Mythographer, 161). 
From the Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius (Z.c.) we leani 
that the story of Hercules and the apples of the Hesper- 
ides was told by Pherecydes in the second book of his 
work on the marriage of Hera. The close resemblance which 
the Scholiast's narrative bears to that of ApoUodorus seems 
to show that here, as in many other places, our author 
followed Pherecydes. The account given by Pherecydes of 
the origin of the golden apples is as follows. When Zeas 
married Hera, the gods brought presents to the bride. Among 
the rest, Earth broueht golden apples, which Hera so mucn 
admired that she ordered them to be planted in the garden 

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Hesperides,^ for he did not acknowledge the labour 
of the cattle of Augeas nor that of the hydra. These 
apples were not, as some have said, in Libya, but on 
Atlas among the Hyperboreans. ^ They were pre- 
sented by Earth to Zeus after his marriage with Hera, 
and guarded by an immortal dragon with a hundred 
heads, offspring of Typhon and Echidna, which spoke 
with many and divers sorts of voices. With it the 
Hesperides also were on guard, to wit, Aegle, Ery- 
thia, Hesperia, and Arethusa. So journeying he 
came to the river Echedorus. And Cycnus, son of 
Ares and Pyrene, challenged him to single combat. 
Ares championed the cause of Cycnus and marshalled 
the combat, but a thunderbolt was hurled between 
the two and parted the combatants.^ And going on 

of the gods beside Mount Atlas. But, as the daughters of 
Atlas used to pilfer the golden fruit, she set a huge serpent 
to guard the tree. Such is the story told, on the authority 
of Pherecydes, by Eratosthenes, Hyginus {Astronom. ii. 3), 
and the Scholiast on the ArcUea of Germanicus. 

2 Here Apollodorus departs from the usual version, which 
placed the gardens of the Hesperides in the far west, not the 
far north. We have seen that Hercules is said to have gone 
to the far north to fetch the hind with the golden horns (see 
above, ii. 5. 3 note) ; also he is reported to have brought 
from the laud of the Hyperboreans the olive spray which was 
to form the victor's crown at the Olympic games. See Pindar, 
Olymp. iii. 11 (20) sqq.; Pausanias, v. 7. 7, compare id.v. 15. 3. 

• Compare Hyginus, Fab. 31, who describes the interven- 
tion of Mars (Ares) on the side of his son Cycnus, and the fall 
of the thunderbolt which parted the combatants ; yet he says 
that Hercules killed Cycnus. This combat, which, according 
to Apollodorus, ended indecisively, was supposed to have 
been fought in Macedonia, for the Echedorus was a Mace- 
donian river (Herodotus, vii. 124, 127). Accordingly we 
must distinguish this contest from another and more famous 
fight which Hercules fought with another son of Ares, also 
called Cycnus, near Pagasae in Thessaly. See Apollodorus, 
ii. 7. 7, with the note. Apparently Hyginus confused the 
two oombati. 


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yrj<: iaxvpinepov^ avpifiaipe^ ylpeaOai, Bio Kal 

Frj^ rtpe^ l(f>aaap tovtop elpai iraiBa, 

Merd Aifivrjp Be Aiyvirrop Bie^ei,^ ravrtf^; 

^ <rirc^8etfv Aeffius : <l>€vywy A. 

^ kfifioffi R, Scholiast on Plato, I/awg, vii. p. 796 a : 6fi- 

fJMOi A. 

^ tirxvpi^Tcpoi^ R : lexvp^rarov A. 

* irvv4^tvM R, Scholiast on Plato, Laws, vii. p. 796 a : 
ffvvi^H A. 

' 8tff{]fct Faber : ^Ipci A. 

^ The meeting of Hercules with the nymphs, and his 
struggle with Nereus, are related also by the Scholiast on 
ApoUbnius Rhodius, Argon, iv. 1396, citing as his authority 
Pherecydes, whom Apollodorus also probably follows. The 
transformations of the reluctant sea-god Nereus in his en- 

iter with Hercules are like those of the reluctant sea-god 

«us in his encounter with Menelaus (Homer, Od, iv. 354- 
, and those of the reluctant sea-goddess Thetis with her 
r Peleus (see below, iii. 13. 5). 

As to Hercules and Antaeus, see Pindar, Isthm. iv. 52 (87) 
, with the Scholiast on 62 (87) and 64 (92) ; Diodorus 
lus, iv. 17. 4 ; Pausanias, ix. 11. 6 ; Philostratos, 
ginea, ii. 21 ; Quintus Smymaeus, Poathomerica, vi. 
aqq,; J. Tzetzes, Chiliadea, ii. 363 aqq, ; Scholiast on 
o, Lawa, vii. p. 796 a (whose account agrees alnioit 
liUy with that of Apollodorus) ; Ovid, Jfiw, 393-395, 

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Foot through Ill3rria and hastening to the river 

firidanus he came to the nymphs, the daughters of 

Zeus and Themis. They revealed Nereus to him, 

and Hercules seized him while he slept, and though 

the god turned himself into all kinds of shapes, the 

liero bound him and did not release him till he had 

learned from him where were the apples and the 

Hesperides.^ Being informed, he traversed Libya. 

That country was then ruled by Antaeus, son of 

Poseidon,* who used to kill strangers by forcing 

them to wrestle. Being forced to wrestle with him, 

Hercules hugged him, lifted him aloft,^ broke and 

killed him ; for when he touched earth so it was that 

he waxed stronger, wherefore some said that he was 

a son of Earth. 

After Libya he traversed Egypt. That country 

with the Scholia ; Hyginus, Fab, 31 ; Luoan, Pharsal, iv. 
588-655 ; Juvenal, Sat. iii. 89 ; Statius, Theb. vi. 893 
sqq.; Lactantios Placidus, on Statius, Thib, vi. 869 (894) ; 
Scriptorea rerum myihicarum LaHnif ed. G. H. Bode, 
vol. i. pp. 19, 131 (First Vatican Mythographer, 55 ; 
Second Vatican Mythographer, 164). According to Pindar, 
the truculent giant used to roof the teinple of his sire 
Poseidon with the skulls of his victims. The fable of his 
regaining strength through contact with his mother Earth 
is dwelt on by Lucan with his usual tedious prolixity. It is 
briefly alluded to by Ovid, Juvenal, and Statius. Antaeus 
is said to have reigned in western Morocco, on the Atlantic 
coast. Here a hillock was pointed out as his tomb, and the 
natives believed that the removal of soil from the hillock 
would be immediately followed by rain, which would not 
cease till the earth was replaced. See Mela, iii. 106. Ser- 
torius is said to have excavated the supposed tomb and to 
have found a skeleton sixty cubits long. See Plutarch, 
Sertorius, 9 ; Strabo, xvii. 3. 8, p. 829. 

s More literally, "lifted him aloft with hugs." For this 
technical term (&fifia) applied to a wrestler's hug, see Plutarch, 
Fc^u8 Maximus, 2S, and AlcibiadeSf 2. 


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efiaaiXeve ^ovtnpt^ Tiotreih&vo^ iral^ xai Ava-ia- 

pcurarj^ rrj^ *E7ra<f>ov, o5to9 tov^ ^evov^ edvev 

cttI /3cofi^ At09 fcard ri \6yioP' ivvia yap errj 

a<l>opia rrjv Atyvirrov KariXa/Se, ^pcurio^^ he 

i\0a>v ifc Kvirpov, fidvri^ rr^v iirio'T'^firjv, etfyrj 

* fppdffios A, Heyne, Westermann, Muller : <pp<iyios E : 
Spdffios Aegius, Bekker, Hercher. Compare Ovid, Ars 
Amat, i. 649 sg. {Thrasiwi) ; Hyginus, Fab, 56 (Thasius). 

* For Hercules and Busiris, see Diodorus Siculus, iv. 
18. 1, iv. 27. ^8q.\ Plutarch, ParaUela, 38; Scholiast on 
Apollonius Rhodius, Argon, iv. 1396 ; Tzetzes, Schoh on 
Lycophron, ii. 367 sq-; Ovid, Metamorph. ix. IS2 sq.; id., 
Ara Amat. i. 647-652 ; Scholia on Ovid, Ibis, 397 (p. 72, 
ed. R. Ellis) ; Hyginus, Fab. 31 and 56 ; Servius, on Virgil, 
Aen. viii. 300 and Oeorg. iii. 5 ; Philargyrius, on Virgil, 
Qeorg. iii. 5; Lactantius Placidus, on Statius, Theh. xii. 
165. Ovid, with his Scholiasts, Hyginus and Philargyrius, 
like Apollodorus, allege a nine or eight years' dearth or 
drought as the cause of the human sacrifices instituted by 
Busiris. Their account may be derived from Pherecydes, 
who is the authority cited by the Scholiast on Apollo- 
nius Rhodius {I.e.). Hyginus {Fab. 66) adds that the 
seer Phrasius, who advised the sacrifice, was a brother of 
Pygmalion. Herodotus, without mentioning Busiris, scouts 
the story on the ground that human sacrifices were utterly 
alien to the spirit of Egyptian religion (Herodotus, ii. 45). 
Isocrates also discredited the tradition, in so far as it relates 
to Hercules, because Hercules was four generations younger, 
and Busiris more than two hundred years older, than Perseus. 
See Isocrates, Busiris, 15. Yet there are grounds for think- 
ing that the Greek tradition was substantially correct. For 
Manetho, our highest ancient authority, definitely afBrmed 
that in the city of Ilithyia it was customary to bum alive 
**T3rphonian men" and to scatter their ashes by means of 
winnowing fans (Plutarch, Isis et Osiris, 73). These " Ty- 
phonian men" were red haired, because Tjrphon, the Egyptian 
embodiment of evil, was also red-haired (Plutarch, Isis et 
Osiris, 30 and 33). But red-haired men would commonly be 
foreigners, in contrast to the black-haired natives of Egypt ; 
and it was just foreigners who, according to Greek tradition, 


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was then ruled by Busiris,^ a son of Poseidon by 
Lysianassa, daughter of Epaphus. This Busiris used 
to sacrifice strangers on an altar of Zeus in accordance 
with a certain oracle. For Egypt was visited with 
dearth for nme years, and Phrasius, a learned seer 
who had come from Cyprus, said that the dearth 

were chosen as victims. Diodorus Siculus points this out 
(i. 88. 5) in confirmation of the Greek tradition, and he tells 
us that the red-haired men were sacrificed at the grave of 
Osiris, though this statement may be an inference from his 
etymology of the name Busiris, which he explains to mean 
** grave of Osiris." The etymology is correct, Busiris being 
a Greek rendering of the Egyptian bu-As-iri, "place of 
Oairis." See A. Wiedemann, aerodota Zweitea Buck ( Leipsic, 
1890), p. 213. Porphyry informs us, on the authority of 
Manetho, that the Egyptian custom of sacrificing human 
beings at the City of the Sun was suppressed by Amosis 
(Amasis), who ordered waxen effigies to be substituted for 
the victims. He adds that the human victims used to be 
examined just like calves for the sacrifice, and that they were 
sealed in token of their fitness for the altar. See Porphyry, 
De abstinerUia, iii. 35. Sextus Empiricus even speaks of 
human sacrifices in Egypt as if they were practised down to 
his own time, which was about 200 a.d. See Sextus Empiri- 
cus, p. 173, ed. Bekker. Seleucus wrote a special treatise on 
human sacrifices in Egypt ( Athenaeus, iv. 72, p. 172 D). In 
view of these facts, the Greek tradition that the sacrifices 
were offered in order to restore the fertility of the land or to 
procure rain after a long drought, and that on one occasion 
the king himself was the victim, may be not without signifi- 
cance. For kings or chiefs have been often sacrificed under 
similar circumstances (see ApoUodorus, iii. 6. 1 ; Adonis, AUis, 
Osiris, 3rd ed. ii. 97 sqq, ; The Magic Art and the EvolU' 
tion of Kings, i. 344 sqq., S52 sqq.) ; and in ancient Egypt the 
rulers are defiinitely said to have been held responsible for the 
failure of the crops (Ammianus Marcellinus, xxviii. 5. 14) ; 
hence it would not be surprising if in extreme cases they 
were put to death. Busiris was the theme of a Satyric play 
by Euripides. See Tragicorum Qraecorum Fragmenta, ed. 
A. Nauck^, pp. 452 aq, 

225 . 

VOL. 1. Q 

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rijv a<f>opiav ^ iravaaadai iav ^evov avhpa rw Ail 
atpd^ayai tear eVo?. ^ovaipi^ he eKelvov irpHnov 
<T(f>a^a^ Tov fidvTCP tou9 KanovTa^ ^evov^ €(T<f>a^€. 
avWi]<t>0€l<; oiv teal 'HpaK\rj<; Tol<i ^w/jloI': irpoa- 
€(f>€p€TO TCi Be heapM hiappri^a^ tov t€ ^ovaipiv 
/cal TOV i/c€LPOv iraiSa *A/jL(f>iBdiJLaPTa direKTeive, 

^le^iwv Be ^Aaiav^ &€pfivBpa2<i, AipBlcop^ Xt- 
fievi, Trpoaic'xei, koI jSorjXdrov tipo<; Xvaa^: tov 
€T€pov T&p Tavpcop o-TTO TTJ^ dfid^rff; evcox^lTO 
Ovaa^. 6 Be fioi]\dTi](; fiorfffeip eavTcp /jlt) Bvvd- 
pLevof; (TTa? eiri tipo^ opov<: xaTTjpdTO, Bio fcal 
pvv, eireiBcip ffvotaip *tipa/c\el, fieTa KaTaptav 
TOVTO irpdTTovai. 

^ We should perhaps read rf/V itipoplw tiy iravaaaBai. 
« ^alay ER : iialas A. 
3 AtvSfcDV ER : \ahia>v A. 

^ The Scholiast on ApoUonius Rhodius {Argon, iv. 1396) 
calls him Iphidamas, and adds " the herald Chalbes and the 
attendants ' to the list of those slain by Hercules. 

2 Thermydra is the form of the name given by Stephanas 
Byzantius {s.v.). In his account of this incident Tzetzes calls 
the harbour Thermydron {ChiUades, ii. 385). Lindus was one 
of the chief cities of Rhodes. 

' Compare Conon, Narrat. 11 ; Philostratus, Imagines, ii. 
24; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 385 sqq.; Lactantius, Divin. 
Inst, i. 21. According to all these writers except Tzetzes 
(who clearly follows ApoUodorus), Hercules's victim in this 
afi^ir was not a waggoner, but a ploughman engaged in the 
act of ploughing ; Philostratus names him Thiodamus, and 
adds : ** Hence a ploughing ox is sacrificed to Hercules, and 
they begin the sacrifice with curses such as, I suppose, the 
husbandman then made use of ; and Hercules is pleased and 
blesses the Lindians in return for their curses." According 
to Lactantius, it was a pair of oxen that was Hacrificed, ana 
the altar at which the sacrifice took place bore the name of 
houzygos, that is, **yoke of oxen." Hence it seems probable 


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would cease if they slaughtered a stranger man in 
honour of Zeus every year. Busiris began by 
slaughtering the seer himself and continued to 
slaughter the strangers who landed. So Hercules 
also was seized and haled to the altars, but he burst 
his bonds and slew both Busiris and his son Amphi- 

And traversing Asia he put in to Thermydrae, the 
harbour of the Lindians.^ And having loosed one of 
the bullocks from the cart of a cowherd, he sacrificed 
it and feasted. But the cowherd, unable to protect 
himself, stood on a certain mountain and cursed. 
Wherefore to this day, when they sacrifice to Hercu- 
les, they do it with curses.^ 

that the sacrifice which the story purported to explain was . 
offered at the time of ploughing in order to ensure a blessing 
on the ploughman's labours. This is confirmed by the ritual 
of the sacred ploughing observed at Eleusis, where members 
of the old priestly family of the Bouzygai or Ox-yokers 
uttered many curses as they guided the plough down the 
furrows of the Rarian Plain. See Etymologicum Magnum, 
s,v, Bov{vyla, p. 206, lines 47 sqq.; Anecdota Oraeca, ed. Im. 
Bekker, i. 221 ; Hesychius, s.v. BovCvyns ; Paroemiographi 
Oraeci, ed. E. L. Leutsch und F. G. Schneidewin, i. 388 ; 
Scholiast on Sophocles, Antigone, 255 ; Plutarch, Praecepta 
Conjugalia, 42. Compare J. Toepffer, AUiache Qenealogie 
(Berlin, 1889), pp. 136 «g.; The Spirits oj the Com and of the 
Wild, i. 108 sq. The Greeks seem to have deemed curses of 
special efficacy to promote the fertility of the ground ; for we 
are told that when a Greek sowed cummin he was expected to 
utter imprecations or the crop would not turn out well. See 
Theophrastus, Hiatoria plantarum, vii. 3. 3, ix. 8. 8 ; Plutarch, 
Quaest. Conviv, vii. 2. 3 ; Pliny, Nat. Hist. xix. 120. Roman 
writers mention a like custom observed by the sowers of rue 
and basil. See Palladius, De re rusOcay iv. 9 ; Pliny, Nat. 
Hist. xix. 120. As to the beneficent effect of curses, when 
properly directed, see further The Magic Art and the Evolu- 
tion of Kings, i. 278 sqq. 

Q 2 

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HapioDP Se ^Apafiiav ^H/jLaOlcova KTeivet iralha 
Tifftovov. KoX hia T^9 Aij3vi]9 iropevOeU iirl ttjv 
efft) doKaacav irap 'HXtou ^ to hiira^i irapaXapi' 
^dv€i,^ Koi Trepaicodeh iirl rrjv yneipov rrjv 
aPTixpif fcarero^evaev iirl tov K.av/edo'ov rov 
iadiovra to tov ITpo/xiy^eo)? ^Trap dcTov, Svtu 
'E%tSi/?79 Kal Tv<f>&vo9' fcal tov IIpo/ir)Oia iXvae, 
heafMov iXofiepo^ tov t% i\aia^, /cat Trapec^e 

* irap* 'H\(ou C. Robert, De Apollodori Bibliotheca, pp. 
47 sq. (comparing Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Argaii. 
iv. 1396) : irorairAei o5 A. 

2 wapa\afiBdv€t Frazer : KardKaii^ivti MSS. , Heyne, Wes- 
termann, MiiUer, Bekker, Wagner : Xafifidytt Hercher. The 
verb KaraXafifidvdtf means to seize or catch, generally with 
the implication of force or violence. It cannot mean to 
receive peaceably as a favour, which is the sense required in 
the present passage. Thus the scribes have twice blundered 
over the preposition xaph in this sentence (tforairXei, xarm- 

^ Compare J. Tzetzes, OhiUades, ii. 369 aq., who as usual 
follows Apollodorus. According to Diodorus Siculus (iv.27.3), 
after Hercules had slain Busiris, he ascended the Nile to 
Ethiopia and there slew Emathion, king of Ethiopia. 

^ As to Hercules and Prometheus, see Diodorus Siculus, 
iv. 16.2 ; Pausanias, v. 11. 6 ; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 370 fig.; 
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon, ii. 1248, iv. 1396 ; 
Hyginus, Aatronom, ii. 15 ; id. Fab. 31, 54, and 144 ; Servius, 
on Virgil, Eel. vi. 42. The Scholiast on Apollonius (ii. 1248) 
agrees with Apollodorus as to the parentage of the ea^le 
which preyed on Prometheus, and he cites as his authority 
Pherecydes; hence we may surmise that Apollodorus is 
following the same author in the present passage. The time 
during which Prometheus suffered on the Caucasus was said 
by Aeschylus to be thirty thousand years (Hyginus, Aatron. 
ii. 15); but Hyginus, though he reports this in one passage, 
elsewhere reduces the term of suffering to thirty years [Fab. 54 
and 144). 

^ The reference seems to be to the crown of olive which 
Hercules brought from the land of tha Hyperboreans and 


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And passing by Arabia he slew Emathion, son 
of Tithonus,^ and journeying through Libya to the 
outer sea he received the goblet from the Sun. 
And having crossed to the opposite mainland he shot 
on the Caucasus the eagle, offspring of Echidna and 
Typhon, that was devouring the liver of Prometheus, 
and he released Proraetheus,^ after choosing for him- 
self the bond of olive,^ and to Zeus he presented 

instituted as the badge of victory in the Olympic games. 
See Pindar, Olymp, iii. 11 (20) aqq.\ Pausanias, v. 7. 7. The 
ancients had a curious notion that the custom of wearing 
crowns or garlands on the head and rings on the fingers was 
a memorial of the shackles once worn for their sake by their 
great benefactor Prometheus among the rocks and snows of 
the Caucasus. In order that the will of Zeus, who had 
sworn never to release Prometheus, might not be frustrated 
by the entire liberation of his prisoner from his chains, 
Prometheus on obtaining his freedom was ordered to wear on 
his finger a ring made out of his iron fetters and of the rock 
to which he had been chained ; hence, in memory of their 
saviour's sufferings, men have worn rings ever since. The 
practice of wearing crowns or garlands was explained by 
some people in the same way. See Hyginus, Astronom. ii. 15 ; 
Servius, on Virgil, Ech vi. 42 ; Pliny, Nat. Hist, xxxvii. 2 ; 
Isidore, Originea, xix. 32. 1. According to one version of the 
legend, the crown which the sufferer on regaining his liberty 
was doomed to wear was a crown of willow ; and the Carians, 
who used to crown their brows with branches of willow, 
explained that they did so in imitation of Prometheus. See 
Athenaeus, xv. 11-13, pp. 671 e-673 b. In the present passage 
of Apollodorus, if the text is correct, Hercules, as the 
deliverer of Prometheus, is obliged to bind himself vicariously 
for the prisoner whom he has released ; and he chooses to do 
so with his favourite olive. Similarly he has to find a sub- 
stitute to die instead of Prometheus, and he discovers the 
substitute in Chiron. As to the substitution of Chiron for 
Prometheus, see Apollodorus, ii. 5. 4. It is remarkable that, 
though Prometheus was supposed to have attained to immor- 
tality and to be the great benefactor, and even the creator, of 
mankind, he appears not to have been worshipped b}' the 
fi reeks ; Lucian says that nowhere were temples of Prometheus 
to be seen {Prometheus^ 14). 


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T^ Ail ^eipcova dvri<TK€iv addvarov^ dvr avTov 

'n? Se fiK€v eh "Tirep^opeouf: irpo^ "ArKavray 
elirovTo^ Upofirjdeco^ rtp 'H/ja/cXc? avTov cttI ra 
firfKa fit) nopeveadat, iiahe^dfievov he ^ ArKavro'^ 
TOP TToXov diroariWeiv ifcelvov, ireKrOel^ SieSe- 
faro. ''ArXa^ he SpeyjrdfjLevo^ ^ Trap* 'E<T7r€piSa>v 
rpla firfKa ^K€ irpo^ 'H/wi/cXea. KaX fit) iSovXo- 
/M€Vo^ Tov TToXov €xeiv^ . . . /col (TTTelpav eirl t^9 
K€<f>aXrjf; deXeiv Troifjaaaffac, rovro aKovaa^ 
*'AT\a9, eTrl 7^9 KaradeXf; ra firfXa tov ttoXov 
SieSe^aro. /cal outco^ dveXofievo^ avra ^li pa fcXij^; 
a7n]XXdTT€To, evioi Be (f>aa'iv ov irapa "ArXaj/ro? 
aifTO, Xaffelv, a\X' avrov Speyjrao'dai ra fifjfXa, 
KTeivavTa top (fypovpovvTa o<l>iv. KopLiaa^ he tcl 
fiTjXa Evpvadel ehtoKev. 6 he Xa^a>v 'Hpa/cXei 

^ iSdvarov A, but wanting in E and omitted by Wagner. 
Gale proposed to read Xeipuva &edvarov < 6vra > dv4\ffKuv ivr' 
avrov e4\ovra. Retaining the MS. order of the words we 
might read Ov4\<rK€iv kdavarov <:}avTa> hvr avTov BiKovra, 
The accumulation of participles {6vra — 04\oyra) is awkward 
but quite in the manner of Apollodorus. 

2 For 9p§}lf(ifi€vos we should perhaps read ^t^dfittfos. For 
^pttrrfffOai means ** to pluck from a tree," not ** to receive from 
a person." The verb is used correctly by Apollodorus a few 
lines below. 

' Gale pointed out that there is here a gap in the text 
of Apollodorus, which can be supplied from the following 
passage of a scholium on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon, iv. 
1396 : rii fikv firj\a avrSs ipii\iriv kirolffeiv EvpviTde7, rhv 8' ovpavhv 
iK4\€vtrtv iKttvov Mx^^^ ^vf* avrov. 6 5c 'HpaKKrjs ihro- 
(rX<^jU€i/os, 96\<f> avre'w4drjKfy avrhy ry *'ATAai'Ti. ■^v «)3tp «iirtiji' 
aifr^ 6 YlpofxriBevs v'wod4fi€vos, KfKf^eiv b4^aa'0ai rhv ovpav6y, 


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Chiron, who, though immortal, consented to die in 
his stead. 

Now Prometheus had told Hercules not to go him- 
self after the apples but to send Atlas, first relieving 
him of the burden of the sphere ; so when he was 
come to Atlas in the land of the Hyperboreans, he took 
the advice and relieved Atlas. But when Atlas had 
received three apples from the Hesperides, he came 
to Hercules^ and not wishing to support the sphere 
<he said that he would himself carry the apples to 
Eurystheus, and bade Hercules hold up the sky in 
his stead. Hercules promised to do so, but succeeded 
by craft in putting it on Atlas instead. For at the 
advice of Prometheus he begged Atlas to hold up 
the sky till he should>i put a pad on his head. 
When Atlas heard that, he laid the apples down on 
the ground and took the sphere from Hercules. And 
so Hercules picked up the apples and departed. But 
some say that he did not get them from Atlas, but 
that he plucked the apples himself after killing the 
guardian snake. And having brought the apples he 
gave them to Eurystheus. But he, on receiving 

* The passage in angular brackets is wanting in the 
manuscripts of Apollodorus, but is restored from the Scholiast 
on Apollonius Rhodius {Argon, iv. 1396), who quotes as his 
authority Pherecydes, the writer here seemingly followed by 
Apollodorus. See the Critical Note. The story of the 
contest of wits between Hercules and Atlas is represented in 
one of the extant metopes of the temple of Zeus at Olympia, 
which were seen and described by Pausanias {v. 10. 9). See 
my note on Pausanias (vol. iii. pp. 624 sq.). 

€«f oZ o"ir€7pav 4ir\ r^v K€<l>a\^if xoiijfffrai. In this passage I 
read iv€X<»»' and trirupav for ^x***' a-nd iriipavy whicn appear 
to be the readings of the MSS. In the parallel passage of 
Pausanias (v. 11. 5) we read of ohpavhv koL y7iv''Kr\at kvix^^- 


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iSa)p7]<Taro' irap* ov Xa/Sovaa ^AOrjvd iraKiv avra 
aTTCKOfiiaev* oacop yap ovk fjv avra Tedrjvai ttov, 
12 AoiBi/caTOv ad\ov iirerdyij Kipfiepov i^^'AiSov 
KOfii^eiv. €Z%€ Se ovro^ rpei^ fi€v kvv&v K€<f>a\d^, 
rrjv ik ovpdv BpaKOPro^, Kara Se tov vwtov 
iravToicDv €l')(€v 6(f>eo)v K€<f)a\d^. fiiKKoav oiv iirl 
Tovrov dwcivai ^Xffe irpo^ EvfioXirov 6^9 ^Ekevclva, 
^ovKofxevo^ fivrj07Jvai [^v Bk ovk i^op ^ipoif; t6t€ 
fivelcOai, iireihrfrrep derb^ ^ II vXiou Trat? yevo- 
fi€vo<; ifiveiTo], fit) hvvdfievo^ Bk ISeip ra fiva-Tfjpca 
iirelirep ovk fjv rjyvKTfiivo^ tov Kevravpaov ^ ^ovov, 
dyviaffeU viro F^vfioXirov tot€ ifivrjdr), kol 
7rapay€v6fJL€V0^ iirl Taipapov t^9 AaKtoviKrj^;, ov 

* Btrhs R : Btarios A. 

2 K€vravp<av E, Scholiast on Homer, //. viii. 368 : Kfvrav- 
pou A. 

^ As to Hercules and Cerberus, see Homer, II. xiii. SQGsqq., 
Od, xi. 623 «gg.; Bacchylides, Epinic. v. 5% 8qq.\ Euripides, 
Hercules furens, 23 aqq., 1277 sqq.; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 25. 1, 
iv. 26. 1 ; Pausanias, ii. 31. 6, ii. 35. 10, iii. 18. 13, iii. 25. Ssq.y 
V. 26. 7, ix. 34. 5 ; J. Tzetzes, Chiliadea, ii. 388-405 (who 
seems to follow ApoUodorus) ; Scholiast on Homer, II. viii. 
368 ; Ovid, Metamorph. vii. 410 aqq. ; Hyginus, Fab. 31 ; 
Seneca, Agamemnon, 859 aqq., Herculea furena, 50 aqq.; Scrip- 
torea rerum mythicarum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 20 
(First Vatican Mythographer, 57). Ancient writers differ as 
to the number of Cerberus's heads. Hesiod assigned him fifty 
{Theog. 311 aq.); Pindar raised the number to a hundred 
(Scholiast on Homer, II. viii. 368), a liberal estimate which 
was accepted bv Tzetzes in one place {Schol. on Lycophron, 
690) and by Horace in another {Odea, ii. 13. 34). Others 
reduced the number to three. See Sophocles, Trachinia^, 
1098 ; Euripides, Herculea furena, 24 and 1277 ; Pausanias, 
iii. 25. 6 ; Horace, Odea, ii. 19. 29 aqq., iii. 11. IT aqq.; Virgil, 
Oeorg. iv. 483, Aen. vi, 417 aqq.; Ovid, Metamorph. iv. 451 
aq.; Hyginus, Fab. 151 ; Seneca, Agamemnon, 62, Hercules 
furer^, 783-9(7. Apollodorus apparently seeks to reconcile 


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THE LIBRARY, II. v. 11-12 

them, bestowed them on Hercules, from whom Athena 
got them and conveyed them back again ; for it was 
not lawful that they should be laid down anywhere. 
A twelfth labour imposed on Hercules was to bring 
Cerberus from Hades.i Now this Cerberus had three 
heads of dogs, the tail of a dragon, and on his back 
the heads of all sorts of snakes. When Hercules 
was about to depart to fetch him, he went to Eumol- 
pus at Eleusis, wishing to be initiated. However it 
was not then lawful for foreigners to be initiated : 
since he proposed to be initiated as the adoptive son 
of Pylius. But not being able to see the mysteries 
because he had not been cleansed of the slaughter of 
the centaurs, he was cleansed by Eumolpus and then 
initiated.* And having come to Taenarum in Laconia, 

these contradictions, and he is followed as usual by Tzetzes 
(Ghiliades, ii. 390 sqq.)^ who, however, at the same time 
speaks of Cerberus as fifty-headed. The whole of the 
present passage of Apollodorus, from the description of 
Cerb«rus down to Hercules's slaughter of one of the kine 
of Hades, is quoted, with a few small variations, by a 
Scholiast on Homer, II. viii. 368. See Dindorf's edition of 
the Scholia, vol. i. p. 287. The quotation is omitted by Bekker 
in his edition of the Scholia (p. 233). 

2 As to the initiation of Hercules at Eleusis, compare 
Diodorus Siculus, iv. 25. 1 ; J. Tzetzes, Ghiliades, ii. 394. 
According to Diodorus, the rite3 were performed on this 
occasion by Musaeus, son of Orpheus. Elsewhere (iv. 14. 3) 
the same writer says that Demeter instituted the lesser 
Eleusinian mysteries in honour of Hercules for the purpose 
of purifying him after his slaughter of the centaurs. The 
statement that Pylius acted as adoptive father to Hercules 
at his initiation is repeated by Plutarch (Theseus, 33), who 
mentions that before Castor and Pollux were initiated at 
Athens they were in like manner adopted by Aphidnus. 
Herodotus says (viii. 65) that any Greek who pleased might 
be initiated at Eleusis. The initiation of Hercules is repre- 
sented in ancient reliefs. See A. B. Cook, Zeiis, i. 426 sqq. 


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T?)? "A«Soi/ * KaTajSdaeco^ to arofiiov iart, 
Sik TOVTOV fcarrjei,^ oTrqviKa Se elSov avrov ai 
yjrvxah X^P^^ MeXedypov Kol MeSovai]^ ttj^ 
Fopyovo^ €<f>vyov, €7rl Se t^j/ Topyova ro ^v<l>o^ 
ft)9 ^&<Tav eXfcei, koI irapa ^F,pfiov fiavddvet otc 
icevov elScoXop iart, Trkrja-iop Se t&v " AlZov 
TTvX&v yevojievo^ Qrjaia evpe fcaX YleipLOovv rov 
JJ epaetpovrj^ fimja-revofievov ydfiov KaX Sm rovro 
SedivTa, Oeaadfievoc Be 'Hpa/cXea ra? ;^€t/>a9 
iopeyov w dvacrriaofievot Sia t^9 €K€lvov fjia^;. 
6 Bk Qfjaia fihf Xa06fi€vo^ t?}? X€t/oo9 Tjyeipe, 
Ueipidovv Be dpaarrjaai fiovXofievo^ t^9 yrj<: 

* rrjs "Aihov Kara^dff€»s EA, Scholiast on Homer, //. viii. 
368 : rrjs els "AiSow Karafidaews Heyne (conjecture), Wester- 
in ann, Herchcr, Wagner. 

* KaTijti Scholiast on Homer, viii. 368, Heyne, Wester- 
mann, MuUer, Bekker, Hercher : itrffti A : iir^fi E, Wagner. 

^ Compare Euripides, Hercules furens, 23 aqq, ; Pausanias, 
XXV. 5 ; Seneca, Hercules furens, 807 sqq. Sophocles seems 
to have written a Satyric drama on the descent of Hercules 
into the infernal regions at Taenarum. See The FragmenU 
oj SopJiocleSt ed. A. 0. Pearson, vol, i. pp. 167 sq. According 
to another account, Hercules descended, not at Taenarum 
but at the Acherusian Chersonese, near Heraclea Pontica on 
the Black Sea. The marks of the descent were there pointed 
out to a great depth. See Xenophon, Anabasis, vi. 2. 2. 

2 So Bacchylides (Epinic. v. 71 sqq.) represents Hercules 
in Hades drawing his bow against the ghost of Meleager in 
shining armour, who reminds the hero that there is nothing 
to fear from the souls of the dead ; so, too, Virgil {Aen, vi. 
290 sqq.) describes Aeneas in Hades drawing his sword on the 
Gorgons and Harpies, till the Sibyl tells him that they are 
mere flitting empty shades. Apollodorus more correctly 
speaks of the ghost of only one Gorgon (Medusa), because of 
the three Gorgons she alone was mortal. See Apollodorus, 
ii. 4. 2. Compare Homer, Od. xi. 634 sq. 

' On Theseus and Pirithous in hell, see Apollodorus, 


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where is the mouth of the descent to Hades, he 
descended through it.^ But when the souls saw him, 
they fled, save Meleager and the Gorgon Medusa. 
And Hercules drew his sword against the Gorgon, as 
if she were alive, but he learned from Hermes that 
she was an empty phantom. 2 And being come near 
to the gates of Hades he found Theseus and Piri- 
thous,' him who wooed Persephone in wedlock 
and was therefore bound fast. And when they 
beheld Hercules, they stretched out their hands 
as if they should be raised from the dead by his 
might. And Theseus, indeed, he took by the hand 
and raised up, but when he would have brought up 

Epitome, i. 23 sq.; Homer, Od. xi. 631 ; Euripides, Hercules 
furens, 619 ; Apollonius Rhodius, Argon, i. 101 8qq., with the 
Scholiast on 101 ; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 26. 1, iv. 63. 4 sq.; 
Pausanias, i. 17. 4, ix. 31. 5, x. 29. 9 ; Apostolius, Cent. iii. 
36 ; Suidas, a.v. xiaxot ; Scholiast on Aristophanes, Knights, 
1368 ; Virgil, Aen. vi. 392 sqq.. 617 sq.; Horace, Odes, iii. 4. 
79 sq., iv. 7. 27 sq.; Hyginus, Fab. 79 ; Aulus Gellius, x. 16. 
13 ; Servius, on Virgil, Aen. vi. 617 ; Scriptores rerum mythi- 
carum Laiini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 18 (First Vatican 
Mythographer, 48). The general opinion seems to have been 
that Hercules rescued Theseus, but that he could not save 
Pirithous. Others, however, alleged that he brought up both 
from the dead (Hyginus, I.e.) ; others again affirmed that he 
brought up neither (Diodorus Siculus, iv. 63. 6). A dull 
rationalistic version of the romantic story converted Hades 
into a king of the Molossians or Thesprotians, named 
Aidoneus, who had a wife Persephone, a daughter Cora, and 
a dog Cerberus, which he set to worry his daughter's suitors, 
promising to give her in marriage to him who could master 
the ferocious animal. Discovering that Theseus and Pirithous 
were come not to woo but to steal his daughter, he arrested 
them. The dog made short work of Pirithous, but Theseus 
was kept in durance till the king consented to release him at 
the intercession of Hercules. See Plutarch, Theseus, 31. 4 
and 35. 1 sq.; Aelian, Var. Hist. iv. 5 ; Pausanias, i. 17. 4, 
i. 18. 4, ii. 22. 6, iii. 18. 5 ; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 406 sqq. 


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KiP0Vfi€Pr]<; a<f>f]K€V. aireKvKiae ik koX top ^Aaxa- 
\d(f>ov irerpov. /SovXofievo^ Se alfia racf; yfrvxO'U 
irapaa"X€<T0ac, fiiav t&v '^AiSov ^o&v dTrecKfya^ev, 
6 Be P€fi(ov avTCL^ ^levoirr)^ o Kevdcovvfiov ^ Trpo- 
KaXeadfievo^ ^ et? TrdXrjv 'Hpa/cXea, \rj<f>0€h 
fiiao^ ^ Koi Ta<i TrXei/pa? KaTcayel*: * viro Tlepae- 
(f)6pr)<; irapTfTjjdij, airovvTo^ Be avrou UXovToyva 
TOP KipjSepop, iirera^ep 6 YVKovtwp ayeip xa)/)t9 
cjp elx^P OTr\(OP KpaTOVPra, 6 Be ebpwp avrop 
iirl Tat? TTuXaif; roO 'A%€/)oi/to9, tw t€ 0<opaKi 
aufnre^payfJL€PO<i kcu ttj Xeoprfj avaKeTrao'deky 
7repc^a\a)P ttj K€<j)a\^ tcl^; x^lpa^ ovfc apTjxe^ 
KparSip Kal dy\(ii)P to drfoiop, 60)9 eTreice, Kaiirep 
BuKPOfiepo^ viro rov Kara ttjv ovpap BpdfcopTO<;» 
avWa/Scbp ovp avrop fJKe Bid Tpoi^r}po<: TTOirjad' 
/JL€P0<; Tr)p dpdjSaaLP, ^Aafcd\a(f>op fiev oip 
ArjfirjTTfp eTTOirjaep a)TOPy^ ^HpaKXrj^ Be l^vpvcrdel 
Bei^a^ TOP Kepffepop irdXcp ercofitaep ei^ '^AiBou. 

VI. Merd Be tov<; dOXov^ '^IpakXrj^ d^iKofievo^ 
et9 Q^)9a9 Mey dpap fiep eBcoKep 'loXao), avTo<: Be 
yrjfiai OeXcop eirvpOdpeTO EupvTOP OlxaXia^ 
BvpdaTTjp dffXop TTporedeiKepaL^ top 'IoX?;? t^9 
6vyaTpo<; ydfiop t^ PLK-qaapTi to^iktj ^ avTOP Te 

* KfvBavvfiov Tzetzes, Ghiliades, ii. 397, Aegiiis : KvBwvvfxov 
£. ^ wpoKaXfffdfifvos Faber : xpoaKaKfedfifvos EA. 

• fi4<ros Faber : ^i<rov EA. * KartaycXs E : Kare({(as A. 

* OVK kvT\Kt . . . ^pdKOVTOS E : QlfK &V^X€, Kulw^p ZaKv6fJi9V9S 

virh rov Karh. t^v ohph.v ZpJ^KOvros^ Kparuv 4k tov rpaxf\Kov koX 
Jiy-^av rh Briplov lircKre A. * &rov Aegius : uyov EA. 

' irporfBeiKfyai E : irporcBrivai RR*B : wporeBuvat C, 

• ro^iK^ E : ro^iK^v A. 

* See ApoUodorus, i. 5. 3. 

2 Compare J. Tzetzes, Ohiliades, ii. 396 sqq., who calls the 
herdsman Menoetius. 


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THE LIBRARY, II. v. 12-vi. i 

Pirithous, the earth quaked and he let go. And he 
rolled away also the stone of Ascalaphus.^ And 
wishing to provide the souls with blood, he 
slaughtered one of the kine of Hades. But 
Menoetes, son of Ceuthonymus, who tended the kine, 
challenged Hercules to wrestle, and, being seized 
round the middle, had his ribs broken ; ^ howbeit, he 
was let off at the request of Persephone. When 
Hercules asked Pluto for Cerberus, Pluto ordered 
him to take the animal provided he mastered him 
without the use of the weapons which he carried. 
Hercules found him at the gates of Acheron, and, 
cased in his cuirass and covered by the lion's skin, he 
flung his arms round the head of the brute, and 
though the dragon in its tail bit him, he never 
relaxed his grip and pressure till it yielded.^ So he 
carried it off and ascended through Troezen.* But 
Demeter turned Ascalaphus into a short-eared owl,^ 
and Hercules, after showing Cerberus to Eurystheus, 
carried him back to Hades. 

VI. After his labours Hercules went to Thebes 
and gave Megara to lolaus,^ and, wishing himself to 
wed, he ascertained that Eurytus, prince of Oechalia, 
had proposed the hand of his daughter lole as a 
prize to him who should vanquish himself and his 

■ Literally, ** till he persuaded (it)." 

• Compare Pausanias, ii. 3L 2. According to others, the 
ascent of Hercules with Cerberus took place at Hermione 
(Pausanias, ii. 35. 10) or on Mount Lapnystius in Boeotia 
(Pausanias, ix. 34. 5). 

• Compare Ovid, Metanwrph. v. 538 sqq. As to the short- 
eared owl (&T05), see D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson, Glossary 
of Greek Birds, pp. 200 sq. 

• With this and what follows down to the adventure with 
Syleus, compare Diodorus Siculua, iv. 31 (who seems to be 
following the same authority as Apollodorus) ; J. Tzetzes, 
Chiliades, ii. 412-435. 


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Kal TO 1/9 TratSa? avrq) vTrdp')(pvTa^. a(f)tK6fievo<; 
ovv €49 Ol^aXiav fcal t§ ro^i/cfj KpeiTroav avr&p 

y€p6fJL€V0<i OVK €TVX€ TOV ydflOV, *I^LTOV fl€V TOV 

TTpea-fivTepov t&v TraiSwv Xeyovro^; SiSovai t^ 
'tipUKkel TTjv 'Io\7;j/, ^vpvTov Be kuI t(ov \oiirm 
uTrayopevovTcop Kal SeBoixepai XeyoPTcov firj 
reKPOTroiTjadfiepo^; ra yepprjdrjaofiepa^ irdXiv 
I diroKTeipTj. fier ov ttoXv Be KXaireLa&p ef 
l^vfioia^ viro AvtoXvkov ^o&p, Eu/outo? fi^v 
ipofit^ep v<l>* 'HpaKXiov^ yey opipat tovto, ^'I^ato? 
Be aTTiaT&p d^iKpelraL irpo^: 'HpaKXea, Kal avv- 
T\r)(oi>p fJKOPTi €K <^ep&p'^ avT(p, aeacuKOT^ ttiv 
diroOapovaap "AXKijariP ^ABfitjTfp, TrapaxaXel 
av^rjTTJaaL Ta<; ^6a^. 'H/oa/cX?)? Be V7na')(yel7ai.' 
Kal ^ePL^ei fiep air op, fiapeU Bi avOt^ diro rm 
TipvpOicDP eppiyjrep avrop reix^v. KaOapdrjvai. Be 
deX(op TOP (f>opop d<f)CKP€lTai irpo^ NrjXea* II vXitov 
Yjp 0UT09 Bvpdarr)^, dirwaaixepov Be ^rfKeto^ 
avTOP Bia TTjp 7r/oo9 KvpuTOP <f>LXiap, el^ ^AfivKXafi 
7rapayep6fi€Po<; vtto Ar)i<f>6^ov rod 'linroXvTOV 
KaOaiperai. KaTaa^j^del^ Be Beipfj poatp Blu tov 
^l<f>irov <f>6pop, €t9 ^€X(f>ov<; Trapayepofiepo^; aTraX- 

^ yfvvr\Qr\<r6{Jifva E : ytpriffS/jLtva R : yevvrfffSfxtpa A. 
^ ^epuv R : <l>opwv A. 

* Compare Scholiast on Homer, II. v. 392 ; Sophocles, 
Trachimae, 260 sqq.^ with the Scholiast on 266 ; Scholiast on 
Euripides, Hippolyttis, 545. 

^ As he had killed the children he had by Megara. See 
Apollodorus, ii. 4. 12. 

* The story is told somewhat diflferently by Homer {Od. 
xxi. 23-30). According to him, Iphitus had lost twelve 
mares (not oxen) and came in search of them to Hercules, 
who murdered him in his house and kept the mares. A 


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THE LIBRARY, II. vi. 1-2 

sons in archery.^ So he came to Oechalia, and 
though he proved himself better than them at 
archery, yet he did not get the bride ; for while 
Iphitus, the elder of Eurytus's sons, said that lole 
should be given to Hercules, Eurytus and the others 
refused, and said they feared that, if he got children, 
he would again kill his offspring.* Not long after, 
some cattle were stolen from Euboea by Autolycus, 
and Eurytus supposed that it was done by Her- 
cules; but Iphitus did not believe it and went to 
Hercules. And meeting him, as he came from 
Pherae after saving the dead Alcestis for Admetus, 
he invited him to seek the kine with him. Hercules 
promised to do so and entertained him ; but going 
mad again he threw him from the walls of Tiryns.^ 
Wishing to be purified of the murder he repaired to 
Neleus, who was prince of the Pylians. And when 
Neleus rejected his request on the score of his friend- 
ship with Eurytus, he went to Amyclae and was 
purified by Deiphobus, son of Hippolytus.* But 
being afflicted with a dire disease on account of the 
murder of Iphitus he went to Delphi and inquired 

Scholiast on Homer (Od, xxi. 22) says that the mares had 
been stolen by Autolycus and sold by him to Hercules. 
Another Scholiast on the same passage of Homer, who 
refers to Pherecydes as his authority, says that Hercules 
treacherously lured Iphitus to the top of the wall, then hurled 
him down. As to the quest of the mares and the murder of 
Iphitus, see also Sophocles, Trachiniae, 270-273 ; Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 31. 2 sq, (who says that Hercules himself stole 
the mares out of spite at Eurytus) ; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 
417-423 ; Scholiast on Homer, II. v. 392. ApoUodorus seems 
to be the only writer who substitutes cattle for mares in this 

* Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 31. 4 sq. ; Scholiast on 
Homer, II. v. 392. 


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Xayijp itrvvOdveTO t/}9 voaov, fit) 'x^pyjafitpSovarf^ 
Se avr^ Ttj^ Uv0ia<: top re vaov auXdv fjdeXe, fcal 
Tov rpLiToha fiaaTdaa<; Karaafcevd^ecp ^ fiavretov 
tSiov. fiaxoficvov Be avr^ 'AttoWcoj/o?, 6 Zeu? 
ir)at fiiaov avro^v Kcpavvov. Koi tovtov SiaXv- 
ffivTcop TOP TpoTTOv, \afifidv€i 'X^prjafiov ^Hpa/cXry;, 
09 eXeyev diTaX\ayr)v a\n<p t^9 voaov eaeadai 
trpadivTL fcal rpia errj XarpevaavTt fcal Sovn 
3 TTOivrfV rov <f>6vov rrjv nfirjv Eu/out^. tov he 
XPV^f^^ BodevTO^ 'Epfirj<; 'HpaxXea Trivrpda/cer 
Kul avTOV d)V€trai ^Ofi^dXrj ^lapSdvou,^ ^aai- 
Xevovaa AvB&v, fi tyjv riyefiovLav r^Xevr&v o 
yqfia^: TfiS>Xo^ fcareXiTre. rrfp fiep oiv Tip!f\v 
KoyLiaOelaav Evpvro^ ov irpoaeSe^aTo, 'H.paKXrj<i 
Be ^OfufidXTf BovXevcov tou? fiep irepX Ttfv ^E(f>€aov 
Kip/ea)7ra<; avXXa^wp eBrjae, 2,vX€a Be ev 

^ KaraffK^viCfiv E : KaTaffKfvd(€i A. 

* lapidvov R (second hand), Tzetzes, Chilictdes, ii. 430: 
iopidvov EA. The MSS. of Pausanias similarly vary between 
the forms iapHvov and iophdvov as the name of a river in 
Elis. See Pausanias vi. 21. 6, with the critical notes of 
Schubart and Walz, of Hitzig and Bliimner. 

* As to the attempt of Hercules to carry off the tripod, see 
Plutarch, De EI cipud Delphos, 6 ; id, De sera numinis 
vindicta, 12 (who says that Hercules carried it off to Pheneus); 
Pausanias, iii. 21. 8, viii. 37. 1, x. 13. 7 sq.i Scholiast on 
Pindar, Olymp. ix. 29 (43) ; Cicero, De natura deorum, iii. 
16. 42 ; Hygiuus, Fab, 32 ; Servius, on Virgil, Aen. viii. 300. 
The subject was often represented in ancient art; for example, 
it was sculptured in the gable of the Treasury of the Siph- 
nians at Delphi ; the principal pieces of the sculpture were 
discovered by the French in their excavation of the sanctuary. 
See E. Bourguet, Les ruinea de Delphes (Paris, 1914), pp. 76 
aqq., and my commentary on Pausanias, vol. v. pp. 274 aq, 

2 As to Hercules and Omphale, see Sophocles, Trachiniae, 
247 aqq.; Diodorus Siculus, .iv. 31. 5-8; Luciau, Dialog. 

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THE LIBRARY, II. vi. 2-3 

how he might be rid of the disease. As the Pythian 
priestess answered him not by oracles, lie was fain to 
plunder the temple, and, carrying off the tripod, to 
institute an oracle of his own. But Apollo fought 
him,^ and Zeus threw a thunderbolt between them. 
When they had thus been parted, Hercules received 
an oracle, which declared that the remedy for his 
disease was for him to be sold, and to serve for three 
years, and to pay compensation for the murder to 
Eurytus. After the delivery of the oracle, Hermes 
sold Hercules, and he was bought by Omphale,^ 
daughter of lardanes, queen of Lydia, to whom 
at his death her husband Tmolus had bequeathed 
the government. Eurytus did not accept the compen- 
sation when it was presented to him, but Hercules 
served Omphale as a slave, and in the course of his 
servitude he seized and bound the Cercopes at 
Ephesus ; ^ and as for Syleus in Aulis, who compelled 

deorum, xiii. 2 ; Plutarch, Quciestiones Oraecae, 45 ; J. Tzetzes, 
CMUade^^ ii. 425 sqq.; Scholiast on Homer, Od. xxi. 22; 
Joannes Lydus, De magistratibuSy iii. 64 ; Ovid, Heroidea, 
ix. 55 8qq.; Hyginus, FA. 32; Seneca,, Hercules OetaeuSySl I 
sqq.; Statius, Theb. x. 646-649. According to Pherecydes, 
cited by the Scholiast on Homer (I.e. ), Hermes sold Hercules 
to Omphale for three talents. The sum obtained by his sale 
was to be paid as compensation to the sons of the murdered 
Iphitus, according to Diodorus (^c). The period of his ser- 
vitude, according to Sophocles {Trachiniae, 252 sq.), was 
only one year ; l)ut Herodorus, cited by the Scholiast on 
Sophocles (Track. 253), says that it was three years, which 
agi'ees with the statement of Apollodorus. 

^ As to the Cercopes, see Diodorus Siculus, iv. 31. 7 ; 
Nonnus, in Mythographi Qraeci, ed. A.Westermann, Appen- 
dix Narrationum, 39, p. 376; J. Tzetzes, OhiUades, ii. 431, 
V. l^aqq.', Zenobius, Uent. v. 10; Apostolius, Gent. xi. 19. 
These malefactors were two in number. Hercules is said to 
have carried them hanging with their heads downward from 


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AvXlBt^ Tov<i irapLovras ^€vov<; aKairreip avcuyKa- 
fyvra, avv ral^ pi^at^ Ta<; afnre\ov<i Kawa^^ fjuera 
TTj^ 0vyaTpo^ BevoSoKTj^^ ameKTeive. KaX irpoa- 
a'xoav vrjatp AoXixV* "^^ ^l/cdpov aoyp^a ISodv toU 
alyLa\ol<; 7rpoa<l>€p6fM€Pop eOaylre, Koi ttjv vrja-ov 
dpTL Ao\lxV^ ^iKapLav iKoXeaev. dvrl tovtov l^ai- 
ha\o<i iv tliarj eixova irapa'nX'qaiav Korea Kevaaev 
'H/oa/c\€t' r)v vvKTO^ dyvo7]aa^ 'H/oa/c\^9 Xx9(^ 
fiakiov (W9 ep.irvovv IttXt/^c. Ka0* hv he ;^oi/oi/ 
iXuTpeve Trap' ^Op^dXrj, Xeyerai top inl KoX^pv^; 
irXovv yeveadai koi rrjv rod KaXvSoyvLOV Kdirpov 

^ iv AvKlHi EA, Miiller, Bekker, Wagner: ip AwSf^ Pierson, 
Westermann : rhv AvUiov Gale : iy av\iivi or iv afiweXuri 
Heyne (conjecture) : iy ♦vAAtSt Hercher. But Heyne's con- 
jecture ^i' iLfivt\wyi may be right ; for a place Aulis in Lydia 
is otherwise unknown, and the mention of the vineyards 
seems essential to the sense. Compare Diodorus Siculus, 
iv. 31. 7, SvA^a 8c robs irapUvras ^fvovs cvvapraCovra Koi rovs 
kfiTt^Kiavas <r/c(£irT6tv a.vaya.(ovra ; 3. Tzetzes, Chiliadea^ ii. 
432 sq. , 7,v\4a koL rhv Avbiov, fiidiovras rovs ^4vovs II rovs 
afnre\a>vas avrcov (TKiiirreiv SovAcias rp6w^. Tzetzes appears 
to have made two men out of Syleus the Lydian : his version 
favours Gale's conjecture in the present passage of Apollo- 
dorus. The passage should perhaps be rewritten as follows : 
HvXiu 8c rhv Avhiov rovs irapi6vras ^tvous <tous A/iircAwvas > 
ffKdirreiv avayKo.(ovray avv rais ffliats rhs d/xircAovs itvaairdaras 
Kr\. See the next note. 

' Kauaas E : (r/cat|/as A : atrdffas Meineke. We should per- 
haps read iLvacrirdaast comparing Tzetzes, ChiliadeSj ii. 435, 
Koi trpoBtK^fivovs civaaira Kal rovrov r^s &fiir4\ovs. The up- 
rooted vines are shown at the feet of Hercules and Syleus in 
a vase-painting. See W. H. Roscher, Lexikon d. gHech. u. 
rom. Myth. iii. 1622. 

^ B€voli6K7is EC: nevoUKTis Ra5, Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 434. 

a pole. They are so represented in Greek art. See W. H. 
Roscher, Lexikon der griech. und rom. Mythologie, ii. 1166 sqq. 
The name Cercopes seems to mean ** tailed men," (from KfpKos, 
*'tail"). One story concerning them was that they were 


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passing strangers to dig, Hercules killed him with his 

daughter Xenodice, after burning the vines with the 

roots. ^ And having put in to the island of Doliche, he 

saw the body of Icarus washed ashore and buried it, 

and he called the island Icaria instead of Doliche. In 

return Daedalus made a portrait statue of Hercules 

at Pisa, which Hercules mistook at night for living 

and threw a stone and hit it. And during the time 

of his servitude with Omphale it is said that the 

voyage to Colchis ^ and the hunt of the Calydonian 

deceitful men whom Zeus punished by turning them into 
apes, and that the islands of Isehia and Procida, oflf the 
Bay of Naples, M'ere called Pithecusae (** Ape Islands ") after 
them. See Harpocration, s.v. KepKorp ; Eustathius, on Homer, 
Od. xix. 247, p. 1864 ; Ovid, Metamorph, xiv. 88 aqq. Accord- 
ing to Pherecydes, the Cercopes were turned into stone. See 
Scholiast on Lucian, Alexander ^ 4, p. 181, ed. H. Rabe. The 
story of Hercules and the Cercopes has been interpreted as a 
reminiscence of Phoenician traders bringing apes to Greek 
markets. See 0. Keller, Thiere des classischen AU&rthuma 
(Innsbruck, 1887), p. 1. The interpretation may perhaps be 
supported by an Assyrian bas-relief which represents a Hercu- 
lean male ngure carrying an ape on his head and leading 
another ape by a leash, the animals being apparently brought 
as tribute to a king. See O. Keller, op. ctt, p. 11, fig. 2; 
Perrot et Chipiez, Histoire de VArt dans rAntiguiU, ii. 547, 
fig. 254. 

* Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 31. 7 ; J. Tzetzes, Chiliadea, 
ii. 432 sq. ; Conon, Narrat. 17. Euripides wrote a satyric 
play on the subject. See Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta, 
ed. A. Nauck*, pp. 575 aqq. The legend may be based on 
a custom practised by vine-dressers on passing strangers. See 
W. Mannhardt, Mythologische For8chungen,-pp. 12, 53 55., who, 
for the rough jests of vine-dressers in antiquity, refers to 
Horace, Sat. i. 8. 2S8qq.; Pliny, Nat. Hist, xviii. 26. 66- (249). 

2 That is, the voyage of the Argo. See above, i. 9. IQsqq. 
As to the hunt of the Calydonian boar, see above, i. 8. 2 sqq. 
As to the clearance of the Isthmus by Theseus, see below, 
iii. 16, and the Epitome, i. 1 sqq. 

R 2 

y Google 


Oripav, fcal ^)ja€a irapayepofjiepov ifc TpoL^r]uo<; 
TOP * lad flop Kadapat. 
4 Mera he ttjp Xarpeiap uTraWayeU rrj^ poaov 
€7rl "^IXiop eirXei TrepTrj/copropOK; oKraKaiheKa, 
(TVPa6poLca<; ajpajop dpBp&p apiaTtop eKovaio)^ 
OeXoPTCDP arpaTeveadai, tcaraifKevaa^i 8e eh 
"iXiop rtjp /JL€P T(OP P€&p <f)v\aKr)p ^OixTiel Kare- 
Xiyrep, avro^ Be fierh t(ov oXXodp apiareoDP &pfjLa 
iirl rrjp iroXiP, irapayepofiepo^ Se iirl Ta^; pav<; 
avp T^ irXrideL AaofieBcop ^OixXea fikp aireKreipe 
fiaxofiepop, direTuta-BeU^ Be vtto t(op fMerd ^Hpa- 
xXeov^; eTToXtopKelro. t?}? Be iroXiopKLa^ eve- 
ardar)^ pi]^a<: ro rel^o^ TeXa/jucDP 7rp&T0<: elarjXdep 
eh Tr)P TToXip, Koi fiera tovtop '}ipafcXrj<;, a><: Be 
eOedaaro TeXafi&pa irp&TOP elaeXrjXvdora, aira- 
adfiepo<; to ^L(f>o^ ctt* uvtop &pfia,'^ firjBepa 0eX<op 
eavTov KpeiTTOPa pofil^eaOac, avpvBwp Be tovto 
TeXafiobp Xi0ov<; TrXrjaiop /ceifiepov^ avp7]0poi^€, 
Tov Be ipofiepov tl irpaTTOt $a>fibp elirep 'Hpax- 
Xeov^ xaTaafcevd^eiP KaXXipixov. 6 Be eiraipeaa^i 
0)9 elXe Tr)p ttoXlp, KaTaTO^evaa^ Aaop^eBoPTa fcal 
T0U9 TratBa^ avTOv ^w/ol? TIoBdpKOv, TeXa/n&vi 
dpiGTelop *H.<ti6p7)p ttjp Aaop^iBoPTO^ dvyuTepa 

* iirtKaaeeU A : direXodcls R*, Heyne, Westermann, Miil- 
ler, Bekker, Hercher, Wagner. On the form of the aorist 
iKaaOfis, see Veitch, Greek Verbs (Oxford, 1879), p. 240. 

■^ &Pfxa E : -tfei A, Wagner. 

^ As to the siege and capture of Troy by Hercules, see 
Homer, II. v. 640-643, 648-651 ; Pindar, lathm, vi. 26 (38) 
8qq,; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 32 ; J. Tzetzes, Chiliadeat ii. 443 
8q,\ id. Schol. on Lycophroriy 34 ; Ovid, Metamorph, xi.2l3- 
217, xiii. 22 aq.; Hyginus, Fab, 89. The account given by 
Diodorus agrees so closely in matter, though not in words, 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, II. vi. 3-4 

boar took place, and that Theseus on his way from 
Troezen cleared the Isthmus of malefactors. 

After his servitude, being rid of his disease he 
mustered an army of noble volunteers and sailed for 
Ilium with eighteen ships of fifty oars each.^ And 
having come to port at Ilium, he left the guard of 
the ships to Oicles ^ and himself with the rest of the 
champions set out to attack the city. Howbeit Lao- 
medon marched against the ships with the multitude 
and slew Oicles in battle, but being repulsed by the 
troops of Hercules, he was besieged. The siege 
once laid, Telamon was the first to breach the wall 
and enter the city, and after him Hercules. But 
when he saw that Telamon had entered it first, he 
drew his sword and rushed at him, loath that anybody 
should be reputed a better man than himself. Per- 
ceiving that, Telamon collected stones that lay to hand, 
and when Hercules asked him what he did, he said he 
was building an altar to Hercules the Glorious Vic- 
tor. ^ Hercules thanked him, and when he had taken 
the city and shot down Laomedon and his sons, except 
Podarces, he assigned Laomedon' s daughter Hesione 

with that of ApoUodorus that both authors probably drew on 
the same source. Homer, with whom Tzetzes agrees, says 
that Hercules went to Troy with only six ships. Diodorus 
notices the Homeric statement, but mentions that according 
to some the fleet of Hercules numbered ** eighteen long ships." 

2 As to Oicles at Troy, compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 32. 3 ; 
Pausanias, viii. 36. 6, who says that his tomb was shown 
near Megalopolis in Arcadia. Sophocles seems to have 
written a play called Oiclesy though there is some doubt as 
to the spelling of the name. See The Fragments of Sophocles, 
ed. A. C. Pearson, vol. ii. p. 119. 

' This incident is recorded also by Tzetzes (Schol. on Lyco- 
phron, 469) ; but according to him the title which Telamon 
applied to Hercules at the altar was Averter of Ills {Alexi- 
kakos), not Glorious Victor (Kallinikos), 


y Google 


i, Kal TavTT} (Tv^'Xjuipei r&v ai^/xaXcorayv ov 
V ci'yeadai. t?79 Se alpovfi€V7j<; tov dSeXxpov 
p/C7)v, €(f)7) Belv TTpMTov avTOV BovXov 
Oai, Kal Tore ri irore Sovaav uvt axnov^ 
Iv avTov, ri he TnirpaaKOfiivov ttjv tcaXvin- 
d(f)€\ofi€vrj Tr]<; fC€<f>a\7J<; avriScoKev o0€V 
pK7)^ Upiafio^; iKXtjOrj, 
I. n\€0i'T09 Se fiTTo Tpoia^ 'HpafcXeov^; 

XOXCTTOV^ €7reyL6^|r€^ ^^Gi/iWI/a?* i<f>* oU 
iKTrjiTa<; Zei'? i/cpifiaaev uvttjv ef ' ^OXvfnrov, 
STrXei Sk ^HpafcXrj^ Ty Ko)" koX vofii<TavT€<; 
' oi Kftiot XrjaTpiKOV ayeiv aroXov, l3dX- 
? XlOoi<; irpoaTrXelv iKcoXvov. 6 Se ^laad- 
avTTjv vvKTO<;^ elXe, kol tov ^aaiXia 
rrvXov, ^ KarviraXala^ TralSa Kal IToo-e^Swi/o?, 
/€V. irpiodr) Bk Kara t7]v fid')(7jv 'H/oa/c\7}9 
^aXK(i>hovTOf;, Kal At09 €^ap7rdaavTo<i avTov 
eiraOe, 7ropdi]<ra^ Be Kw ^k€ Bi ^A6r]vd<; ^ 
^Xiypav, Kal /nerd decov KaTeTToXe/jurjae 

"^(Tav hvr^ avrov E : bova^ avr* avrwv A. 

6/[A»|/€ EA : iir€V€fitpt conjectured by Heyne, who rightly 

ed that iviirefivfiv is the usual word in this connexion. 

ire i. 9. 24, Epitome, iii. 4, vi. 5. 

T^v vvKrhs Wagner : tV vvktol A. 

^vas Gale, Heyne (comparing i. 6. 1) : ^Mt^vav Wes- 

nn, Miiller, Bekker, Hercher, Wagner, apparently 

ing the MSS. 

mpare Sophocles, Ajax, 1299-1303 ; Scholiast on 

, II. viii. 284 ; Ovid, Metamorph. xi.2165g.; Hyginus, 


is derivation of the name Priam from the verb priamai, 

ly," is repeated, somewhat more clearly, by Tzetzes, 

y Google 

THE LIBRARY, II. vr. 4-vii. i 

as a prize to Telamon^ and allowed her to take with 
her whomsoever of the captives she would. When 
she chose her brother Podarces, Hercules said that 
he must first be a slave and then be ransomed by her. 
So when he was being sold she took the veil from her 
head and gave it as a ransom ; hence Podarces was 
called Priam.2 

VII. When Hercules was sailing from Troy, Hera 
sent grievous storms,'* which so vexed Zeus that he 
hung her from Olympus.* Hercules sailed to Cos,^ 
and the Coans, thinking he was leading a piratical 
squadron, endeavoured to prevent his approach by a 
shower of stones. But he forced his way in and 
took the city by night, and slew the king, Eurypylus, 
son of Poseidon by Astypalaea. And Hercules was 
wounded in the battle by Chalcedon ; but Zeus 
snatched him away, so that he took no harm. And 
having laid waste Cos, he came through Athena's 
agency to Phlegra, and sided with the gods in their 
victorious war on the giants.^ 

Schol, on Lycophroriy 34, Uo^dpHTiy ixpiaTOf tidev kuI iKK-nd-n 
npiafios. Compare Hyginus, Fab. 89, Podarci,fiUo eius infanti^ 
regnum dedit, qui postea Priamus est appellatus, inrh rod 
•wpiao'dai. For the bestowal by Hercules of the kingdom on the 
youthful Priam, compare Seneca, TroadeSy 718 8qq. 

* See Homer, II. xiv. 249 sqq., xv. 24 sqq, 

* See ApoUodorus, i. 3. 5. 

* With the following account of Hercules's adventures in 
Cos, compare the Scholiasts on Homer, II. i. 590, xiv. 255 ; 
J. Tzetzes, ChiliadeSy ii. 445 ; Ovid, Metamorph. vii. 363 sq. 
The Scholiast on Homer {II. xiv. 255) tells us that the story 
was found in Pherecydes, whom ApoUodorus probably follows 
in the present passage. 

8 See ApoUodorus, i. 6. 1 sq. 


y Google 


2 Mct' ov ttoXv he iir Avyeiav iarparevero, 
avvadpoiaa^ ^ApxaBiKov arparov fcal wapaXuficov 
idekovra^ r&v^ arro rrj^ 'KXXdBo^ apiareayv. 
Avyeiav Se rbv a(f>* ^HpafcXeov^ iroXefiov aKovmv 
KareffTTjaev 'H\€t&)i^ arparr^yov^ ^vpvTOV fcal 
KreaTOV avfi<f>U€t<;, ol Svvd/xei rov^ Tore av0pw- 
irov^ virepi/SaXXov, TratSe? Se ^aav MoXioprj^ teal 
A/cropo<;, iXeyovro Be IloaeiB&vo^;' "Akt cop Be 
aB€X(f>o<; rjv Avyeiov. auvefir) Be ^HpatcXei kutu 
rrjv (TTpareiav voaijaai* Bia roino koI airovBii^ 
TTpo^ Tou? MoXioviBa<; eirotri<Taro. ol Be varepov 
iiTLyvovTe^ avrbv voaovvTa, eTnTiOevTai r^ arpa- 
revfiari kuI Krelvovai ttoXXov^, Tore fiev oiv^ 
av€'X(i>pr}<T€V 'H/oa/cX^9' dvdi^; Be t^9 rpiTq^ 
lafffiidBo^ TeXovfievT)^, 'HXetoi; tov^ M.oXLoviBa<; 
7refiylrdvT0)V avvOvra^, ev KXe(iival<; eveBpevaa^; 
TOVTOUS 'H/>a/c\r)9 dire/CTecve, fcal arpaTeva-dpspo^ 
eirl rrjv^HXtv elXe ttjv iroXiv, koI KTeiva<i fierd 
T&v iralB(ov Avyeiav Karriyaye ^vXea, KaX tout© 
rrfv ^aaiXeiav eBcjfcev, effrjfce Be /cat rov '0\u/i- 

^ Twv karuv A, Westermann, Miiller. aaray is rightly 
omitted by Bekker, Hercher, and Wagner, following Heyne. 
^ odv E : ody oifK A. 

^ For the expedition of Hercules against Augeas, see 
Diodorus Siculus, iv. 33. 1 ; Pausanias, v. i. 10 sq,, v. 2. 1, 
vi. 20. 16 ; Scholiast on Pindar, Olymp. x. 31 (40). 

^ As to Eurytus and Cteatus, M'ho were called Actoriones 
after their father Actor, and Moliones or Molionides, after 
their mother Molione, see Homer, /?. ii. 621, xi. 709 aq., 751 
sqq., xxiii. 638 ; Pausanias, v. 1. 10 sq., v. 2. 1 sq, and 5. 
According to some, they had two bodies joined in one 
(Scholiast on Homer, IL xxiii. 638, 639). According to others, 
they had each two heads, four hands, and four feet but only 
one body (Scholiast on Homer, II, xi. 709). Compare Eusta- 
thius, on Homer, II. xi. 749, p. 882. The poet Ibycus spoke 

y Google 

THE LIBRARY, II. vii. 2 

Not long afterwards he collected an Arcadian 
army, and being joined by volunteers from the first 
men in Greece he marched against AugeasJ But 
Augeas, hearing of the war that Hercules was levying, 
appointed Eurytus and Cteatus^ generals of the 
Eleans. They were two men joined in one, who 
surpassed all of that generation in strength and were 
sons of Actor by Molione, though their father was 
said to be Poseidon; now Actor was a brother of 
Augeas. But it came to pass that on the expedition 
Hercules fell sick ; hence he concluded a truce with 
the Molionides. But afterwards, being apprized of 
his illness, they attacked the army and slew many. 
On that occasion, therefore, Hercules beat a retreat ; 
but afterwards at the celebration of the third Isth- 
mian festival, when the Eleans sent the^^Molionldes to 
take part in the sacrifices, Hercules waylaid and 
killed them at Cleonae,^ and marching on Elis took 
the city. And having killed Augeas and his sons, he 
restored Phyleus and bestowed on him the kingdom.* 
He also celebrated the Olympian games* and 

of them as twins, born of a silver egg and '* with equal heads 
in one body " {liroK€<f><i\ov5 evtyviovs). See Athenaeus, ii. 50, 
pp. 57 sq. Their story was told by Pherecydes (Scholiast on 
Homer, II, xi. 709), whom Apollodorus may have followed in 
the present passage. 

^ Compare Pindar, Olymp. x. 26 (32) sqq.; Diodorus Siculus, 
iv. 33. 3 ; Pausanias, ii. 15. 1, v. 2. 1. 

* Compare Tind&r, Olymp. x. 34 (43) sqq.; Diodorus Siculus, 
iv. 33. 4 ; Pausanias, v. 3. 1 ; Scholiast on Homer, II. xi. 700. 

* Hercules is said to have marked out the sacred precinct 
at Olympia, instituted the quadriennial Olympic festival, and 
celebrated the Olympic games for the first time. See Pindar, 
Olymp. iii. Ssq., vi. 67 sqq., x. 43 {51) sqq.; Diodorus Siculus^ 
iv. 14. 1 sq.f V. 64. 6; Pausanias, v. 7. 9, v. 8. 1 and 3 sq.; 
Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 41 ; Scholiast on Homer, II. 
xi. 700 ; Hyginus, Fab. 273. 


y Google 


TTiaKov a'yiava, IleXoTro? t€ /Stofiop ISpvaaTo, /cat 
d€(ov ScoBeKa /3ft)/iou9 ef ^ iBelfiaro, 

Merct Sk rrjv ttj^ "HXtSo? aXayaiv earpdrevaev 
iirX TlvXov, KoX Tr)v iroXiv iXayv IlepixXv/j^evov 
fCTeivei top aXKificoTarov rmv Nt/Xcg)? TraiScov, 09 
/ji€TaffdXXoDV Ta9 fiop<f)a<; ifidy^ero, top Sk NrjXea 
Kol T0U9 TralSa? avTov X^/ok Neo-ro/oo? dire- 
fcreivev 0UT09 Se^ vio^ &v iraph TeprjvLOi^; erpe- 
<f>€TO, Kara Sk Tr)v P'd')(7}P koX '' KiZr^v eTpaxre 
TlvXioi^ ^orjOovvra, 

'E\ft)j/ he Ttjv TlvXov iarpdrevev iirX AaxeBaL- 
fiova, fiereXOeip tov<: ^\inroK6(ovTo^ 7raiSa<; OiXayv 
a)pyi^€TO fi€v yap avrol^ koX Sioti NiyXe? avvefid- 
Xnaav, fidXXov Be aypyiaOt) on top Acfcvfiviov 
iralBa direfCTetvav. decofievov yap avTov tcl 
^linroKoayvTO^ ^aalXeia, iKBpa/j,a>v kvcov t&v 
MoXoTTiK&v^ itr* avTov i<f>€p€TO' 6 Be fiaXa)V 
Xidov iirervxe tov kvv6<;, eKTpoxd<TavTe<; Be 01 

^ t^ Heyne (conjecture), Bekker, Hercher, Wagner : ^rjs 
A, Westermann. ^ oZros yhp E. 

' MoKorriK&v Aegius : fioXiriKuy A. 

^ Apollodorus is probably mistaken in speaking of an altar 
of Pelops at Olympia. The more accurate Pausanias describes 
(v. 13. 1 sq.) a precinct of Pelops founded by Hercules at 
Olympia and containing a pit, in which the magistrates 
annually sacrificed a black ram to the hero : he does not 
mention an altar. As a hero, that is, a worshipful dead man, 
Pelops was not entitled to an altar, he had only a right to a 
sacrificial pit. For sacrifices to the dead in pits, see Homer, 
Od. xi. 23 sqq. ; Philostratus, Heroicay xx. 27 ; Scholiast on 
Euripides, Phoenissae, 274 ; Pausanias, ix. 39. 6 ; Fr. Pfister, 
Der Iteliquienkult im Altertum, pp. 474 sqq. 

^ As to the six double altars, each dedicated to a pair 
of deities, see Pindar, Olymp. v. 4 (8) sqq., x. 24 (30) *g.; 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, II. vii. 2-3 

founded an altar of Pelops,^ and built six altars of 
the twelve gods.^ 

After the capture of Elis he marched against 
Pylus,^ and having taken the city he slew Pericly- 
menus, the most valiant of the sons of Neleus, who 
used to change his shape in battle.* And he slew 
Neleus and his sons, except Nestor; for he was a 
youth and was being brought up among the Geren- 
ians. In the fight he also wounded Hades, who was 
siding with the Pylians.^ 

Having taken Pylus he marched against Lacedac- 
mon, wishing to punish the sons of Hippocoon,^ for 
he was angry with them, both because they fought 
for Neleus, and still angrier because they had killed 
the son of Licymnius. For when he was looking at 
the palace of Hippocoon, a hound of the Molossian 
breed ran out and rushed at him, and he threw a 
stone and hit the dog, whereupon the Hippocoontids 

Scholiast on Pindar, Olymp. v. 4 (8) and 5 (10), who cites 
Herodorus on the foundation of the altars by Hercules. 

• As to the war of Hercules on Pylus, see Homer, IL v. 
S92 sqq,, xi. 690 sqq.; Scholiast on Homer, II. ii. 396 ; Pausa- 
nias, ii. 18.7, iii.26.8, v. 8. 1, vi.22.5, vi.25.2ffg.; J.Tzetzes, 
Chiliades, ii. 451 ; Ovid, Metamorph. xii. 549 sqq, 

* See ApoUodorus, i. 9. 9, with the note. 

* See Homer, II, v. .395 sqq. ; Pausanias, vi. 25. 2 sq. In the 
same battle Hercules is said to have wounded Hera with 
an arrow in the right breast. See Homer, II, v. 392 sqq. ; 
Clement of Alexandria, Protrept. ii. 36, p. 31, ed. Potter, from 
whom we learn that Panyasis mentioned the wounding of the 
goddess by the hero. Again, in the same fight at Pylus, we 
read that Hercules gashed the thigh of Ares with his spear 
and laid that doughty deity in the dust. See Hesiod, Shield 
of Hercules, 359 sqq. 

• As to the war of Hercules with Hippocoon and his 
sons, see Diodorus Siculus, iv. 33. 5 sq.; Pausanias, ii. 18. 7, 
iii.lO. 6, iii. 15. 3-6, iii. 19. 7, viii. 53. 9. 


y Google 


*\7nroKoa)VTlhat fcal Tvirrovre^ avrov toU (TtcvTa- 
\ot9 aTr€KT€Lvav. Tov Be tovtov Odvarov eKSiKCjp 
arpariap iirl AaKeSai/xoviov^;^ avvijOpoi^e, koX 
7rapay€v6fJL€vo<; ek ^ApKaBiav rj^iov Krj<l>€a fMcra 
TOfv iraihmv S)v elx^v eiKoat avfifiaxciv. BeSco)^ Be 
Kr)<f>eif<: fit) KaTaXiir6vTo^ avrov Teyeav ^Apyeloi 
eirKnparevawvrai, rfjv arparetav rjpvelro. 'H/oa- 
K\ri<; Be trap ^Adrjvd^ Xa^cov iv vBpia ^aX^-^- 
fioarpvxov Topy6vo<; XTepoTrrj ^ rfi Krjtjyeax; dvya- 
Tpl BiBaxTiv, elirdav, eav eTrijj aTparo^, T/)t9 dva- 

(TXpVO'r]^ <€fC>^ T&V T€tfX<aV TOV 06<TTpVXOV Kul fl7) 

TTpolBovo"!]^ ^ Tpoirrfv T&V iroXeiiiwv etretrOai, tov- 
tov yevofxevov Htjfpev^ /jL€Ta t&v iraiBtov iaTpd- 
T€V€, Kal KaTct TTjv fidxv^ auT09 T€ Kal 01 TralBe^ 
avTOv TcXevToxTi, KoX irpo<i tovtoi<; *l<biK\rji;^ 6 
TOV 'HpaKXiov^ afeXi^o?. 'Hpa/cX?)? oe /CTeiva*; 
TOV 'I'TTTTOKocovTa KoX Tou? iTalBa<; aVTOV <Kal>^ 
X€Cp(o<Tdfi€VO^ Tr)V TTokiv, TvvBdpeoov KaTayaywv 
Tr)v /SaaiXeiav irapiBoyKe toutg). 

Uapiobv Be Teyeav 'HpaKXrj^; Tr}V Avyrjv ^AXeov 
dvyuTepa ovaav dyvo&v e<\>0eLpev, rj Be TeKOvaa 

^ AaK€^ainovlovs E : AaKeSaifiovlav A : AaKcZaifiova Hercher. 

'^ Xa^KV E : xf-^xovs A. 

•' ^T€p6xr) EA : ^A(p6irri Pausanias, viii. 44. 7, Hercher. 

* ix inserted by Aegius. 

* Tpoidovffris EA : irpocrtSovaris Heyne (conjecture). 
« 'l<f>iK\ris E : ''l(l>iK\o$ A. 

' Koi inserted by Hercher. 

^ Compare Pausanias, viii. 47. 5. 

* As to the story of Hercules, Auge, and Telephus, sec 
ApoUodorus, iii. 9. 1 ; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 33. 7-12 ; Strabo, 
xiii. 1. 69, p. 615 ; Pausanias, viii. 4. 9, viii. 47. 4, viii. 48. 7, 
▼iii. 54. 6, X. 28. 8 ; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron^ 206 ; 
Hyginus, Fob. 99 sq. The tale was told by Hecataeus (Pausa- 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, II. vii. 3-4 

darted out and despatched him with blows of their 
cudgels. It was to avenge his death that Hercules 
mustered an array against the Lacedaemonians. And 
having come to Arcadia he begged Cepheus to join 
him with his sons, of whom he had twenty. But 
fearing lest, if he quitted Tegea, the Argives would 
march against it, Cepheus refused to join the expe- 
dition. But Hercules had received from Athena a 
lock of the Gorgon's hair in a bronze jar and gave it 
to Sterope, daughter of Cepheus, saying that if an army 
advanced against the city, she was to hold up the 
lock of hair thrice from the walls, and that, provided 
she did not look before her, the enemy would be 
turned to flight.^ That being so, Cepheus and his sons 
took the field, and in the battle he and his sons 
perished, and besides them Iphicles, the brother of 
Hercules. Having killed Hippocoon and his sons 
and subjugated the city, Hercules restored Tyndareus 
and entrusted the kingdom to him. 

Passing by Tegea, Hercules debauched Auge, not 
knowing her to be a daughter of Aleus.^ And she 

nias, viii. 4. 9, viii. 47. 4), and was the theme of tragedies by 
Sophocles and Euripides. See Tragicorum Oraecorum Frag- 
menta, ed. A. Nauck*, pp. 146 sqq., 436 sqq.; The Fragments 
of Sophocles, ed. A. C. Fearson, vol. i. pp. 46 sqq.y ii. 70 sqq. 
Different versions of the story were current among ancient 
writers and illustrated by ancient artists. See my note on 
Pausanias, i. 4. 6 (vol. ii. pp. 75 sq.). One of these versions, 
which I omitted to notice in that place, ran as follows. On 
a visit to Delphi, king Aleus of Tegea was warned by the 
oracle that his daughter would bear a son who would kill his 
maternal uncles, the sons of Aleus. To guard against this 
catastrophe, Aleus hurried home and appointed his daughter 
priestess of Athena, declaring that, should she prove unchaste, 
he would put her to death. As chance would have it, Hercules 
arrived at Tegea on his way to Elis, where he purposed to 
make war on Augeas. The king entertained him hospitably 


y Google 


fcpv<f>a TO 0p€<f>o<; /careOero iv T(p Tefxevei tj)? 
^Adrjvd^. Xoificp ^ he Trj<i X^P^^ <f)0€ipOfi€prj(;, 
'AX€09 elcrekdwv el^ to Tefjuevo^ koX ip€vv't]aa<; ra? 
T^9 Ovyarpo^ iihlva^ evpc, to /jlcv ovv fip€<l>o^ 
€t9 TO TlapBevLov opo^ i^edeTO, koX tovto kutcl 
ffe&v TLva irpovoLav iaoodrj' OrfKrjv fxev yap dpTi- 
^ \oifi^' Wagner conjectures A<^y, comparing iii. 9. 1. 

in the sanctuary of Athena, and there the hero, flushed with 
wine, violated the maiden priestess. Learning that she was 
with child, her father Aleus sent for the experienced ferry- 
man Nauplius, father of Palamedes, and entrusted his daughter 
to him to take and drown her. On their way to the sea the 
girl (Auge) gave birth to Telephus on Mount Parthenius, and 
instead of drowning her and the infant the ferryman sold 
them both to king Teuthras in Mysia, who, being childless, 
married Auge and adopted Telephus. See Alcidamas, Odyss. 
14-16, pp. 179 sq.y ed. Blass (appended to his edition of Anti- 
phon). This version, which represents mother and child as 
sold together to Teuthras, differs from the version adopted 
by ApoUodorus, according to whom Auge alone was sold to 
Teuthras in Mysia, while her infant son Telephus was left 
behind in Arcadia and reared by herdsmen (iii. 9. 1 ). The sons 
of Aleus and maternal uncles of Telephus were Cepheus 
and Lycurgus (ApoUodorus, iii. 9. 1). Ancient writers do 
not tell us how Telephus fulfilled the oracle by killing 
them, though the murder is mentioned by Hyginus {Fab. 
244) and a Greek proverb- writer {Paroemiographi Oraecij 
ed. Leutsch et Schneidewin, vol. i. p. 212). Sophocles 
appears to have told the story in his lost play, The 
Myaiana ; for in it he described how Telephus came, silent 
and speechless, from Tegea to Mysia (Aristotle, Poetics, 
24, p. 1460a, 32, ed. Bekker), and this silence of Telephus 
seems to have been proverbial. For the comic poet Alexis, 
speaking of a greedy parasite who used to gobble up his 
dinner without exchanging a word with anybody, says 
that, "he dines like speechless Telephus, answering all 
questions put to him only with nods" (Athenaeus, x. 18, p. 
421 d). And another comic poet, Amphis, describing the 
high and mighty airs with which fishmongers treated their 


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THE LIBRARY, II. vii. 4 

brought forth her babe secretly and deposited it in 
the precinct of Athena. But the country being 
wasted by a pestilence, Aleus entered the precinct 
and on investigation discovered his daughter's 
motherhood. So he exposed the babe on Mount 
Parthenius, and by the providence of the gods it was 
preserved : for a doe that had just cast her fawn 

customers in the market, says that it was a thousand times 
easier to get speech of a general than of a fishmonger ; for if 
you addressed one of these gentry and, pointing to a fish, 
asked * * How much ? " he would not at first deign to look at 
ou, much less speak to you, but would stoop down, silent as 
^elephus, over his wares ; though in time, his desire of lucre 
overcoming his contempt of you, he would slap a bloated 
octopus and mutter meditatively, as if soliloquizing, ** Six- 
pence for him, and a bob for the hammer-fish." This latter 
poet explains incidentally why Telcphus was silent ; he says 
it was very natural that fishmongers should hold their tongue, 
**for all homicides are in the same case," thus at once inform- 
ing us of a curious point in Greek law or custom and gratify- 
ing his spite at the ** cursed fishmongers," whom he compares 
to the worst class of criminals. See Athenaeus, vi. 5, p. 22i ds. 
As Greek homicides were supposed to be haunted by the 
ghosts of their victims until a ceremony of purification was 
performed which rid them of their invisible, but dangerous, 
pursuers, we may conjecture that the rule of silence had to 
be observed by them until the accomplishment of the purifica- 
tory rite released them from the restrictions under which 
they laboured during their uncleanness, and permitted them 
once more to associate freely with their fellows. As to the 
restrictions imposed on homicides in ancient Greece, see 
Psyche's Task, 2nd ed. pp. USsqq.; FoUc-Lore in the Old 
Testament, i. 80, 83 sq. The motive of the homicide's silence 
may have been a fear lest by speaking he should attract the 
attention, and draw down on himself the vengeance, of his 
victim's ghost. Similarly, among certain peoples, a widow is 
bound to observe silence for some time after her husband's 
death, and the rule appears to be based on a like dread of 
excitinff the angry or amorous passions of her departed 

ruse oy the sound of the familiar voice. See Folk-lore in 
Old Testament, iii. 71 aqq, 


y Google 


T0/C09 €Xa<^09 vireax^v avr^, Troi/nepe^ Be di^eXo- 
fievoi TO Ppi<\>o<i TrjK€(f>ov iKoXeaap aifro, Avyrjv 
Se iSeoKC NavTrXt^ r^ Iloa€iB&vo<; virepopiov direfi- 
irokYfaaL, 6 hk TevOpavrt r^ TevOpavia^ eSay/cei^ 
avTYjv Svvdarrj, KUKeivo^ yvvavKa i7roii]<Taro. 
• Tlapay€v6/i€vo^ Se 'Hpa/cX^ eh KaXvS&va rr)v 
Olv€a)<; Ovyarepa Atjidpeipav ifivrjaTevcTO,^ /cal 
BiawaXaiaaf; virep t&v ydfioav aurrj^ Trpo? 'A;^€- 
X^ov eiKuafjievov ravp^ irepieKXaae to frepov 
r&v K€pdra)v, xal rrjv /jl€p Aijidvecpap yafiel, to 
he Kepa<; 'A^cX^o? Xafi/3dv€i, 8ov9 dvTv tovtov 
TO T% ^A/uLoXOeia';. 'A/jidXOeia Se ^v Alfioviov - 
$vydTr)p, fj K€pa<; elx^ Tavpov, tovto Se, ci? 
^€p€KVOrj^ Xiyei, ivvap.LV e^x^^ TOiavT'qv &aT€ 
/SpcoTov 7j iroTOV, oTTep <&v> ev^aiTO^ Ti<i, irapi- 
X€iv d<f>Oovov. 

^ ifivriffTcviTo EA : ifipfiffrevffarot Argument of Sophocles, 
Trachiniae {4k rrjs ^AiroWoBd^pov fiifiKio&iiKris). 

2 klfioviov Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae, Tzetzes, 
Schol, on Lycophron, 50, Aegius : ap/xtpiov A. 

^ «TX€ Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae, Faber, Miiller, 
Hercher : lx«* EA, Westermann, Bekker, Wagner. 

* 5ir€p h,v tH^ano Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae: ttrtp 
fij^airo EA. 

^ ApoUodorus seems to derive the name Telephus from 
driK'h, ** a dug," and lAa^oj, *' a doe." 

' When Hercules went down to hell to fetch up Cerberus, 
he met the ghost of Meleaeer, and conversing with him pro- 
posed to marry the dead hero's sister, Deianira. The storj' 
of the match thus made, not in heaven but in hell, is told by 
Bacchylides {Epinic. v. 165 sqq.), and seems to have been 
related by Pinaar in a lost poem (Scholiast on Homer, 11 
xxi. 194). As to the marriage of Hercules with Deianira at 
Calydon, the home of her father Oeneus, see also Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 34. 1. 

* On the struggle of Hercules with the river Achelous, see 
Sophocles, Trachiniae, 9-21 ; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 35. 3sq.; 

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THE LIBRARY, II. vii. 4-5 

gave it suck^ and shepherds took up the babe aud 
called it Telephus.^ And her father gave Auge to 
Nauplius^ son of Poseidon^ to sell far away in a 
foreign land ; and Nauplius gave her to Teuthras^ the 
prince of Teuthrania^ who made her his wife. 

And having come to Calydon, Hercules wooed 
Deianira, daughter of Oeneus.^ He wrestled for her 
hand with Achelous, who assumed the likeness of a 
bull ; but Hercules broke off one of his horns.* So 
Hercules married Deianira, but Achelous recovered 
the horn by giving the horn of Amalthea in its stead. 
Now Amalthea was a daughter of Haemonius, and 
she had a bull's horn, which, according to Pherecydcs, 
had the power of supplying meat or drink in abun- 
dance, whatever one might wish.* 

Dio Chrysostom, Or, Ix.; Schohast on Homer, II. xxi. 194 ; 
Ovid, Metamorph. ix. 1-88 ; Hyginus, Fab, 31 ; Scriptores 
rerum mythicarum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 20, 131 
(First Vatican Mythographer, 58; Second Vatican Mytho- 
grapher, 165). According to Ovid, the river-god turned 
himself first into a serpent and then into a bull. The story 
was told by Archilochus, who represented the riv^er Achelous 
in the form of a bull, as we learn from the Scholiast on Homer 
(Z.C.). Diodorus rationalized the legend in his dull manner 
by supposing that it referred to a canal which the eminent 
philanthropist Hercules dug for the benefit of the people 
of Calydon. 

* According to some, Amalthea was the goat on whose 
milk the infant Zeus was fed. From one of its horns flowed 
ambrosia, and from the other flowed nectar. See Calli- 
machus, Hymn to Zeus, 48 aq,, with the Scholiast. Accord- 
ing to others, Amalthea was onl}' the nymph who owned the 
foat which suckled the god. See Eratosthenes, Cataster. 13 ; 
[yeinus, Astronom, ii. 13; Ovid, Fasti, v. 115 ^g^r. Some 
said that, in gratitude for having been nurtured on the animal's 
milk, Zeus made a constellation of the goat and bestowed 
one of its horns on the nymphs who had reared him, at the 
same time ordaining that the horn should produce whatever 
they asked for. See Zenobius, Cent, ii. 48. As to the horn, 
see A. B. Cook, Zeus, i. 501 sq. 

voi._ I. s 

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6 Xrparevei Be 'Hpa/c\^ fierct KaXvSayvlcov iiri 
Sea-TrptoToiky xal irokiv eXo^v "E^v/oai/, ^9 i/ScLO-i- 
\€V€ <l>uXa9,^ *Aarv6xD Ty tovtov dvyarpi 
avveXOoDV Trarrjp TXtjiroXefMov * yiverai, BiareXayv 
Sk trap avToh, irifiylra^ Trpo^ Sitnriov eirra p^v 
KaT€')(€i,v IXeye iraiBa^, t/06?9 Be €t9 ©if)9a9 diro- 
areXXecv, tov<; Bk \0i7r0u9 TeaaapaKOvra irep/rretv 
eh XapBo) rr)v vrjcov iir* aTTOiKtav. yevop^evayv 
Be TOVTcov evwxovp^vo^ trap Olvel^ KovBvXtp 
7rX7]^a<i* aireKreivev ^ApxiT€Xov<; iratBa EiJi/o- 
pov^ /caret 'xeip&v BiBovra' auyyevr}^ Be Olvecos 
o5to9. a\V o phf 7raT7)p rov iraiBo^, aKovaitos; 

' *l\as Argument oj Sophocles^ Trarhiniae : <f>vBas A : 
♦uA«us Diodorus Siculus, iv. 36. 1. 

'-* T\riiro\4/utou Argument of Sophodes, Trccchiniae (compare 
Diodorus Siculue, iv. 36. 1 ) : rpiirro\(fiov A. 

^ vaph, OlutT Argument of Sophoclea, Trachiniae: wapi' oiv^irfv 
Ka\ A. * iraiff as Argument of Sophocles , Trachiniae, 

* Etivofiov Argument of Sophnclesy Trachiniae, He is 
named *^Evvonos by Tzetzes {Schol, on Lycophron, 50 ; 
Chiliades, ii. 456) and Evpvvo/xos by Diodorus Siculus (iv. 
36. 1). 

^ Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 36. 1, who gives Phyleus 
as the name of the king of Ephyra, but does not mention the 
name of his daughter. According to Pindar {Olymp, vii. 23 
(40) 8q„ with the Scholiast), the mother of Tlepblemus by 
Hercules was not Astyoche but Astydamia. 

2 The sons referred to are those whom Hercules had by the 
fifty daughters of Thespius. See Apollodorus, ii. 4. 10. 
Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 29, who says that two (not 
three) of these sons of Hercules remained in Thebes, and that 
their descendants were honoured down to the historian's 
time. He informs us also that, on account of the youth of 
his sons, Hercules committed the leadership of the colony to 
his nephew lolaus. As to the Sardinian colony see also 
Pausanias, i. 29. 5, vii. 2. 2, ix. 23. 1, x. 17. 5, who says 


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THE LIBRARY, 11. vii. 6 

And Hercules marched with the Calydoniaus 
against the Thesprotians, and having taken the city 
of Ephyra, of which Phylas was king, he had inter- 
course with the king's daughter Astyoche, and 
became the father of Tlepolemus.^ While he stayed 
among them, he sent word to Thespius to keep 
seven of his sons, to send three to Thebes and to 
despatch the remaining forty to the island of Sardinia 
to plant a colony.^ After these events, as he was 
feasting with Oeneus, he killed with a blow of his 
knuckles Eunomus, son of Architeles, when the lad 
was pouring water on his hands ; now the lad was a 
kinsman of Oeneus.^ Seeing that it was an accident, 

(x. 17. 6) that there were still places called lolaia in Sardinia, 

and that lolaus was still worshipped by the inhabitants down 

to his own time. As the Pseuao- Aristotle {Mirab, AuscuU. 

100, p. 31, in Westermann's Scriptores rerum mirabilium 

Oraeci) tells iis that the works ascribed to lolaus included 

round buildings finely built of masonry in the ancient Greek 

style, we can hardly doubt that the reference is to the 

remarkable prehistoric round towers which are still found in 

the island, and to which nothing exactly similar is known 

elsewhere. The natives call them nouraghes. They are built 

in the form of truncated cones, and their material consists of 

squared or rough blocks of stone, sometimes of enormous size. 

See Perrot et Ghipiez, Histoire de VArt dans VAntiquiU, iv. 

^ sqq. The Sardinian lolaus was probably a native god or 

hero, whom the Greeks identified with their own lolaus on 

account of the similarity of his name. It has been surmised 

that he was of Phoenician origin, being identical with Esmun. 

See W. W. Baudissin, Adonis und Esmun (Leipsic, 1911), 

pp. 282 sqq, 

* Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv 36. 2 ; Pausanias, ii. 13. 8 ; 
Athenaeus, ix. 80, pp. 410F-411 a; Scholiast on Apollonius 
Rhodius, Argon, i. 1212 ; Tzetzes, Schol, on Lycophron, 
50-51 ; id, ChUiades, ii. 456 sq. From Athenaeus {I.e.) we 
learn that the story was told or alluded to by Hellanicus, 
Herodorus, and Nicander. The victim's name is variously 
given as Eunomus, Ennomus, Eurynomus, Archias, Cherias, 

s 2 

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yeytprjfievov tov aufi^e/SrjKOTo^;, a'vveyv(o/jL6v€h 
'Hpa/cXrj^ Si Kara top vofiov rrjv <f>vyffv vnofjUpeiv 
rjffeXe, koX Siiyvo) ^ 7r/>o? Kijvfca el^ T/oa^ti^a 
dinivai. aywv £i ^rjcdveipav iirl irorafjLov £i!- 
'qvov ^K€v, iv ^ fca0€^6fi€vo<; N€<r<ro9 6 K€VTavpo<; 
T0V9 irapioiTa^ ^ SceiropO/xeve fiiaffov, Xiycop iraph 
de&v rrjv iropfffieiav eikrjKJyipac Bid Sc/caio(rvpr]p,^ 
auT09 fi€P otfp 'H/oa^X^? top noTafiop SUfir),^ 
Arjidpeipav Se fuadop alrrjOeh iireTpe^e Necrcry ^ 
SiaKOfd^eiP, 6 he hunropfffievcop avTrfP iireyeipec 
ffid^ecffai, Ttjf; Be dpaKpayov<Tr)<; altrdop^epo^ 
'H/3a^\^9 e^eXOopra i^ecraop eTo^evaep el^ ttjp 
KapBiOM, 6 Be fJLeXXayp TeXevTap irpocKaXeadp^evo^: 
Arjidpeipap elirep, el OeXoi (fyiXTpop irpo^ 'UpafcXia 
^X^^^t '^^^ '^^ yopop op dipfJKe KaTa T7J<; yrj^ fcal to 
pvep eK tov Tpavp>aTo<; t^9 aKiBo^ alp.a avp,fu^ai, 
rj B^ iroiTjaaaa tovto €(jyvXaTT€ Trap" eavTJj, 

Aie^Lcbp Be 'HpaKXrj<; ttjp Apvoircop ycopap, 
diTop&p Tpo<f>fj<;,^ diraPTTjaapTOf; ^ %eioBap/iPTo<i 

^ Buypw Comtnelinus ; 5^ tiyyu A, Argument of Sophocle^t 

^ irapi6vTas Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae, Aegius : 
irapair\4oyras A, Zenobius, Cent. i. 33. 

^ 5tet rh BUaios etvai Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae. 

* BUfiri Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae, Heyne, Midler: 
Bijf€i EA, Zenobius, Cent. i. 33, Westermann, Bekker, 
BLercher, Wagner. 

* iHrpetlfe NeVay E, Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae : 

* Ka\ rpoipris avop&v Argument ofSophodea, Trachiniae. 
' hxavT'htravTos Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae. 

and Cyathus. He was cupbearer to Oeneus, the father-in-law 
of Hercules. The scene of the tragedy seems to have been 
generally laid at Calydon, of which Oeneus was king ( Apollo- 
dorus, i. 8. 1), but Pausanias transfers the scene to Phlms. 

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THE LIBRARY, II. vii. 6-7 

the lad's father pardoned Hercules; but Hercules 
wished, in accordance with the law, to suffer the 
penalty of exile, and resolved to depart to Ceyx at 
Trachis. And taking Deianira with him, he came to 
the river Evenus, at which the centaur Nessus sat 
and ferried passengers across for hire,^ alleging 
that he had received the ferry from the gods for 
his righteousness. So Hercules crossed the river by 
himself, but on being asked to pay the fare he en- 
trusted Deianira to Nessus to carry over. But he, in 
ferrying her across, attempted to violate her. She 
cried out, Hercules heard her, and shot Nessus to 
the heart when he emerged from the river. Being at 
the point of death, Nessus called Deianira to him 
and said that if she would have a love charm to 
operate on Hercules she should mix the seed he had 
dropped on the ground with the blood that flowed 
from the wound inflicted by the barb. She did so 
and kept it by her. 

Going through the country of the Dryopes and 
being in lack of food, Hercules met Thiodamas 

^ As to Hercules and Nessus, and the fatal aflray at the 
ferry, see Sophocles, Trachiniae, 655 sqq.; Diodorus Siculus, 
iv. 36. 3 sqq.; Strabo, x. 2. 5, p. 451 ; Dio Chrysostom, Or, 
Ix.; Eusebius, Praeparatio Evangelii, ii. 2. 15 sq.; Nonnus, 
in Westermann's Mythographi Oraed, Appendix Narra- 
tumum, xxviii. 8. p. 371 ; Tzetzes> ScTmI. on Lycophron^ 
50-51 ; id, ChUiaaes, ii. 457 sqq,; Ovid, Metamorph, ix. 
101 sqq,; Hyginus, i^^oft. 34; Servius, on Virgil, -4en. viii. 
300 ; liautantius Placidus, on Statius, Theb, xi. 235 ; Scrip- 
tores reruim myihicarum LcUini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 
20 sq.t 131 (First Vatican Mythographer, 58 ; Second Vatican 
Mythographer, 165). The tale was told by Arohilochus 
(Scholiast on ApoUonius Rhodius, Argon, i. 1212). ApoUo- 
dorun*6 version of the story is copied, with a few verbal 
changes and omissions, by Zenobius {Cent, i, 33), but as usual 
without acknowledgment. 


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fioffKarovpTO^ top erepov r&v ravpmv \vaa<; koI 


Avdi^ 8^ i/C€c0€v opfirjBeX^ Aiyifiifp ffaacXel 
AcopUcDV avvefidxv^^' AaTriOai yhp irepl 7% 
0/90)2/ iiroXifiovv avr^ Kopwvov a-rpaTrjyovPTO^;, 6 
Se 7roKiopKovfjL€vo<: hreKaXeaaro top ^Hpa/cXia 
fiofjffbv iirl fiipei rry; 7^9. fior)dij<Ta^ Be ^Hpa- 
kXt]^ aireKTeive Kopmvov fiera /cat aWcoj/, Kal 
Tr)V yrjv airatrav irapeBcaKev iXevOepav avr^. 
oLTre/CTeive Bk koI Aaoyopav^ fiera r&v rexprnv, 
/SaaiXea Apvoircjv, ev 'AttoWo)!/©? TCfievei Baivv- 
fievov, v^purrrjv ovra kcu KairtO&v avfifjuaxov^ 
irapiovra Be "'Itcjpop ^ eh fWvofia'xlcLV irpoeKaKe- 

^ Kiiras Koi a<f>d^as Argument of SophodtHy Trachiniat: 
Kiffas EA, Heyne, Wcstermann, Miiller, Bekker: 06aas 
Wagner (comparing Scholiast on ApoUonius Rhodius, Argon, 
i. 1212, d6aas evvx^t'^o). 

^ thaxh^"^'^^ E : eifwx^^'*'** Argument oj Sophocles^ Trachi- 
niae. Scholiast on ApoUonius Rhodius, Argon, i. 1212. 

* ?/c€v Argument of SophodeSy Trachiniae. 

"* Aaoyopav R, Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 466, Aegius : \ay6- 
pav A. 

* *'lT(avou Miiller, Wagner (comparing Diodorus Siculus, 
iv. 37. 4; Stephanus Byzantius, s.v. "Irav): twv A: ''Itwvo 
Argument of Sophodes^ Trachiniae, Aegius, Commelinus, 
Gale, Heyne, Wester mann, Bekker, Hercher. 

^ As to Hercules and Thiodamas, compare Callimachus, 
Hymn to Diana, 160 aq,, with the Scholiast on 161 (who calls 
Thiodamas king of the Dryopians) ; Nonnus, in Westermann's 
Mythographi Graeci, Appendix Narrationum, xxviii. 6, pp. 
370 sq.; Scholiast on ApoUonius Rhodius, Argon, i. 1212; 
J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 464 sq. From the Scholiast on 
ApoUonius (^.c), we learn that the tale was told bv Phere- 
cydes, whom ApoUodorus may here be following. The story 

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THE LIBRARY, II. vii. 7 

driving a pair of buUocks ; so he unloosed and 
slaughtered one of the bullocks and feasted.^ And 
when he came to Ceyx at Trachis he was received 
by him and conquered the Dryopes.^ 

And afterwards setting out from there, he fought 
as an ally of Aegimius, king of the Dorians.^ For the 
Lapiths, commanded by Coronas, made war on him 
in a dispute about the boundaries of the country; and 
being besieged he called in the help of Hercules, 
offering him a share of the country. So Hercules 
came to his help and slew Coronus and others, and 
handed the whole country over to Aegimius free. 
He slew also Laogoras,^ king of the Dryopes, with 
his children, as he was banqueting in a precinct of 
Apollo ; for the king was a wanton fellow and an ally 
of the Lapiths. And as he passed by Itonus he was 

seems to be a doublet of the one told about Hercules at 
Lindus in Rhodes. See Apollodorus, ii. 5. 11, with the note. 

2 On the reception of Hercules by Ceyx, see Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 36. 5 ; Pausanias, i. 32. 6. As to the conquest of 
the Dryopians by Hercules, see Herodotus, viii. 43, compare 
73 ; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 37. 1 sq.; Strabo, viii. 6. 13, p. 373 ; 
Pausanias, iv. 34. 9 sq.; Nonnus, in Westermann's Mytho- 
graphi Oreteci, Appendix Narrationumf xxix. 6, p. 371 ; 
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon, i. 1212, 1218 From 
these accounts we gather that the Dryopians were a wild 
robber tribe, whose original home was in the fastnesses of 
Mount Parnassus. Driven from there by the advance of the 
Dorians, they dispersed and settled, some in Thessaly, some 
in Euboea, some in Peloponnese, and some even in Cyprus. 
Down to the second century of our era the descendants of the 
Dryopians maintained their national or tribal trailitions and 
pride of birth at Asine, on the coast of Messenia (Pausanias, 

^ On the war which Hercules, in alliance with Aegimius, 
king of the Dorians, waged with the Lapiths, see Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 37. 3 sq. 

* Compare J. Tzetzes, Ghiliades, ii. 466. 


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traro ainov Kvkvo<; "Apeo^ kcu YieKoiria^' av- 
(Tra^ Se koX rovrov airifcTccvev, a><; fie eh ^Opfii- 
viov^ fjfcev, *A/jLvvr(op avrov 6 fiaa-iXeij^ fieff^ 
oirXiov ^ ovK eta SUpx^trOar fca>\v6fi€vo^ Si irap- 
levai Kal tovtov airiKTeivev. 

^ A<f>iK6/jL€vo<; Sk eh Upaylva arpariav iir^ Ol- 
yaSiav avvrjOpotaev,^ F,vpvTov TLfuopTjaaaffaL 
ffeXoDv. avfjLfjLaxovvToyv Be avT& ^ApxdScov fcal 
MrjXceeov^ t&v €k Tpaylvo^i fcal Ao/cp&v r&v 
^KircxvrjfuBiayv, Kreiva^ fxerh t&v ircUSeop ^vpvrov 

' *OpfjL4viov Wesseling : ^pxon^vhp A. 

2 /ted* SwXuif R, Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae : appa- 
rently omitted in other MSS. 

* ffvvfiBpoitrtv E, Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae : a-vv^- 
BpoiCfv A. 

■* ViriKiiav Argument of Sophocle.% Tra^hinias, Aegius : 
fArfvUuv A. 

^ On the combat of Hercules with Cycnua, see Hesiod, 
Shield of Hercules, 57 sqq.; Pindar, Olymp. ii. 82 (147), with 
the Scholium, x. 15(19), with the Scholia; Euripides, Her- 
cul-es furens, 391 sqq.; Plutarch, Theseus, 11; Pausanias, i. 
27. 6 ; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 467. It is said that Cycnus 
used to cut off the heads of passing strangers, intending 
with these gory trophies to build a temple to his father Ares. 
This we learn from the Scholiasts on Pindar {, The 
scene of his exploits was Thessaly. According to Pausanias 
(Z.C.), Hercules slew the ruflBan on the banks of the Peneus 
river ; but Hesiod places the scene at Pagasae, and says that 
the grave of Cycnus was washed away by the river Anaurus, 
a small stream which flows into the Pagasaean gulf. See 
Shield of Hercules, 70 sqq,, 472 sqq. The story of Cycnus was 
told in a poem of Stesichorus. See Scholiast on Pindar, 
Olymp, X. 15 (19). For the combat of Hercules with another 
Cycnus, see Apollodorus, ii. 5. 11. 

' It is said that the king refused to give hia daughter 
Astydamia in marriage to Hercules. So Hercules killed hhn, 
took Astydamia by force, and had a son Ctesippus by her. 
See Diodorus Siculus, iv. 37. 4. Orraenium was a small town 
at the foot of Mount Pelion. See Strabo, ix. 5. 18, p. 438. 

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THE LIBRARY, II. vii. 7 

challenged to single combat by Cycnus a son of 
Ares and Pelopia; and closing with him Hercules 
slew him also.^ But when he was come to Ormenium^ 
king Am3mtor took arms and forbade him to march 
through ; but when he would have hindered his 
passage, Hercules slew him also.' 

On his arrival at Trachis he mustered an army to 
attack Oechalia, wishing to punish Eurytus.^ Being 
joined by Arcadians, Melians from Trachis, and 
Epicnemidian Locrians, he slew Eurytus and his sons 

^ Eurytus was the king of Oechalia. See ApoUodorus, ii. 
6. 1 sq. As to the capture of Oechalia by Hercules, see 
Sophocles, Trachiniae, 351-365, 476-478 ; Diodorus Siculus, 
iv. 37. 6; Zenobius, Cent. i. 33; J. Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 469 
sq.; id. SchcH. on Lycophron, 50-51 ; Scholiast on Homer, II. 
V. 392 ; Scholiast on Euripides, Hippolytusy 545 ; Hyginus. 
Fab* 35 ; Servius, on Virgil, Aen. viii. 291 ; Scriptores rerum 
mythicarum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 129 sq., 131 aq. 
(Second Vatican Mythographer, 159, 165). The situation of 
Oechalia, the city of Eurytus, was much debated. Homer 
seems to place it in Thessaly (II. ii. 730). But according to 
others it was in Euboea, or Arcadia, or Messenia. See Strabo, 
ix. 5. 17, p. 438 ; Pausanias, iv. 2. 2 sq. ; Scholiast on Apollo- 
nius Rhodius, Argon, i. 87 ; the Second Vatican Mytho- 
grapher, 165. ApoUodorus apparently placed it in Euboea. 
See above, ii. 6. 1 sq. There was an ancient epic called The 
Capture of Oechalia, which was commonly attributed to 
Creophilus of Samos, thoiigh some thought it was by Homer. 
See Strabo, xiv. 1, 18, pp. 6.38 sq.; compare id., ix. 5. 17, 
p. 438 ; Pausanias, iv. 2. 3 (who calls the poem Heraclea) ; 
Callimachus, Epigram, vi. (vii.) ; Epicorum Oraecorum 
Fragmenta, ed. G. Kinkel, pp. 60 sqq. ; F. G. Welcker, Der 
epische Cyclits (Bonn, 1835), pp. 229 sqq. As to the names 
of the sons of Eiurtus, see the Scholiast on Sophocles, 
Trachiniae, 266. He quotes a passage from a lost poem of 
Hesiod in which the poet mentions Deion, Clytius, Toxeus, 
and Iphitus as the sons, and lola (lole) as the daughter of 
Eurytus. The Scholiast adds that according to Creophylus 
and Aristocrates the names of the sons were Toxeus, ClytiuB, 
and Deion. Diodorus Siculus (iv. 37. 6) calls the sons 
Toxeus, Molion, and Clytius. 


y Google 


alpel rrjv irokiv. koL Odyfra^ r&v avv avr^ a-rpa- 
revaafUvwv ^ tov9 airodavovra^;, ''linratTov re 
TOP Kfjvfeo^ teal ^Apyeiov koX MeXai/a tou9 Alicv- 
fiviov iralha^, koX Xa(f>vpay<oyri<Ta<i rrjv ttoXlv, 
^y€v *I6\r)v alxjJ^^o>TOv, /cal irpoaop/jbia-deU ^ 
Kr)vaL<p Tfj^ ^xf^oia^ dfepcDrrjpio)^ At09 K.rjvalov 
^(O/JLOV iSpvaaro. fieWeov &€ iepovpyetv ek Tpa- 
'XJiva <At;^ai/> tov KrjpVKa^ eirep^ylre Xapnrpdv 

1 arpar€v<Tafi4vu>¥ Argument oj Sophocles^ Trachiniaey 
Heyne, Westermann, Mtiller, Hercher, Wagner : arpartvo- 
iiivwv A, Bekker. 

* 7cpo(ropfuff0€\s E, Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae: 
irpoaopfiridtls A. 

* aKpuTfipltp ArgumeiU of Sophocles, Trachiniae, Bekker, 
Hercher, approv^ by Heyne : M iucpuriipiov A : iv* iicp«- 
riipltp Heyne (in the text), Westermann, MuUer : M i,Kpw- 
rripiov Wagner : ixl i.KpoTo\4»s E. 

* Aixa^ rhif icfipvKa Sommer, Wagner : rhv icfipvKa E : rhv 
K-fivKa A : ittipvKa Argument of Sophoclea^ Trachiniae : hix<w 
riv lirriperriy Diodorus Siculus, iv. 38. 1 : rhv Aixay rhv dtpd- 
vovra Tzetzes, Chiliades, ii. 473. 

1 Compare Sophocles, Trachiniae, 237 sq„ 752 aqq., 993 
sqq.; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 37. 5; Ovid, Metamorph. ix. 136 
sq,; Seneca, HerciUes Oetaeus, 102 sq,, 782 sqq, Cenaeum is 
the modem Cape Lithada, the extreme north-western point 
of Euboea. It is a low flat promontory, terminating a pienin- 
aula which runs far out westward into the sea, as it to meet 
the opposite coast of Locris. But while the cape is low and 
flat, the greater part of the peninsula is occupied by steep, 
rugged, and barren mountains, overgrown generally with 
lentisk and other shrubs, and presenting in their bareness 
and aridity a strong contrast to the beautiful woods and 
rich vegetation which clothe much of northern Euboea, 
especially in the valleys and glens. But if the mountains 
themselves are gaunt and bare, the prospect from their 
summits is glorious, stretching over tne sea which washes 
the sides of the peninsula, and across it to the long line of 
blue mountains which bound, as in a vast amphitheatre, the 
horizon on the north, the west, and the south, lliese blue 


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THE LIBRARY, II. vii. 7 

and took the city. After burying those of his own side 
who had fallen, to wit, Hippasus, son of Ceyx, and 
Argius and Melas, the sons of Licymnius, he pillaged 
the city and led lole captive. And having put in at 
Cenaeum, a headland of Euboea, he built an altar of 
Cenaean Zeus.^ Intending to offer sacrifice, he sent 
the herald Lichas to Trachis to fetch fine raiment.^ 

mountaiDS are iu Magnesia, Phthiotis, and Looris. At their 
foot the whole valley of the Spercheus lies open to view. The 
sanctuary of Zeus, at which Hercules is said to have offered 
his famous sacrifice, was probably at **the steep city of 
Dium,'* as Homer calls it {IL ii. 538), which may nave 
occupied the site of the modern Lithada, a village situated 
high up on the western face of the mountains, emoowered in 
tall olives, pomegranates, mulberries, and other trees, and 
supplied with abundance of flowing water. The inhabitants 
say that a great city once stooa here, and the heaps of 
stones, many of them presenting the aspect of artificial 
mounds, may perhaps support, if they did not suggest, the 
tradition. See W. Vischer, Erinnerungen und Sindriicke 
aus Oriechenland (Bslle, 1857), pp. 659-661 ; H. N. Ulrichs, 
Beisen und Forschungen in Ortechenland, ii. (Berlin, 1863), 
pp. 236 sq,; C. Bursian, Oeographie von QriechenLandj ii. 
409 sq. At Dium (Lithada ?), in a spot named after a church 
of St. Constantine, the foundations of a temple and fair-sized 
precinct, with a circular base of three steps at the east end, 
have been observed in recent years. These ruins may be the 
remains of the sanctuary of (5aenean Zeus. See A. B. Cook, 
Zeus, i. 123, note 9. 

^ With this and what follows compare Sophocles, Trachi- 
niae, 756 sqq, ; Diodoinis Siculus, iv. 38. 1 sq. ; J. Tzetzes, 
Ghiliades, ii. 472 sqq.; id, Schol. on Lycophron, 50-51 ; Ovid, 
Metamorph. ix. IZQsqq.; Hygiuus, FcU>. 36 ; Seneca, Hercules 
Oetaeus, 485 sqq.; Servius, on Virgil, Aen, viii. 3()0 ; Scrip- 
tores renitn mythicarum LaHni, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 21, 
132 (First Vatican Mythographer, 58 ; Second Vatican My- 
thographer, 165). The following passage of ApoUodorus, 
down to and including the ascension of Hercules to heaven, 
is copied verbally, with a few unimportant omissions and 
changes, by Zcuobius {Cent, i. 33), but as usual without 


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eadrJTa olcopra^ irapa he tovtov ra Trepl Ttfv 
^loXtfv AijLaveipa irvdofievr)} koX SeLaaaa fit) 
ixeimfv fiaXXov dyaTn^arj,^ vofiiaaaa toZ? dXr)- 
0€Lai9^ <f)i\Tpov elvaL to pvev alfia ^€<raov, 
TovTtp Tov ytT&va expuiev. ivhit^ he 'H/5a^\^9 
€0v€v, C&9 ok OepfiavOivTO^ tov '^lt&vo^ o t% 
vSpa^ lo^ TOV ;j^/)ft>Ta eaijire, tov fiev Ki'xav t&v 
TTohSiv dpdfievo^ /caTr)/c6vTi<Tev diro t^9 fBo^o)- 
TMi?,* TOV ^€ ^ATwi/a direaTTa irpoaireffiVKOTa t^ 
(TWfjMTi* <TVvaTT€<Tir&vTO Sk fcoi al adp/c€<; avTOv. 
ToiavTff a'Vfi(f)opf fcaTacx^Oel^ €t9 Tpa')(iva iirl 
1/60)9 fco/JLi^erai, Arjidveipa Se aiaOofievr) to ye- 
701/09 eavTtfv dvrfpTrjaev* 'H/)a/c\^9 hi ivTeiXd- 
fievo<; "TXX^, S9 ifc Arfiaveipa^ ffv avT^ irah 
Trpea^VTepo^;, *l6\f)v dvhp(odevTa jrjfiai, irapa- 

' •Kv9ofxivr\'E,y Argument of Sophocles, Trachiniae: irvvBavo- 
fjLivri R. 

* fiil iKtlvTiv fiaWof iyawiiffri E, Zenobius, Cent. L 33 : /i^ 
irdKip iKelvrip iiyaTiiaji Argument 0/ Sophocles, Trachiiiiae, 

' Totj i.\ri$tlais E, Zenobius, Cent. i. 33 : rj ^kriMif Argu- 
ment 0/ Sophocles, Trachiniae. 

* air^ rrjs Boiwrlas EA. The words are clearly corrupt. 
Various emendations have been proposed : iivh rris iiKpwpdas 
Heyne : kith rijs trapaptias Westermann : itwh rrjs iiKpoiro\4vs 
Wagner (comparing iii. 5. 8). We should perhaps read iri 
TOV iiKpurfjplov, comparing kKpwTtipi^ above. I have trans- 
lated accordingly. Commelinus and Gale add the words 
ffis r^v Eit&oiKriv BdXcurffap in brackets. This may possibly 
be the true reading. Compare Ovid, Metamorph. ix. 21 sq : 

*' Corripit Alcides, et terque qiicUergue rotatum 
Mittit in Euhoicas tormen to fortius undas." 
Ovid is followed by the Vatican Mythographers (**m Eubo- 
icas projecit undas,*^ ** Evhoico mari immersit "). See Scrip- 
tores rerum mythiranim Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. 
pp. 21, 132 (First Vatican Mythographer, 58 ; Second Vati- 
can Mythoffrapher, 165). Heroher omits the words &ir^ rris 
Boiarlas and inserts the words tls rhp 0i\a(r(rap, alleging the 
authority of the Argument to the Trachiniae of Sophocles, 
where, however, the words do not occur. 

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From him Deianira learned about lole^ and fearinp^ 
that Hercules might love that damsel more than her- 
self^ she supposed that the spilt blood of Nessus was 
in truth a love-charm^ and with it she smeared the 
tunic.i So Hercules put it on and proceeded to offer 
sacrifice. But no sooner was the tunic warmed than 
the poison of the hydra began to corrode his skin ; 
and on that lie lifted Lichas by the feet, hurled 
him down from the headland,^ and tore off the tunic, 
which clung to his body, so that his flesh was torn 
away with it. In such a sad plight he was carried on 
shipboard to Trachis : and Deianira, on learning what 
had happened, hanged herself.^ But Hercules, after 
charging Hyllus his elder son by Deianira, to marry 
lole when he came of age,* proceeded to Mount 

^ That is, the **fine raiment" which Lichas had fetched 
from Trachis for the use of Hercules at the sacrifice. 
^ The reading is uncertain. See the critical note. 

* Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 38. 3. According to 
Sophocles {Trachiniae,9S0 sq.), Deianira stabbed herself with 
a sword. But hanging was the favourite mode of suicide 
adopted by Greek legendary heroines, as by Jocasta, Erigone, 
Phaedra, and Oenone. See Apollodorus, i. 8. 3, i. 9. 27, 
iii. 5. 9, iii. 12. 6, iii. 13. 3, iii. 14. 7, Epitome^ i. 19. It does 
not seem to have been practised by men. 

* For this dying charge of Hercules, see Sophocles, Trfzchi- 
niae, 1216 sqq.; Ovid, Metamorph. ix. 278 sqq. It is remark- 
able that Hercules should be represented as so earnestly 
desiring that his concubine should become the wife of his 
eldest son by Deianira. In many polygamous tribes of Africa 
it is customary for the eldest son to inherit all his father's 
wives, except his own mother. See Folk-lore in the Old 
Testament, i. 541, note 3, ii. 280. Absalom's treatment of 
his father's concubines (2 Samuel, xvi. 21 sq.) suggests that 
a similar custom formerly obtained in Israel. I do not 
remember to have met with any other seeming trace of a 
similar practice in Greece. 


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y€p6fi€P0^ €A9 Otrrjp opo^ {ecrt Be rovro Tpa- 
X^VLcav), ifcet irvpciv iroirjaa^ itciXevaev^ eTn^ct^^ 
{/(fxifrreiv. fjLrjSevo^; Be rovro rrpdrreiv iOikovro^, 
Hoia^ irapiwv Kara ^'tjnjaiv iroifJLvUov v<f>7jylt€, 
rbvrtp KoX ret ro^a iBtoprjaaro 'H/oa«X^9. Kaio- 
fjLevrj^ Be rrj^ irvpa^ Xiyerai v&fio^ virocrctv p^era 
fipovri}^ avrov eU ovpavov dvairep.yjrac. eKelOev ^ 
Be rv')((6v ddavaa'ia<; Ka\ BtaXKayel^ "^H/oa rr}v 

^ iKtkfvtrtv E, Argument of Sophocles, Trachinme, Zeno- 
bius, Cent. i. 33 : iKtktvt A. 

' iirifihs Argument of Sophocles^, Trachiniac, Zenobius, 
Cent. i. 33 : ixMvros EA. 

' iKu6€v E, and apparently all MS8. : l^vBa Argument oj 
Sophocles^ Trachiniae. For iK€7dfy we should perhaps read 

^ For the death of Hercules on the pyre, see Sophocles, 
Trachiniae, 1191 aqq.; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 38.3-8 ; Lucian, 
HermotimnSj 7; Ovidj Metamorph. ix. 229 sqq.; Hyginus, 
Fab. 36 ; Seneca, Hercules Oetaeus, 1483 aqq. ; Servius, on 
Virgil, -4en. viii. 300 ; Scriptores reru/m mydhicarum Laiini, 
ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 21, 132 (First Vatican Mytho- 
grapher, 58 ; Second Vatican Mythographer, 165). According 
to the usual account, it was not Poeas but his son Philoctetes 
who set a light to the pyre. So Diodorus Siculus (iv. 38. 4), 
Lucian {Demorte Peregrini, 21), Ovid {Metamorph. ix.233^.), 
Hyginus {Fab. 36), Seneca (Hercules Oetaeus, 1485 sqq., 
1727), and the Second Vatican Mythographer. According to 
a different and less famous version of the legend, Hercules 
was not burned to death on a pyre, but, tortured by the 
agony of the poisoned robe, which took fire in the sun, he 
flung himself into a neighbouring stream to ease his pain and 
was drowned. The waters of the stream have been hot ever 
since, and are called Thermopylae. See Nonnus, in Wester- 
mann's Mythographi Oraeci, Appendix Narrationum, xxviii. 
8 ; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 50-51. Nonnus expressly 
says that the poisoned tunic took fire and burned Hercules. 
That it was thought to be kindled by exposure to the heat 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, II. vii. 7 

Oeta, in the Trachinian territory, and tliere con- 
structed a pyre,^ mounted it, and gave orders to 
kindle it. When no one would do so, Poeas, pass- 
ing by to look for his flocks, set a light to it. On 
him Hercules bestowed his bow. While the pyre 
was burning, it is said that a cloud passed under 
Hercules and with a peal of thunder wafted him up 
to heaven. 2 Thereafter he obtained immortality, and 
being reconciled to Hera he married her daughter 

of the sun appears from the narrative of Hyginus {Fab. 36) ; 
compare Sophocles, Trachinicie, 684-704; Seneca, Hercules 
Oetaeua, 485 aqq., 716 sqq. The waters of Thermopylae are 
steaming hot to this day. See Adonis, AUis, Osiris, 3rd ed. 
i. 210 sq. The Vatican Mythographers, perhaps through the 
blunder of a copyist, transfer the death of Hercules from 
Mount Oeta to Mount Etna. 

2 The ascension of Hercules to heaven in a cloud is 
described also by Zenobius (Cent. i. 33), who copies Apollo- 
dorus. In a more sceptical vein Diodorus Siculus (iv. 38. 4) 
relates that, as soon as a light was set to the pyre, a 
thunderstorm burst, and that when the friends of the hero 
came to collect his bones they could find none, and therefore 
supposed he had been translated to the gods. As to the 
traditional mode of Hercules's death, compare Alberuni's 
India, English ed. by E. C. Sachau, ii. 168 : ** Galenus says in 
his conmientary to the apothegms of Hippocrates: *It is 
generally known that Asclepius was raised to the angels in 
a column of fire, the like of which is also related with regard 
to Dionysos, Heracles, and others, who laboured for the 
benefit of mankind. People say that God did thus with them 
in order to destroy the mortal and earthly part of them by 
the fire, and afterwards to attract to himself the immortal 
part of them, and to raise their souls to heaven.' " So Lucian 
speaks of Hercules becoming a god in the burning pile on 
Mount Oeta, the human element in him, which he had in- 
herited from his mortal mother, being purged away in the 
flames, while the divine element ascended pure and spotless 
to the gods. See Lucian, Hermotimus, 7. The notion that 
fire separates the immortal from the mortal element in man 
has already met us in Apollodorus. See i. 5. 4. 


y Google 


€Keivr]^ duyaTcpa ''H^rjv eyrjfiev, ef ^9 avr^ 
iralie^ *A\€^Ldprj^ fcal ^AviKriro^ iyivovro. 

^Haav Bk TratSe? avT& ifc fiev r&v Qeairiov^ 
Ovyaripcov, Tlp6KpiSo<; fikv ^AvTiketov koX ^linrev^ 
(J) irpea^vTaTT) yhp SiSv/wv^; ijivvrjae), Uavoinj^ 
Se ^pe-jrLirira^, Avar)^ EvfjL^Sr)<;,^ . . . Kpicov, 
^ETTiXdloo^ ^Aarvdva^, TS.epdr}<; ^lo^rj^, Evpvfiia^ 
noXi}Xao9, riaT/ooO? 'ApY€/ui%09, MiyXti/?/? Aao- 
fieScov, KXvTiTrTn]^ FivpvKairvf;, T^ipvirvko^ Ei- 
l3d>Trf<;, ^AyXaiT)^ *AvTidSr)<;, 'Oi/^<7t7r7ro9 ^pva- 
rjiBo^, ^Opelrjf; Aao/ievrj^, Tekfj^ Ava-iSixTf^y 
^EvreXiBrj^ MeviTTTriSo^,^ ^ AvOiinrri^ 'IinroSpofJLO^, 
TeXevTayopa*; Evpv . . . , Ka7ri}Xo9* "l7r7rft)T09/ 
Kv^oia^ "OXvfiTro^:, Nt/c?79 NiK68pofio<;, ^ApyiXrf^ 
KXe6Xao<;, 'Efo\^9 *Epvffpa^, BiavdLho^ 'O^oXltt- 
7ro9, 'ErpaTOvUrjf; " At po/w^, KeXevardvoyp "I <f>iSo^,^ 
AaoOorjt; '^Avri^o^,'' ^Avt Loirr]^ ^ 'AXo7r409, 'Acttv- 
y9t?y9 KaXafiriTLBo<;? ^vXrjiSo^ Tiyaa-i^, Ala- 
XpV^Bo^ AevKcovi]^, ^Avdeia<; . . . , EvpvirvXri^ 
'ApxiSiKO*;, Avvd<TTr]^ ^Eparov^,^^ * AaoDrriSo^ ^^ 

^ 0f<rviov Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, Hercher, 
Wagner : ecffrlov EA. See above, note on ii. 4. 9. 

2 Eu/i^5ij$ R : tiffiidris A : Ev^Lfi!ir}s Heyne. 

^ *Evt€XI5t;j Mtpiinrihos C. Keil : ffrevre^i^ris fittninrlBTfs A. 

** Evpv . . ., Koiri/Aoj. The manuscripts (A) read (ifpv- 
KdirvKos. Commelinus conjectured EvpyK-ns- Ui^kos, which is 
accepted by Hejme, Westermann, Miiller (conjecturing 
UvKTis). Wagner conjectured Eifpvrris. 

* iviraTos A : 'Imr^TTjj Heyne : 'IrirSBoos Faber : Ittovs 
Hercher. * "I^tSos Heyne : '((pis A. 

7 *^AvTi<f>05 Heyne : *'ApTidos A. 

^ *AvTi67rris Heyne : 'Ayrtfi^s A. 

^ KaXafxifriBos Heyne : KKaafx-ffriBos RR*(7 : »rXo/A^Ti5os B : 
kAKtis fiiiTidos Commelinus : KaXXidriiJ,ib7)s Hercher. 

^° *Eparovs Ae^ius : *'Eparos A. 

^^ 'AffoDviBos Heyne : *Aa-«ir(5T;$ A. 

y Google 

THE LIBRARY, II. vii. 7-8 

Hebe,^ by whom he had sons, Alexiares and 

And he had sons by the daughters of Thespius,^ 
to wit : by Procris he had Antileon and Hippeus 
(for the eldest daughter bore twins) ; by Panope 
he had Threpsippas ; by Lyse he had Eumedes ; 
.... he had Creon ; by Epilais he had Astyanax ; 
by Certhe he had lobes ; by Eurybia he had Poly- 
laus ; by Patro he had Archemachus ; by Meline 
he had Laomedon ; by Clytippe he had Eurycapys ; 
by Eubote he had Eurypylus ; by Aglaia he had 
Antiades ; by Chryseis he had Onesippus ; by Oria 
he had Laomenes ; by Lysidice he had Teles ; by 
Menippis he had Entelides ; by Anthippe he had 
Hippodromus ; by Eury .... he had Teleuta- 
goras ; by Hippo he had Capylus ; by Euboea he 
had Olympus ; by Nice he had Nieodromus ; by 
Argele he had Geolaus; by Exole he had Eurythras ; 
by Xanthis he had Homolippus ; by Stratonice he 
had Atromus; by Iphis he had Celeustanor; by 
Laothoe he had Antiphus ; by Antiope he had Alo- 
pius ; by Calametis he had Astybies ; by Phyleis he 
had Tigasis, by Aeschreis he had Leucones ; by 
Anthea . . . . ; by Eurypyle he had Archedicus ; by 
Erato he had Dynastes ; by Asopis he had Mentor ; 

^ On the marriage of Hercules with Hel>e, see Homer, Od. 
xi. 602 sqq.; Hesiod, Tfieog. 950 sqq.; Pindar, Nem, i. 69 (104) 
sqq., X. 17 (30) sq., Isthm. iv. 59 (100) ; Euripides, Heraclidae, 
916 sq, ; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycoph/ron, 1349, 1350 ; Ovid, 
Meta/morph, ix. 400 sq. According to Euripides {Heraclidcie, 
854 sqq,)^ at the battle which the Athenians fought with the 
Argives in defence of the Heraelids, two stars were seen 
shining brightly on the car of lolaus, and the diviner inter- 
preted them as Hercules and Hebe. 

2 A short list of the sons of Hercules is given by Hyginus, 
Fab. 162. As to the daughters of Thespius, see above, ii. 4. 10. 


VOL. I. T 

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MePTwp, ^Hcovrj^ *AfjLrj<rTpio^, Ti.<f>v(Trff; Avy Kalo<:,^ 
'Ako/epdrrjf; ^OXvfiirovarj^, 'EXiKOiviSo^ ^aXia^, 
'Havxeirj^ Ol(np6pKri<;,^ Tep'^iKpdTr]<; TStvpvoirrj^,^ 
'E\a;^€ta?* Bov\ev<:, ^AvTifxa'Xp^ NifcL'mr7)<;,JIdT- 
pofcKo^ nvpLTnrrjf;, N^^09 Upa^iffea^, Kvaiinrq^ 
^EpdaiTTTTO^, Av/covpyo<; ^ To^ixpdrrf^, Bovko\o<; 
Mdpar)^^ AevKiiTTToq FtvpvreKrf^, 'iTTTroKpdrr)*; 
'iTTTTofuyo?. ovToi fi€V ix T&v QeaTTLOv^ dvya- 
T€p(ov, eK he T&v aWcop, Ar)tav€Lpa^ <fi€v> ' t?}? 
Oivicn^ ''TXX09 Knja-iTT'n'o^ r\r]vo<; ^OveLrrj^;,^ i/c 
Mey dpa<; Be ti)? Kp€OVTO<; ^rfpi/iax^^ ArjiKooop 
KpeovTidBfj^, i^ ^OfjL(f}dXr)<; Be *AyeXao^, oOev xal 
TO Kpoiaov ® 761/09. XaX/ctoTr?;? <B€> ^^ Trj<; TStVpv- 

^ AvyKaios A, Westermann : AvyKtvs Heyne, Miiller, 
Bekker, Hercher. 
^ Oiarp6fi\'ris L. Dindorf : ohrptfiKTjs A. 
3 Evp^u^ Heyne, Miiller. 

* *E\ax*las Heyne, Bekker : iKtux^ias A, Westermann, 
Miiller: Aox^o« Hercher. 

* \vKovpyos Hercher, Wagner. The MSS. (A) add K^kios^ 
which Heyne proposed to omit. Westermann reads AvKovp- 
70s*, AvKios To^iKpdrriSt supposing that the name of Lvcurgus's 
mother is lost, and that Lycius was the son of Toxicrate. 
Miiller edits the passage similarly. Bekker brackets: 


^ QeffTiov Aegius, Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, 
Hercher, Wagner : 0€(rriov A. ' fitv inserted by Heyne. 

^ TKTivhs *OyeiTris Gale : yXTjKtsovtlrris A : r\rivfbs 'OZlrris 
Diodorus Siculus, iv. 37. 1. 

^ Kpoitrov Aegius : Kpr}<riov A. ^" 5f insert^ by Hercher. 

^ Ck)mpare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 37. 1. 

* Compare ii. 4. 11 ; Scholiast on Homer, Od, xi. 269, who 
agree^s with Apollodorus as to the names of the children 


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THE LIBRARY, II. vii. 8 

by £one he had Amestrius ; by Tiphyse he had Lyn- 
caeus ; by Olympusa he had Halocrates ; by Helico- 
nis he had Phalias; by Hesychia he had Oestrobles; 
by Terpsicrkte he had Euryopes ; by Elachia he had 
JBuleus; by Nieippe he had Antimaehus ; by Pyrippe 
he had Patroclus ; by Praxithea he had Nephus ; by 
Lysippe he had Erasippus ; by Toxicrate he had Ly- 
curgus ; by Marse he had Bucolus ; by Eurytele he 
had Leucippus ; by Hippocrate he had Hippozygus. 
These he had by the daughters of Thespius. And 
he had sons by other women : by Deianira, daughter 
of Oeneus, he had Hyllus, Ctesippus, Glenus and 
Onites ; ^ by Megara, daughter of Creon, he had 
Therimachus, Deicoon, and Creontiades ; ^ by Om- 
phale he had Agelaus,^ from whom the family of 
Croesus was descended ; ^ by Chalciope, daughter 

whom Ueroules had by Megara. But other writers gave 
different lists. Dinias the Arcive, for example, gave the 
three names mentioned by Apollodorus, but added to them 
Deion. See the Scholiast on Pindar, lathm. v. 61 (104). 

'•^ DiodoruB Siculus (iv. 31. 8) and Ovid (Heroides, ix. 53 sq,) 
give Lamus as the name of the son whom Omphale bore to 

* According to Herodotus (i. 7) the dynasty which preceded 
that of Croesus on the throne of Sardes traced their descent 
from Alcaeus, the son of Hercules by a slave girl. It is a 
curious coincidence that Croesus, like his predecessor or an- 
cestor Hercules, is said to have attempted to bum himself on a 
pyre when the Persians captured Sardes. See Bacchylides, iii. 
24-62. The tradition is supported by the representation of 
the scene on a red-figured vase, which may have been painted 
about forty years after the capture of Sardes and the death 
or captivity of Croesus. See Baumeister, DenkmcUer des 
klassischen AUertums, ii. 796, fig. 860. Compare Adonis , 
AUis, Osiris, 3rd ed. i. 174 sqq. The Hercules whom Greek 
tradition associated with Omphale was probably an Oriental 
deity identical with the Sandan of Tarsus. See Adonis, AtHs, 
Osiris, i. 124 sqq. 

T 2 

y Google 


TTiiKov ^ 0€TTa\o9, 'ETTA/cacT'ny? t^9 Avyeov ^ Sea- 
Ta\o9, HapOevoirr)^ rrj^ ^rvfi^oKov EvTJpr)^, Avyri<; 

T\r)'7r6\€fjLO^, * AaTvBafieia^ rry; ^Afivvropo^ Krij- 
(Tiinro^, AvTov6'i]<; t?)9 Ilet/oea)? HaXaifjicov, 

VIII. MeTa<rTai/T09 3^ 'H/oaAcXeoi'? €t9 deoif*; ol 
TTolSe^ avTov (j}vy6vTe<; ^vpvaffea rrpo^ JS.i]Vfca 
irapeyivovTo, a)<; Be ixelpov^ iKBiBovac \eyovro<; 
TStvpv<T0ea)<; Ka\ iroKefiov direcXovvTo^ iSeBoiKeo-av, 
Tpa'xlva KaTaXiTrovTC^; Sea t?}? 'EWaSo? €(f}vyov. 
SioyKOfievoi Be ffKOov eh ^Adrjva^, koX KoBeaOevTe^ 
eirl TOP iXeov ficofiov rj^iovv ^orjOela-dai. *Adr]paioi 
B^ ovK ixBcBovref; avroif^ 7rpo9 rbv Evpva-ffea 
TTokefiov viriaTTjcrav, xal tov9 fiev 7raLBa<; avrov 
^ AXe^avBpov *l(f>ifjL€BovTa Eupv0iov MivTOpa Ue- 
pifiijBrjv aireKTetvav avrov Be Evpvadia <f>€vyovra 
€<f>* apfjLaTO<; /cal 7r6T/oa9 'l]Brj TrapLTnrevovra 2/c€e- 

^ Evpuirv\ov Aegius : EifpinrvKris A. 
- Aify€ov Heyne : alyeov A. 

^ See above, ii. 7. 4, and below, iii. 9. 1. 
2 See above, ii. 7. 6. 

* Ceyx, king of Trachis, who had given shelter and hospi- 
tality to Hercules. See above, ii. 7. 7. Compare Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 57, who agrees with ApoUodorus as to the threats 
of Eurystheus and the consequent flight of the children of 
Hercules from Trachis to Athens. According to Hecataeus, 
quoted by Longinus {De sitblvmitate, 27), king Ceyx ordered 
them out of the country, pleading his powerlessnesa to protect 
them. Compare Pausanias, i. 32. 6. 

* Compare Scholiast on Aristophanes, Knights, 1151, who 
mentions that the Heraclids took refuge at the altar of Mercy. 
As to the altar of Mercy see below, iii.' 7. 1 note. ApoUodorus 
has omitted a famous episode in the war which the Athenians 
waged with the Argives in defence of the children of Hercules. 
An oracle having declared that victory would rest with the 


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THE LIBRARY, II. vii. 8-viii. i 

of Eurypylus, he had Thettalus; by Epicaste, daugh - 
ter of Aiigeas, he had Thestalus; by Parthenope, 
daughter of Styraphalus, he had Everes ; by Auge, 
daughter of Aleus, he had Telephus ; ^ by Astyoche, 
daughter of Phylas, he had Tlepolemus ; ^ by Asty- 
damia, daughter of Amyntor, he had Ctesippus ; by 
Autonoe, daughter of Pireus, he had Palaemon. 

VIII. When Hercules had been translated to the 
gods, his sons fled from Eurystheus and came to 
Ceyx.3 But when Eurystheus demanded their sur- 
render and threatened war, they were afraid, and, 
quitting Trachis, fled through Greece. Being pur- 
sued, they came to Athens, and sitting down on the 
altar of Mercy, claimed protection.* Refusing to 
surrender them, the Athenians bore the brunt of 
war with Eurystheus, and slew his sons, Alexander, 
Iphimedon, Eurybius, Mentor and Perimedes. Eury- 
stheus himself fled in a chariot, but was pursued and 
slain by Hyllus just as he was driving past the 

Athenians if a high-born maiden were sacriiiced to Perse- 
phone, a voluntary victim was found in the person of Macaria, 
daughter of Hercules, who gave herself freely to die for 
Athens. See Euripides, HeracUdae, 406 sqq., 488 sqq.; Pau- 
sanias, i. 32. 6 ; Zenobius, Cent. ii. 61 ; Timaeus, Lexicon, 
8,v. Bc(A.X* (is fiuKaplav ; Scholiast on Plato, Hippias Major, 
p. 293 A ; Scholiast on Aristophanes, I.e. The protection 
afforded by Athens to the suppliant Heraclids was a subject 
of patriotic pride to the Athenians. See Lysias, ii. 11-16; 
Isocrates, Panegyric, 16 and 16. The story was told by 
Pherecydes, who represented Demophon, son of Theseus, as 
the protector of the Heraclids at Athens. See Antoninus 
Liberalis, Transform. 33. In this he may have been followed 
by Euripides, who in his play on the subject introduces 
I>emophon as king of Athens and champion of the Heraclids 
{Heraclidae, 111 sqq.). But, according to Pausanias (i. 32. 6), 
it was not Demophon but his father Theseus who received 
the refugees and declined to surrender them to Eurystheus. 


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pa)viSa<; ^ Kreivec Bia>^a<; "T\\o9» fcal rtjv K€<f>aXrjv 
airoreficbv *A\k/jli]V7j SiSayaiv rf Sk KepKiac tou^ 
d(f}0aXfiov^ i^wpv^ev avTOv, 

^ 'S.KUpoovihas E : x^^P^*'^^^^ ^• 

^ Traditions varied concerning the death and burial of 
Eurystheue. Diodorus Siculus (iv. 57. 6), in agreement with 
Apollodorus, says that all the sons of Eurystheus were slain 
in the battle, and that the king himself, fleeing in his chariot, 
was killed by Hyllus, son of Hercules. According to Pausa- 
nias (i. 44. 9), the tomb of Eurystheus was near the Scironian 
Rocks, where he had been killed by lolaus (not Hyllus) as he 
was fleeing home after the battle. According to Euripides, 
he was captured by lolaus at the Scironian RiXiks and carried 
a prisoner to Alcmena, who ordered him to execution, 
although the Athenians interceded for his life ; and his body 
W8« buried before the sanctuary of Athena at Pallene, an 
Attic township situated between Athens and Marathon. See 
Euripides, HeraclicUie, 843 «gg., 92S8qq., 1030 sqq. According 
to Strabo (viii. 6. 19, p. 377), Eurystheus marched against 
the Heraclids and lolaus at Marathon ; he fell in the battle, 
and his body was buried at Gargettus, but his head w&s cut 
off and buried separately in Tricorythus, under the high road, 
at the spring Macaria, and the place was hence called ** the 
Head of Eurystheus." Thus Strabo lays the scene of the 
battle and of the death of Eurystheus at Marathon. From 
Pausanias (i. 32. 6) we know that the spring Macaria, named 
after the heroine who sacrificed herself to gain the victory 
for the Heraclids, was at Marathon. The name seems to 
have been applied to the powerful subterranean springs 
which form a great marsh at the northern end of the plain of 
Marathon. The ancient high road, under which the head 
of Eurystheus was buried, and of which traces existed down 
to modern times, here ran between the marsh on the one 
hand and the steep slope of the mountain on the other. At 
the northern end of the narrow defile thus formed by the 
marsh and the mountain stands the modern village of Kato- 
Souli, which is proved by inscriptions to have occupied the 
site of the ancient Tricorythus. See W. M. Leake, The Demi 
of Athens, 2nd ed. (London, 1841), pp. 95 sq., and my com- 
mentary on Pausanias, vol. ii. pp. 432, 4.39 sq. But Pallene, 


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THE LIBRARY, II. viii. i 

Scironian cliffs ; and Hyllus cut off his head and gave 
it to Alcmena; and she gouged out his eyes with 
weaving-pins. 1 

at or near which, according to Euripides, the body of 
Eurystheus was buried, lay some eighteen miles or so away 
at the northern foot of Mount Hymettus, in the gap which 
divides the high and steep mountains of Pentelicus and 
Hymettus from each other. That gap, forming the only 
gateway into the plain of Athens from the north-east, was 
strategically very important, and hence was naturally the 
scene of various battles, legendary or historical. Gargettus, 
where, according to Straw), confirmed by Hesychius and 
Stephanus Byzantius {s.v, Tapy'nrr6s)t the headless trunk of 
Eurystheus was interred, eeems to have lain on the opposite 
side of the gap, near the foot of Pentelicus, where a small 
modem village, Garito, apparently preserves the ancient name. 
See W. M. Leake, op. at. pp. 26 sqq,, 44-47 ; Karten von 
Attika, ErldtUernder Text, Heft II. von A. Milchhoefer 
(Berlin, 1883), pp. 35 (who diflFers as to the site of Gargettus) ; 
Chiidea- Joanne, Grice, par B. Haussoullier, i. (Paris, 1896), pp. 
204 sq. Thus the statements of Euripides and Strabo about 
the place where the body of Eurystheus was buried may be 
reconciled if we suppose that it was interred at Gargettus 
facing over against Palleue, which lay on the opposite or 
southern side of the gap between Pentelicus and Hymettus. 
For the battles said to have been fought at various times in 
this important pass, see Herodotus, i. 62 sq. ; Aristotle, Gon- 
stitution of Athens, 15, with Sir J. E. Sandys's note ; Plu- 
tarch, Thesetis, 13 ; Scholiast on Euripides, Hippolytus, 35. 

The statement of ApoUodorus that Hyllus killed Eury- 
stheus and brought his head to Alcmena, who gouged out his 
eyes with weaving-pins, is repeated by Zenobius {Cent. ii. 61), 
who probably here, as so often, simply copied our author 
without acknowledgment. According to Pindar (Pyth. ix. 
79 (137) sqq., with the Scholia), the slayer of Eurystheus was 
not Hyllus but lolaus ; and this seems to have been the 
common tradition. 

Can we e?cplain the curious tradition that the severed head 
and body of the foeman Eurystheus were buried separately 
many miles apart, and both of them in passes strategically 
important? According to Euripides (HerocZit^e, 1026 sg^'.), 


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2 AiroXofiivov Se T&vpva0€co<; iirl HeXoTrowtfaov 
fl\6ov orUpafcXelBai, fcal irdtra^ eVkovrcif; 7r6\€i<;, 
iviavrov Sh avroi^ iv rfi Kadohto Scayevo/j^vov 

Eurystheus, before being killed by the order of Alcmena, 
announced to the Athenians that, in gratitude for their 
merciful, though fruitless, intercession with Alcmena, he 
would still, after his death, lying beneath the sod, be a friend 
and saviour to Athens, but a stern foe to the descendants of 
the Heraclids — that is, to the Argives and Spartans, both of 
whom traced the blood of their kings to Hercules. Further, 
he bade the Athenians not to pour libations or shed blood on 
his grave, for even without such offerings he would in death 
benefit them and injure their enemies, whom he would drive 
home, defeated, from the borders of Attica. From this it 
would seem that the ghost of Eurystheus was supposed to 
ffuard Attica against invasion ; hence we can understand why 
his body should be divided in two and the severed parte 
buried in different passes by which enemies might march 
into the country, because in this way the ghost might 
reasonably be expected to do double duty as a sentinel or 
spiritual outpost in two important places at the same time. 
Similarly the dead Oedipus in his grave at Athens was 
believed to protect the country and ensure its welfare. See 
Sophocles, Oedipus ColoneuSyblQsqq., 1518-1534, 1760-1765 ; 
Aristides, Or. xlvi. vol. ii. p. 230, ed. G. Dindorf. So Orestes^ 
in gratitude for his acquittal at Athens, is represented by 
Aeschylus as promising that even when he is in his grave he 
will prevent any Argive leader from marching against Attica. 
See Aeschylus, Eumenides, 732 (762) sqq. And Euripides 
makes Hector declare that the foreiguers who had fought in 
defence of Troy were *'no small security to the city" even 
when "they had fallen and were lying in their heaped-up 
graves." See Euripides, Rhesus, 413-415. These examples 
show that in the opinion of the Greeks the crhosts even of 
foreigners could serve as guardian spirits of a country to 
which they were attached Sy ties of gratitude or affection ; 
for in each of the cases I have cited the dead man who was 
thought to protect either Attica or Troy was a stranger from 
a strange land. Some of the Scythians in antiquity used to 
cut off the heads of their enemies and stick them on poles 


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THE LIBRARY, II. viii. 2 

After Eurystheus had perished, the Heraclids 
came to attack Peloponnese and they captured all 
the cities.^ When a year had elapsed from their 

over the chimneys of their houses, where the skulls were 
supposed to act as watchmen or guardians, perhaps by 
repelling any foul fiends that might attempt to enter the 
dwelling by coming down the chimney. See Herodotus, 
iv. 103. So tribes in Borneo, who make a practice of cutting 
off the heads of their enemies and garnishing their houses 
with the^e trophies, imagine that they can propitiate the 
spirits of their dead foes and convert them into friends and 
protectors by addressing the skulls in endearing language and 
offering them food. See Spirits of the Com and of the Wild, 
i. 294 sqq. The references in Greek legend to men who habitu- 
ally relieved strangers of their heads, which they added to 
their collection of skulls, may point to the former existence 
among the Greeks of a practice of collecting human skulls for 
the purpose of securing the ghostly protection of their late 
owners. See notes on ii. 5. 11 (Antaeus), ii. 7. 7 (Cycnus). 
Compare Epitome, ii. 5 (Oenomaus) ; note on i. 7. 8 (Evenus). 
^ For the first attempted invasion of the Peloponnese by 
the Heraclids or sons of Hercules, see Diodorus Siculus, iv. 
08. 1-4. The invasion is commonly spoken of as a return, 
because, though their father Hercules had been bom at 
Thebes in Boeotia, he regarded Mycenae and Tiryns, the 
kingdom of his forefathers, as his true home. The word 
{K^dohos) here employed by ApoUodorus is regularly applied 
by Greek writers to the return of exiles from banishment, 
and in particular to the return of the Heraclids. Sec, for 
example, Strabo, viii. 3. 30, p. 354, viii. 4. 1, p. 369, viii. 5. 5, 
p. 365, viii. 6. 10, p. 372, viii. 7. 1, p. 383, viii. 8. 5, p. 389, 
ix. 1. 7, p. 392, x. 2. 6, p. 451, xiii. 1. 3, p. 582, xiv. 2. 6, p. 653 ; 
Pausanias, iv. 3. 3, v. 6. 3. The corresponding verbs, nartp- 
X^ffffai, *' to return from exile," and KardyttUj ** to bring back 
from exile," are both used by ApoUodorus in these senses. 
See ii. 7. 2 and 3, ii. 8. 2 and 5, iii. 10. 5. The final return 
of the Heraclids, in conjunction with the Dorians, to the 
Peloponnese is dated by Thucydides (i. 12. 3) in the eightieth 
year after the capture of Troy ; according to Pausanias 
(iv. 3. 3), it occurred two generations after that event, which 
tallies fairly with the estimate of Thucydides. Velleius 


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(f>dopa} iTCLaav TleXoirowrjaov fcaT€ax€t fcal ravrrjv 
yeveaOai Xpf}<rfio^ hia tou9 'Hpa/cXetia? ihrfXov' 
irpo yap tov Scovto^ avTov^ KaTeXBelv. oOev airo- 
XvKovT^^; WeKoTTovvr^Gov ave'yfi>pr)aav ^ efc Mapa- 
Q&va tcatcel fcaTtp/covv. TXtfiroXefio^ oJrv Krelva^ 
oifX €fCQ)p AtKUfiviov (t^ /SaKTffpia yhp avTov 
depdirovTa ^ TrXtjaaovTO^ viriSpafxe) irplv i^eXBeiv 
avroif^ * €k nekowowtjaov, if)€vya)v fieT ovk 
oXiycov fjKev eh 'PoSov, fcd/cei KaTtpxet, "TXKo^ Se 
rfjv fi€v *l6\rfv /caret ra? tov 'jrarpb<; ivTokd^^ 
eyrjfie, rrjv he fcdOoSov e^rfTei Tot9 'Hoa«\€t8at9 
KaTepydaaaOat. Sib irapayevofievo^; €t9 AeX^ou? 
iirvvffdveTo 7ra>9 av KareXOocev, 6 Se Oeo^ eij>'qae * 
'7repifieivavTa<; tov rpiTOv Kapirov tcaTepxecffai. 
vofiiaa^ Se ''TW09 TpvTOv Kapirov XeyeaOai tt/v 
TpieTiav, ToaovTov irepvfieiva^ ^^poi'oi/ avv t^ 
(TTpaT^ /caTyei . . . tov ' HpaKXeov^ '' iirl IIcXo- 
TTovvrjaov, Tiaafievov tov ^OpeaTOv /SaaiXevovTO^ 

^ hiaytvonhov <pBopk Wagner : y^vofxivov (pBopa E : y^voix4irns 
(pBopas A. 

2 ii.vtx^9'*\<ff*'V ERRa, in margin : ^\Bov BC. 

^ OfpdirovTa Faber ; Btpairtvovra A. 

^ airobs Heyne : avrhv A. 

^ T^j . . . iuTo\hs R : 4vro\hv A. 

^ ^(prifff A : ix9'*\^^ Mendelssohn. 

' icoTj/€i . . . TOW 'HpaKK4ovs. The lacuna was indicated by 
Heyne. Faber proposed to read Karrjye robs *HpaK\€ovs. 
See the exegetical note. 

Patercnlus (i. 2. 1 ) agrees with Thucydides as to the date, 
and adds for our further satisfaction that the return took 
place one hundred and twenty years aft«r Hercules had been 
promoted to the rank of deity. 

^ Diodorus Siculus says nothing of this return of the 
Heraclids to Attica after the plague, but lie records (iv. 58, 3 


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THE LIBRARY, II. viii. 2 

return^ a plague visited the whole of Peloponnese ; 
and an oracle declared that this happened on account 
of the Heraclids, because they had returned before 
the proper time. Hence they quitted Peloponnese 
and retired to Marathon and dwelt there.' Now 
before they came out of Peloponnese, Tlepolemus 
had killed Licymnius inadvertently; for whOe 
he was beating a servant with his stick Licymnius 
ran in between ; so he fled with not a few, and came 
to Rhodes, and dwelt there. ^ But Hyllus married 
lole according to his father's commands, and sought 
to effect the return of the Heraclids. So he went 
to Delphi and inquired how they should return ; 
and the god said that they should await the third crop 
before returning. But Hyllus supposed that the 
third crop signified three years ; and having waited 
that time he returned with his army^ . . . ot 
Hercules to Peloponnese, when Tisamenus, son of 

sq,) that, after their defeat and the death of Hyllus at the 
Isthmus, they retired to Tricorythus and stayed there for 
fifty years. We have seen (above, p. 278, note on ii. 
8. 1) that Tricorythus was situated at the northern end of 
the plain of Marathon. 

■ For the homicide and exile of Tlepolemus, see Homer, 
II, ii. 653-670, with the Scholiast on 662 ; Pindar, Olymp. vii. 
27 (50) aqq.) Strabo, xiv. 2. 6, p. 653 ; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 68. 
7 aq. According to Pindar, the homicide was apparently not 
accidental, but committed in a fit of anger with a staff of 

' He was met by a Peloponnesian army at the Isthmus of 
Corinth and there defeated and slain in single combat by 
Echemus, king of Tegea. Then, in virtue of a treaty which 
they had concluded with their adversaries, the Heraclids 
retreated to Attica and did not attempt the invasion of 
Peloponnese again for fifty years. 8ee Diodorus Siculus, iv. 
58. 1-6 ; Pausanias, viii. 5. 1. These events may have been 
recorded by ApoUodorus in the lacuna which follows. 


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HeXowovvrja-icov, /cat yevofievrj^ iraKiv fidxv^ ^f''^- 
&(Ti JleXoTrovvi^tTioL /cat ^Apurrofiaxo^; Ovi^afcec. 
iirel Se rjvSpcoffrjaav oi [KXcoSatou] ^ 7ra?Se9, 
iXP&VTO irepl KaOohov, rod Oeov Be eiirovTO^ o ri 
fcaX TO irporepov, Trjfievo^ 'pTtdro Xeyaov rovT<p 
TreKrOima^; ^ aTvxriaai, 6 ik deo<; aveVKe t&v 
aTV)(7}/^'^^^ auTou? atTLov^ elvar tov^ yap XPV' 
afiov<; ov avfi/SdWeiv, \eyecv yap ou yij<; dWa 
yevea^ Kapirbv rpiTov, Kal aT€vvypdv ttjv evpv- 
ydaropa, Be^idv Kara top ^ladfiov exovri ttjv 
ddXaaaav? ravra Ti]fi€vo<; dfcova-a<; rjroLpM^e rov 

^ KKtolaiov Gale, bracketed by Westermann and Miiller, 
but not by Bekker, Hercher, and Wagner : K\eo\dov A. 
We should perhaps read ^Apitrrofidxov. 

2 irtiadevras conjectured by Commelinus, preferred by 
Gale ; vciffdivra Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, 
Hercher, apparently following the MSS. Wagner's not€ 
vftae^vras A seems to be a mistake for v€i<r9(vra A. 

^ ffrtvvypav r^v ivpvyAffTopa, Zi^thiV Kark rhv ^larBfxhu ^x*"'''"' 
r^v 0d\a<raav He^'ne, Bekker, Hercher : (rrevvyphy rhv r^v 
thpvydo'Topa ^f^ihv Kurh rhp ^Icrdfihv tcxovra r^v OdXatrtrav Wag- 
ner, which I cannot constme. 

^ Pausanias at first dated the return of the Heraolids in 
the reign of this king (ii. 18. 7, iii. 1. 6 ; compare iv. 3. 3), 
but he afterwards retracted this opinion (viii. 5. 1). 

2 This Aristomachus was a son of Cleodaeus (Pausanias, ii. 
7. 6), who was a son of Hyllus (Pausanias, iii. 15. 10), who 
was a son of Hercules (Pausanias, i. 35. 8). Aristomachus 
was the father of Aristodemus, Teraenus, and Cresphontes 
(Pausanias, ii. 18. 7, viii. 5. 6), of whom Temenus and 
Cresphontes led the Heraclids and Dorians in their final 
invasion and conquest of Peloponnese (Pausanias, ii. 18. 7, 
V. 3. 5 aq.y v. 4. 1, viii. 5. 6, x. 38. 10). Compare Herodotus, 
vi. 52, who indicates the descent of Aristodemus from Her- 
cules concisely by speaking of " Aristodemus. the son of 


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THE LIBRARY, II. vni. i 

Orestes, was reigning over the Peloponnesians.^ And 
in another battle the Peloponnesians were victorious, 
and Aristomachos ^ was slain. But when the sons 
of Cleodaeus^ were grown to man's estate, they 
inquired of the oracle concerning their return. And 
the god having given the same answer as before, 
Temenus blamed him, saying that when they had 
obeyed the oracle they had been unfortunate. But 
the god retorted that they were themselves to blame 
for their misfortunes, for they did not understand the 
oracles, seeing that by ^^ the third crop " he meant, 
not a crop of the earth, but a crop of a generation, 
and that by the narrows he meant the broad-bellied 
sea on the right of the Isthmus.* On hearing that, 

Aristomachus, the son of Gleodaeus, the son of Hyllus." Thus, 
according to the traditional genealogy, the conquerors of the 
Peloponnese were great-great-grandsons of Hercules. With 
regard to Aristomachus, the father of the conquerors, Pausa- 
nias says (ii. 7. 6) that he missed his chance of returning to 
Peloponnese through mistaking the meaning of the oracle. 
The reference seems to be to the oracle about ** the narrows," 
which is reported by Apollodorus (see below, note 4). 

' As Heyne pointed out, the name Cleodaeus here is 
almost certainly wrong, whether we suppose the mistake to 
have been made by Apollodorus himself or by a copyist. For 
Cleodaeus was the father of Aristomachus, whose death in 
battle Apollodorus has just recorded ; and, as the sequel 
clearly proves, the reference is here not to the brothers out 
to the sons of Aristomachus, namely, Temenus and Cres- 
phontes, the conquerors of the Peloponnese. Compare the 
preceding note. 

* The oracle was recorded and derided by the cynical 
philosopher Oenomaus, who, having been deceived by what 
purported to be a revelation of the deity, made it his business 
to expose the whole oracular machinery to the ridicule and 
contempt of the public. This he did in a work entitled On 
Oraclest or the Exposure of Quacksy of which Eusebius has 
preserved some extracts. From one of these (Eusebius, 


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aTparop, koX vav^ inij^aro ^ rrj<; Ao/cpiBo<; evOa 
vvv air i/eeivov 6 totto? Navirafcro^ Xiyerai, i/cel 
S* SvTO^ Tov arpareviuiTO^ ^ApiaToSrjfio^ xepav- 
vtoOeX^ awiffave, watSa^ KoraXnrwv ef ^Apyeia^ 
T^9 AvTealcopo^ Schvfiov^, Fiipva-ffiprj xal TIpofcXea. 
3 avvi^T) Sk Kal tov a-Tparov iv i^avirdxTtp avfi- 
(f>opd irepiireaelv, i(f>avr} yap avToU fiavrc^; yprj- 
a/jLOv<; Xeyeov fcal ivOed^cov, ov ivofxiaav fiwyov 
elvai iiri Xvfitj tov arparov irpo^ neXoTrovinjaicov 
direaraX/ievov, tovtov ^aXwv aKovritp 'iTTTroriyvo 
4>i5Xai/T09 TOV ^ AvT Lo^ov Tov^\ApaKKeovs tv^wv 
direKTetvev. ovtko^ he yevopAvov tovtov to p,ev 
vavTc/cov Sia(f>0ap€ia&v t&v ve&v dirdikeTO, to Be 
ire^ov rjTvxn^^ 7up>^, koX SieXvdt) to aTpaTevfia, 
'XpcopAvov Be irepl ttj^ cvp^cfyopci^ Tr}p.€jJOv, kcu 
TOV Oeov Bed TOV pAvTew<; yeveaOai Tatha 
\€yovTO<;, fcal KeXevovTO^ (pvyaBevaat Bifca €ti] tov 
dveXovTa Kal 'x^pijaaaffai 'qyep.ovi r^ Tpcoif>0d\p,<p, 
tov fiev ^IwrroTTjv e^ivydBevaav, tov Be Tpi6<l>0a\- 

^ iirij^aro Aegius : iirdaafro A. 

PraeparcUdo Evangelii, v. 20) we learn that when Aristonia- 
ohu8 applied to the oracle, he was answered, ** The gods 
declare victory to thee by the way of the narrows " (N/iriji' <roi 
<l>aivov<ri 9€oi Bi o^oio ffrevuypcop). This the inquirer understood 
to mean **by the Isthmus of Corinth," and on that under- 
standing the Heraclids attempted to enter Peloponnese by 
the Isthmus, but were defeated. Being taxed with deception, 
the god explained that when he said ** the narrows " he really 
meant **tne broads," that is, the sea at the mouth of the 
Gulf of Corinth. Compare K. 0. Miiller, Die Dorier^, i. 68«g., 
who would restore the "retort courteous" of the oracle in 
two iambic lines as follows : — 

yevcas yip, ov yr^s Kapirhv i^eivov rplrov 
Koi rifp ffrtvvyphv ad rhv thpvydffropa 
— ^X^yra Kara rhv *ladfihy ^e^tdv. 


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THE LIBRARY, II. viii. 2-3 

Temenus made ready the army and built ships in 
Locris where the place is now named Naupactus 
from that.^ While the army was there, Aristo- 
demus was killed by a thunderbolt,^ leaving twin 
sons, Eurysthenes and Procles, by Argia, daughter of 
Autesion.^ And it chanced that a calamity also 
befell the army at Naupactus. For there appeared to 
them a soothsayer reciting oracles in a fine frenzy, 
whom they took for a magician sent by the Pelopon- 
nesians to be the ruin of the army. So Hippotes, 
son of Phylas, son of Antiochus, son of Hercules, 
threw a javelin at him, and hit and killed him.^ 
In consequence of that, the naval force perished 
with the destruction of the fleet, and the land force 
suffered from famine, and the army disbanded. 
When Temenus inquired of the oracle concerning 
this calamity, the god said that these things were 
done by the soothsayer^ and he ordered him to 
banish the slayer for ten years and to take for his 
guide the Three-eyed One. So they banished Hip- 
potes, and sought for the Three-Eyed One.^ And 

^ Naupactus means ** ship-built." Compare Strabo, ix. 4. 7; 
Pausanias, iv. 26. 1, x. 38. 10. 

2 Aristodemus was a son of Aristomachus and brother of 
Temenus and Cresphontes, the conquerors of the Peloponnese 
(Pausanias, ii. 18. 7). Some said ne was shot by Apollo at 
Delphi for not consulting the oracle, but others said he was 
murdered by the children of Pylades and Electra (Pausanias, 
iii. 1. 6). Apollodorus clearly adopts the former of these two 
accounts ; the rationalistic Pausanias preferred the latter. 

^ Compare Herodotus, vi. 52. 

* The soothsayer was Carnus, an Acamanian ; the Dorians 
continued to propitiate the soul of the murdered seer after 
his death. See Pausanias, iii. 1.3. 4 ; Conon, Narrationes, 
26 ; Scholiast on Theocritus, v. 83. 

' That is, by the angry spirit of the murdered man. 

^ With this and what follows compare Pausanias, v. 3. 5 sq. ; 
Suidas, 8.V, Tpi6<p$a\fios ; and as to Oxylus, compare Strabo, 
viii. 3. 33, p. 357. Pausanias calls Oxylus the son of Haemon. 


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fiov i^i]Tovv. fcal TrepiTvyx^dvovaiv 'OfuXy t^ 
* AvSpaifiovo^, i<f>* Yinrov Kaffrjfiiptp^ fiovo(l>6d\/jLOV^ 
(top yap Srepov r&v 6<f>6aXfi&v €KK€KOTrTO ^ ro^tp). 
iirl <f>6v(p yap o5to9 (fyvywp eh ^HXiP, ixeiOep et^ 
AlrcoXiap ipiavTOv SteXffoPTo^ eiraprip^eTo. (tv/x- 
ffa\6pT€<; ovp TOP '}^pTj(Tfi6p, TOVTOP ffyefiova 

TTOlOVPTai. Kal (TV/jL/3a\6pT€^ T0Z9 TToXe/JLLOC^ Kal 

T^ wef^ Kal T^ pavTLK^ irpoTepovat aTpaTtpy Kal 
Tiaafxepop KTeipovct top ^OpecrTOV, OprjCKOvai he 
avfifiaxovPT€^ avTol<; oi Aiyifilov iralBe^, Udfi- 
(jyvXo^ Kol Avfia^, 

'EireiStf <S€> eKpaTTjaap HeXoTropptjaov, Tp€l<; 
ihpvcraPTo /Scofioi/^ iraTpwov Alo^, Kal iirl tovtcop 
€0V(rap, Koi iKXrjpovPTO ra? TroXe*?. TrpwTrj jjlcp 
oZp Xrj^i^ "Apyo^, hevTepa <he> AaKeBaificop, 
TpLTrf Se Meacr^PT), KOfiiadpTcop hk vhpiap vSaTo^, 
eSofe '\lr7]<f>op ^aXeiP eKaaTOP. Tij/jlcpo^ ovp kui 
oi ^ApvaTohrjfiov TratSe? IlpoKXrj<; Kal Kvpvadiv7j<; 
e^aXop Xi0ov<;, Kp€a(l>6pTr)^ Se ^ouXofiepo^ Meo"- 
crrjpffp Xax^lp 7^9 ipiffaXe ^&Xop. ravTrf(; Se 
ScaXvOeiat)^ eSec tou? Svo KXrjpov^ dpa^avrfvai. 
eXKvarffelarj^ Be irpdnT'qs ^ fiep t^9 Trffiepov, SevTepa*; 
Be T^9 T&p ^ApKTToBriiiov TraiBwp, Meaaijvffp 

^ Ka0rnjL4ytfi Aegius : Kadrj/jifi/ov A. 

^ lj.oyo<^0(L\fiov, Frazer (compare Paueanias, v. 3. 5 ; Suidas, 
8.V. Tpi6<pdaXfio5) ; ij.ovo(f>0d\fi^ Wagner and previous editors, 
following apparently the MSS. 

' iKKiKovro Gale, Heyne, for Mkoitto : i^eKtKoicro Hercher. 
But on the omission of the augment, see Jelf, Oreek Oram- 
mar*, i. 169, Ohs. 4. ■* irpiar-ns Aegius: trpa>rov A. 


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THE LIBRARY, II. viii. 3-4 

they chanced to light on Oxylus^ son of Andraeiuon, a 
man sitting on a one-eyed horse (its other eye having 
been knocked out with an arrow) ; for he had fled to 
Elis on account of a murder, and was now returning 
from there to Aetolia after the lapse of a year.^ 
So guessing the purport of the oracle, they made 
him their guide. And having engaged the enemy 
they got the better of him both by land and sea, 
and slew Tisamenus, son of Orestes.^ Their allies, 
Pamphylus and Dymas, the sons of Aegimius, also 
fell in the fight. 

When they had made themselves masters of Pelo- 
ponnese, they set up three altars of Paternal Zeus, 
and sacrificed upon them, and cast lots for the 
cities. So the first drawing was for Argos, the second 
for Lacedaemon, and the third for Messene. And 
they brought a pitcher of water, and resolved that 
each should cast in a lot. Now Temenus and the 
two sons of Aristodemus, Procles and Eurysthenes, 
threw stones ; But Cresphontes, wishing to have 
Messene allotted to him, threw in a clod of earth. 
As the clod was dissolved in the water, it could not be 
but that the other two lots should turn up. The lot 
of Temenus having been drawn first, and that of 
the sons of Aristodemus second, Cresphontes got 

* The homicide is said to have been accidental ; according 
to one account, the victim was the homicide's brother. See 
Pausanias, v. 3. 7. As to the banishment of a murderer for 
a year, see note on ii. 5. 11. 

* Pausanias gives a different account of the death of 
Tisamenus. He says that, being expelled from Lacedaemon 
and Argos by the returning Heraclids, king Tisamenus led 
an army to Achaia and there fell in a battle with the lonians, 
who then inhabited that district of Greece. See Pausanias, 
ii. 18. 8, Tii. 1. 7 sq. 


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► eka^e ^ Kp€a<f>6vTr)^. iiri Se Tot9 ^cofiol^ oh €0v- 
aav evpov c'qfiela /ceifieva ol /j^v \a)(6pT€^ "Apyo^ 
<f>pvvov, ol Bk AaxeSaifiova ^ Spdfcovra, ol Bk Mea- 
arjvriv okGoireKa. irepl Be t&v crr)fiei(ov eXeyov ol 
fidvT€i^, T049 fJih TOP <f>pvvov KaraXa^ovaLv ^ iirl 
T^9 7r6\€a><; fjuiveiv afievvov (fifj yhp ex^iv okKtfv 
TTOpevofievov to Orjpiov), tou9 Bk BpaKOvra fcara- 
Xa^ovra^ Betvov^; eTrtoina*; eXeyop eaeaOaty tov<; 
Bk Trjv aX(07r€Ka BoXiov^, 

T'^fievo^ fiev ovv TrapaTrefiiro/jLevo^ rov^ 7ralBa<; 
^Ayikaov koI ^itpvirvKov kcu KaXXtai/, t§ dvyarpl 
IT poaapeix^v 'Tppr)0oi fcal t^ Tavrnj^ apBpl Aiyt- 
(l>6pTr}, ou€P ol 7ra?S69 freiOovai ripa<; * €7ri fjLvad^ 
TOP irarepa avTcop <f>op€v<Tai. yevofiepov Sk tov 
<f>6pov Trjv fiacrCKeiap 6 arpajo^ €X€iv iBcKaifoaev 
^Tppr)0a) xal ArfKpovrrjp,^ Kp€a'<f>6pTr}^B€ ov iroXvv 
M€0'(r^i/?79 ^aciXevaar xpovop fiercL Bvo TraiBtav 
<f)OP€v0€h air W ape. Ilo\v<f>6pT7j(f Be ifiaaiXevaev, 
avT&p * T&p 'HpaxXeiB&p vTrdpx^op, /cat Ttfp tov 

^ ?Aax« Hercher. 

^ \cuc€Balnova E : KaKeMfxopa \ax6yres A. 
' KaraXafiovffiv E. According to Heyne, the MSS. have 

* rivas Faber, Westermann, Hercher, Wagner : nravas A, 
Bekker. Heyne conjectured Tirayious from Tirdyri or Tirava, 
a town near Sicyon. See Pausanias, ii. 11. 3-ii. 12. 1 ; 
Stephanus Byzantiua, s,v, Tlrava, who recognizes the ad- 
jective Tirdvios, 

* *Tpvijtf«i> Kol Arii<p6vT7iv Heyne : vpv7i0o7 koI 8i7«^(JvTp A. 

* avrhs Faber : xal aitrhs Hercher. 

* As to the drawing of the lots, and the stratagem by 
which Cresphontes secured Messenia for himself, see Poly- 
aenus, Sirateg. i. 6 ; Pausanias, iv. 3. 4 aq. Sophocles alludes 
to the stratagem {Ajax, 1283^99., ^i^^ ^b® Scholiast on 1285). 


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THE LIBRARY, II. viii. 4-5 

Messene.^ And on the altars on which they sacri- 
ficed they found signs lying : for they who got Argos 
by the lot found a toad ; those who got Lacedaemon 
found a serpent ; and those who got Messene found 
a fox.2 As to these signs the seers said that those 
who found the toad had better stay in the city (seeing 
that the animal has no strength when it walks) ; that 
those who found the serpent would be terrible in 
attack, and that those who found the fox would be 

Now Temenus, passing over his sons Agelaus, 
Eurypylus, and Callias, favoured his daughter Hyme- 
tho and her husband Deiphontes ; hence his sons 
hired some fellows to murder their father. ' On the 
perpetration of the murder the army decided that 
the kingdom belonged to Hyrnetho* and Deiphontes. 
Cresphontes had not long reigned over Messene when 
he was murdered with two of his sons;^ and Poly- 
phontes, one of the true Heraclids, came to the 

^ In the famous paintings by Polygnotus at Delphi, the 
painter depicted Menelaus, king of Sparta, with the device 
of a serpent on his shield. See Pausanias, x. 26. 3. The 
great Messenian hero Aristomenes is said to have escaped by 
the help of a fox from the pit into which he had been thrown 
by the Lacedaemonians. See Pausanias, iv. 18. 6 9q, I do 
not remember to have met with any evidence, other than that 
of ApoUodorus, as to the association of the toad with Argos. 

^ Compare Pausanias, ii. 19. 1, ii. 28. 2 sqq., who agrees as 
to the names of Hyrnetho and her husband Deiphontes, but 
differs as to the sons of Temenus, whom he calls Cisus, Cerynes 
Phalces, and Agraeus. 

^ The grave of Hyrnetho was shown at Argos, but she is 
said to have been accidentally killed by her brother Phalces 
near Epidaurus, and long afterwards she was worshipped in a 
sacred grove of olives and other trees on the place of her death. 
See Pausanias, ii. 23. 3, ii. 28. 3-7 

* Compare Pausanias, iv 3. 7. 


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if>ov€v04vro^ yvvalfca Mepoirrjv axovaav e\a/3ev» 
avrfpidri hk koX o5to9. Tpirov yctp e^ovaa iralha 
Mepoirrf KaXovfievov Atirvrov^ eomtee r^ eavrij^s 
irarpl rpe^yeiv, o5to9 avSpcoOeh fcal fcpv<f>a /carek- 
OoDV Sfcreipe Ilo\v<l>6vTrfv fcal Trfv irarpmav /3aai- 
Xeiav aireKa^ev, 

^ kXicvrov Heyne : aXywrov A. 

^ Compare Hyginus, Fab, 137. 

^ Compare Pausanias, iv. 3. 7 aq. (who does not name 
Polyphonte8) ; Hyginus, Fab. 184. According to Hyginiis, 


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throne and took to wife, against her will, Merope, 
the wife of the murdered man.^ But he too was 
slain. For Merope had a third son, called Aepytus, 
whom she gave to her own father to bring up. When 
he was come to manhood he secretly returned, 
killed Polyphontes, and recovered the kingdom of 
his fathers. 2 

the name of the son of Cresphontes who survived to avenge 
his father's murder was Telephon. This story of Merope, 
Aepytus, and Polyphontes is the theme of Matthew Arnold's 
tragedy Merope, an imitation of the antique. 


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I. 'E^TTcl he TO ^Ivdx^tov Siepj/pfievot 761/09 tov9 
aTTO B17X01/ fJiexpc T&p 'Hpa/eXeio&v SeSrjXcofcafjbep, 
evofUv<o<; XiyoDfiep koI ra irepl ^Ar^rjvopo^i. C09 
yap fjfuv XiXcKTai, Svo Aij3vrf iyivvrjae iracBa^ 
ifc Iloo'€i&&vo<;, BrjXov fcal *Ayfjvopa, 3rj\o^ fiev 
ovv fictaCkexxov AiyvmUov tov9 Trpo€ip7f/uUvov<; 
eyivvrjaev, ^Ayijveap Bk irapayevofievo^ eh rijv 
^oivvKfiv^ yafiel TrfXiibcuraap /cal re/cvoi dvya- 
T€pa fiev Evpmrrfp, Traloa^ Se KdSjuLov fcal ^oivifca 
Kol J^tkifca, T4I/69 Be ISiupcoirrfv ov/c ^Ayqvopo^ 

' *oivlK7iy Emperius, Bekker, Hercher, Wagner: ^hp<^v 
A, Westermann, Miiller, who brackets the clause 'Kapaytv6- 
fxwos els Evpd^riv. 

^ See above, ii. 1. 4. 

'^ The ancients were not agreed as to the genealogies of 
these mythical ancestors of the Phoenicians, Cilicians, and 
Thebans. See the Scholiast on ApoUonius Rhodias, Argon. 
ii. 178, iii. 1186. Among the authorities whose divergent 
views are reported in these passages by the Scholiast are 
Hesiod, Pherecydes, Asciepiades, and Antimachus. Moschus 
(ii. 40 and 42) agrees with Apollodorus that the mother of 
Europa was Telephassa, but differs from him as to her father 
(see below). According to Hyginus (Fab. 6 and 178), the 
mother who bore Cadmus and Europa to Agenor was not 
Telephassa but Ar^iope. According to Euripides, Agenor 
had three sons, Gilix, Phoenix, and Thasus. See Scholiast 
on Euripides, Phoenissae, 6. Pausanias agrees with regard 
to Thasus, saying that the natives of Thasos were Phoenicians 
by descent and traced their origin to this Thasus, son of 


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I. Having now run over the family of Inachus and 
described them from Belus down to the Heraclids^ 
we have next to speak of the house of Agenor. For 
as I have said,^ Libya had by Poseidon two sons, 
Belus and Agenor. Now Belus reigned over the 
Egyptians and begat the aforesaid sons ; but Agenor 
went to Phoenicia, married Telephassa, and begat a 
daughter Europa and three sons, Cadmus, Phoenix, 
and Cilix.^ But some say that Europa was a daughter 

Agenor (Pausauias, v. 25. 12). In saying this, Pausanias 
followed Herodotus, who tells us that the Phoenician colonists 
of Thasos discovered wonderful gold mines there, which the 
historian had vibited (Herodotus, vi. 46 «g.), and that they 
had founded a sanctuary of Hercules in the island (ii. 44). 
Herodotus also (vii. 91) represents Cilix as a son of the 
Phoenician Affenor, and he tells us (iv. 147) that Cadmus, son 
of Agenor, left a Phoenician colony in the island of Thera. 
Diodorus Siculus reports (v. 69. 2 8q.) that Cadmus, son of 
Agenor, planted a Phoenician colony in Rhodes, and that the 
descendants of the colonists continued to hold the hereditary 
priesthood of Poseidon, whose worship had been institutecl 
by Cadmus. He mentions also that in the sanctuary of 
Athena at Lindus, in Rhodes, there was a tripod of ancient 
style bearing a Phoenician inscription. The statement has 
been confirmed in recent years by the discovery of the official 
record of the temple of Lindian Athena in Rhodes. For in 
this record, engraved on a marble slab, there occurs the 
following entry: "Cadmus (dedicated) a bronze tripod 
engraved with JPhoenician letters, as Polyzalus relates in the 
fourth book of the histories." See Chr. Blinkenberg, La 


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dWcL ^oLPiKO^ Xiyova-L. ravrrj^ Zeu? ipacOei^,^ 
fpoSov airoirketov,^ ravpo^ X^^'P^V^V^ yevofievo*;, 
€7n/3i>l3a(rO€i(rav Sict ttj^ dakdirar)^ i/cofiia-ev el^ 
Kpi]Trjv. rj he, CKel avvevvaaBevTO^ airy Ato9, 
iyevvrjae Mivaya XapTrrjBova 'PaBafiavdw Koff 
* Oli't)pov h\ 'ZapTTTjBwv €K Ato9 KoX AaoSufieia^ 
rrj^ ^€W€po(f)6vTOv, a(f)avov^ Se ^ipdirt)^ yevo- 
fjbivrj^ 6 trarrjp avTrj^ Aytjvwp iirl ^7]T7]acp i^i- 
TTCfiy^e T0U9 TratSav, eliroyv fitf irporepov avaarpi- 
<f>€cv Trplv hv i^evpcocnv ^xfpooirrjv, avve^XOe Se 
iwl Tfjv ^ijTYfaip avTTJ^ Ti]\€<f)aa'a-a i) fi'qrrjp xal 

' ipaffdtls. In the MSS. there follow the words iriirrfi hit, 
TTjs 0a\d(ravs, which, as Heyne sa^s, seem to have arisen 
through confusion with the following iiriPtPaffOciaap Bih r^s 

^ ^6^ov &iroir\4(cif apparently corrupt, omitted by Heyne, 
Bekker, Hercher : 'PdZov itirovK4ci>v Westermann : ^69ov ivo- 
irviwv Sevinus : kp6kov iLvowv4cov Clavier (comparing Scholiast 
on Homer, II. xii. 292, ifAAo^cv lavrhv tis ravpov Koi kirh rov 
ffrdfiaros Kp6Kov tvvti) : 4k ^69(dv or 4k ^oZStvos i^cA^v Wagner 
(comparing Moschus, ii. 70). 

Chroniqus du Temple Lindien (Copenhagen, 1912), p. 324. 
However, from such legends all that we can safely infer is 
that the Greeks traced a blood relationship between the 
Phoenicians and Cilicians, and recognised a Phoenician 
element in some of the Greek islands and parts of the main- 
land. If Europa was, as seems possible, a personification of 
the moon in the shape of a cow (see The Dying Ood, p. 88), 
we might perhaps interpret the quest of the sons of Agenor 
for their lost sister as a mythical description of Phoenician 
mariners steering westward towards the moon which they 
saw with her silver horns setting in the sea. 

^ Europa was a daughter of Phoenix, according to Homer 
{II. xiv. 321 8q.)y Bacchylides (xvi. 29 sqq, p. 376, ed. Jebb), 
and Moschus (ii. 7). So, too, the Scholiast on Homer {II, xii. 
292) calls Europa a daughter of Phoenix. The Scholiast on 
Plato {Timaeus, p. 24 e) speaks of Europa as a daughter of 


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not of Agenor but of Phoenix.^ Zeus loved her, 
and turning himself into a tame bull^ he mounted 
her on his back and conveyed her through the sea 
to Crete. 2 There Zeus bedded with her, and she 
bore Minos, Sarpedon, and Rhadamanthys ; ^ but 
according to Homer, Sarpedon was a son of Zeus by 
Laodamia, daughter of Bellerophon.* On the dis- 
appearance of Europa her father Agenor sent out 
his sons in search of her, telling them not to return 
until they had found Europa. With them her 
mother, Telephassa, and Thasus, son of Poseidon, or 

Agenor, or of Phoenix, or of Tityus. Some said that Cadmus 
also was a son, not of Agenor, but of Phoenix (Scholiast on 
Apollonius Bhodius, Argon, iii. 1186). 

• Compare Moschus, ii. 77 sqq. ; Scholiast on Homer, IL xii. 
292 ; Diodorus Siculus, v. 78. 1 ; Lucian, Diale, Marin, xv. ; 
i(L De dea Syria, 4 ; Ovid, Metamorph, ii. 836 sqq,; id. Fasti, 
V. 603 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 178 ; Scriptores rerum mythicarum 
LaMni, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 47, 100 (First Vatican 
Mytho^pher, 148 ; Second Vatican Mytho^apher, 76). The 
connexion which the myth of Zeus and Europa indicates 
between Phoenicia and Crete receives a certain confirmation 
from the worship at Gaza of a god called Marnas, who was 
popularly identmed with the Cretan Zeus. His name was 
thought to be derived from a Cretan word mama, meaning 
** maiden"; so that, as Mr. G. F. Hill has pointed out, 
mamas might signify ''young man." The city is also said 
to have been called Minoa, after Minos. See Stephanus 
Byzantius, s.v. TJiCa. The worship of Mamas, ''the Cretan 
Zeus," persisted at Gaza till 402 a.d., when it was finally 
suppressed and his sanctuary, the Marneion, destroyed. See 
Mark the Deacon's Life of Porphyry, Bishop of Oaza, 64-71, 
pp. 73-82, G. F. Hill's translation (Oxford, 1913). From this 
work (ch. 19, p. 24) we learn that Marnas was regarded as 
the lord of rain, and that prayer and sacrifice were ofifered to 
him in time of drought. As to the god and his relation to 
Crete, see G. F. Hill's introduction to his translation, pp. 

* Compare Scholiast on Homer, II. xii. 292 ; Hyginus, 
Fab. 178. * Homer, II. ii. 198 sq. 


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^€uro^ 6 Ilo(T€cS&vo<i, m Be ^€p€Kv6r)^ <l>r)al 
KtXi^09«^ <i09 &€ iraaav Troiovfievoi ^rfrriaiv ev- 
peiv f^aav TStvpdirrjv dSvvaToc, Trjv €t9 oIkov 
avaKO/JLiBifv atro^vovre^ aXKo^ aXKayov Konp- 
Kif)Gav? ^oivi^ fi€P ip ^oivUp,^ KiXi^ oe ^oiPLKrjf; 
TrXrjaiov, Kal* irdaav Trfv t^' eavroif Keifievriv 
')((i>pO'V TTOTa/j^ a'vv€yyv<; Uvpcifitp ILiXifciav 
i/coKea-e*^ KaBfio^ Sk koI Ti]X€<f>aaaa ip SpaKjj 
fcaTfpKTjaav, ofiolco^ Se xal ©a<ro9 iv %p^Krf^ 
tcTLaa^ iroXiv ^daop KartpKr^a-ev. 
2 ^vpanrrjv Se yqfia^ ^Aaripio^^ 6 JS.prfTa)v 
Bvvdarrj^ Toi/^ ix ravTrj^ iraiSa^ €rp€<f>€P, oi he 
«>9 ireT^uodrjaap, irpo^ aWifXoi;? ia-Taaiaaav 
La^ovai ycLp epcora 7rai8o9 09 e/caXctro MtX?;T09» 
^AiroWcovo^ Se ^v kcu ^Apela^ t^9 KXeoyov, rov 
Be 7rat8o9 7r/0O9 ^apwrfBova fwXKov oIk€L<o^ ^ov- 
Tos TToXefiTja'a^ Mlvco^ eTrpoTeprjaev. oi Be <f>eV' 

^ KiKiKos Heyne : kiKIkios A. 

■^ KaT<pK7i<rav R*0 : KartpKiaav A. 

' iv ^oiyltqi Bekker, Hercher, Wagner : tpoiyUrjy A. 

* %s Kol Hercher. 

* Kol ifavav r^v i<l>* iavrov K€ifi4vriv x^9^^ norafx^ trvyeyyvs 
Uvpdfitp KiKixiay indk^fft Heyne, Westermann, MilUer, Bek- 
ker. This seems to be the reading of all the MSS. Wagner 
alters the passage as follows : Koi iraffav r^y Kcifidyriy x^P^ 
TcorafA^ vivtYY^^ Tlvpdfji^ KiXtxiay iuff* iavrov ^ic({Ac<rc, **And 
he called all the country near the river Pyramus after him- 
self Cilicia." But with this rearrangement the words Kti- 
fitrny x^P^^ become ungrammatical as they stand, and to 
restore the grammar they must be transposed and placed 
after IIv/MC/Afp, so as to read : Koi traacof r^v xorafx^ dveyyvs 
Tivpd/xtp K€tfi4yriy x<^pA>' &0* iavrov KtKiKlay iK<i\f<re. Hercher 
simply omits 6<i>* iavrov, which is equally fatal to the gram- 
mar. It is better to keep the MS. reading, whicli gives an 
unobjectionable sense. 

* ^1/ < yfia^t irphs tt) =► tt/x^/o; Heyne. This gives the sense 


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according to Pherecydes, of CJlix,^ went forth in 
search of her. But when, after diligent search, they 
could not find Europa, they gave up the thought of 
returning home, and took up their abode in divers 
places ; Phoenix settled in Phoenicia ; Cilix settled 
near Phoenicia, and all the country subject to him- 
self near the river Pyramus he called Cilicia; and 
Cadmus and Telephassa took up their abode in 
Thrace and in like manner Thasus founded a city 
Thasus in an island off Thrace and dwelt there.^ 

Now Asterius, prince of the Cretans, married 
Europa and brought up her children.^ But when 
they were grown up, they quarrelled with each 
other; for they loved a boy called Miletus, son of 
Apollo by Aria, daughter of Cleochus.* As the 
boy was more friendly to Sarpedon, Minos went to 
war and had the better of it, and the others fled. 

^ According to some writers, Thaaiis was a son of Agenor. 
See above, note on p. 296. 

^ ApoUodorus probably meant to say that Thasus colonized 
the island of Thasos. The text may be corrupt. See Critical 
Note. For the traces of the Phoenicians in Thasos, see 
above, note on p. 296. 

• Compare Scholiast on Homer, II. xii. 292 ; Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 60. 3 (who calls the king Asterius). On the place 
of Asterion or Asterius in Cretan mythology, see A. B. Cook, 
Zeu8, i. 543 aqq, 

* With the following legend of the foundation of Miletus 
compare Antoninus Liberalis, Transform. 30 ; Pausanias, vii. 
2. 5 ; Scholiast on ApoUonius Khodius, Argon, i. 186. 

required. I have translated accordingly. Hercher as usual 
cuts the difficulty by omitting ^i^ eptLKp. 

^ *Affr4pios Wagner (referring to Diodorus Siculus, iv. 
60. 3) : *K<rrtpi(av A, Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, 


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'yovaii teal MtX^ro? fiev Kapia irpoao'X'^v^ ifcel 
iToKiv a(f>* iavTov eKTiae MiXtjtop, XapwrjSobv Se 
avfifia'Vi](ra9 KCkiKi tt/jo? Avxiovi exovrc tto- 
\€fju)v, €7rl fiipec ^ t^9 xw/oa?, Avfcia^ i^aaiXevtre, 
Kal avT^ SiScoa-i Zeu9 irrl rpel^ y€V€^^ ^rjv, evioi 
he avTov^^ ipaa-drjvai \iyovaiv ^Arvfiviov rod 
A(09 teal KaatTLeTreia^, Kal Si^ tovtov aTaaidaai, 
'Vahdfxavdv^ he roh vritTKorai^ vo/aodeT&v, av6i<; 
(f)vya}v eh HoKariav ^ AXKfirjvriv yafiel, xai fierak- 
Xd^a^ ev " Aihov fierh M.iv(Do<; hixd^ec. MCvco^; he 
KprjTTfv KaroiK&v eypay^e v6fiov<;, xdl yi]fia<; 
Tlaa-Kfydrfv Ttfv 'HXiov kol Hepaijiho^, <»9 <S€>* 
^AaKXi]7rcdhr)<; <f>r}ai, KpTjrrjp rr^v ^Aarepiov 
Ovyarepa, iralha^ fiev eT€KV(oae Karpea Aevxa- 
Xicova TXavKov ^Avhpoyetov, Ovyarepa^ hk ^A/cdX- 
Xr)v SevohUrfv ^Apidhvrjv ^Palhpav, ifc Tlapeia^ 
he vvfi<\>r}<; lEtvpvfiehovTa Nrj^aXiayva Upva-rjv 
^iXoXaov, €K he Ae^idea^i ^v^dvOiop. 

'AcTepLov^ he airaiho^ aTrodavovTO^ M.ivm 
^aacXeveiv deXtov }S.pi]Tr)^ eKcoiXveTo. ^7Jaa<f he 
Trapa Oecov rrjv fiaaCXeiav elXr)<f>€vat, rov Tnareu- 

^ vpooffx^^ Heyne : vpoex^v A. 
•4pti Heyne : yuepij A. 

Wohs Wagner : ahrhv A. * St inserted by Miiller. 
i<rr€piov A, Wagner : 'Aarepiavos Heyne, Westermann, 
ir, Bekker, Hercher. 

mipare Herodotus, i. 173 ; Diodorus Siculus, v. 79. 3 ; 

), xii. 8. 5, p. 573 ; Pausanias, vii. 3. 7. Sarpedon was 

ipped as a hero in Lycia. See W. Dittenberger, OrterUis 

I fnacriptiones Selectae, No. 552 (vol. ii. p. 231). 

)mpare Diodorus Siculus, v. 79. 1 sq. 

le above, ii. 4. 11 note. 

Bkughter of the Sun ; compare Apollonius Rhodius, 

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Miletus landed in Caria and there founded a city 
which he called Miletus after himself; and Sarpedon 
allied himself with Cilix, who was at war with the 
Lycians, and having stipulated for a share of the 
country, he became king of Lycia.^ And Zeus 
granted him to live for three generations. But some 
say that they loved Atymnius, the son of Zeus and 
Cassiepea, and that it was about him that they 
quarrelled. Rhadamanthys legislated for the islanders^ 
but afterwards he fled to Boeotia and married Alc- 
mena ^ ; and since his departure from the world he 
acts as judge in Hades along with Minos. Minos, 
residing in Crete, passed laws, and married Pasiphae, 
daughter of the Sun * and Perseis ; but Asclepiades 
says that his wife was Crete, daughter of Asterius. 
He begat sons, to wit, Catreus,^ Deucalion, Glaucus, 
and Androgens : and daughters, to wit, Acalle, 
Xenodice, Ariadne, Phaedra ; and by a nymph Paria 
he had Eurymedon, Nephalion, Chryses, and Philo- 
laus ; and by Dexithea he had Euxanthius. 

Asterius dying childless, Minos wished to reign 
over Crete, but his claim was opposed. So he alleged 
that he had received the kingdom from the gods. 

Argon, iii. 999; Pausanias, iii. 26. 1, v. 25. 9 ; Antoninus 
Liberalis, Transform, 41 ; Mythographi Oraeci, ed. Wester- 
mann, Appendix Narrationum, p. 379 ; Ovid, Metamorph. ix. 
736. Pausanias interpreted Pasiphae as the moon (iii. 26. 1), 
and this interpretation has been adopted by some modern 
scholars. The Cretan traditions concerning the marriage of 
Minos and Pasiphae seem to point to a ritual marriage per- 
formed every eight years at Cnossus by the king and queen 
as representatives respectively of the Sun and Moon. See 
The Dying Ood, pp. 70 aqq. ; A. B. Cook, Zeus, i. 521 aqq. 
(who holds that Europa was originally a Cretan Earth - 
goddess responsible for the vegetation of the year). 
^ Compare Pausanias, viii. 53. 4. 


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ffrjpai wpiv iifnj, 6 ri hv ev^rai, yeviaOcu. xal 
Iloaeio&vi Ovddv fjv^aro ravpov ava(j)cafrjvai ifc 
r&v fit/0&v, Karaffvaeiv inroaxofJisvo^ tov ff>a- 
vePTa. TOV Sk Ilo<r€iS&vo^ ravpov avivro^ ain^ 
SiairpeTTTJ Ttfv jSaaiXeLav irapiXa^c, tov Sk ravpov 
€49 rk ^ov/coXia iripAp^a^ eOvtrev erepov, [daXaaao- 
fepanjaa^ Sk rrp&ro^ tra^&v r&v vrftTdiv axeSov 
4 iirrjp^ev^ ^ opyitrOeU Be avrta Hoa-eii&v on fiij 
KariOvae rov ravpov, rovrov fikv i^rjypicoae, 
Tlaa'i,(f>dffv Sk ikOelv eh iiriOvfiiav avrov nape- 
(TKeva^rev, 17 Se ipacdelaa rov ravpov avvepyov 
Xafiffdvei AaiSaXov, 09 ^v apj(i,r€Kr(ov, ire^evyiii^ 
ef ^AOrfv&v iirl ^6v<p. ovro^ ^vXivrfv j3ovv iirl 
rpo^&v Karaa-Kevdaa^, koI ravrrjv \a^a>v xal - 
KoiXdva^ evZodev? ixSeipa^ re fiovv rtfv hopav 
irepieppay^e, xal ffeU ev ^ep eWurro 6 ravpov 
XeifJL&vi fioaxeaOai, rr)v Hatrut^drjv iveffi/Sa^^. 
i\0a}V Se 6 ravpof; w aXrfiiv^ 0ot awrjKBev. rj 
he ^Aarepiov iyevvrjae rov KKqOevra Mivdravpov, 
o5to9 €iX€ ravpov rrpoatotTov, ra Sk XoiTrct dvBpo^' 
Mivo)^ ce ev r^ Xa^vpLvOtp Kara riva^ xp'qapjoiff; 
KaraKKeiaa^ avrov €<f>v\arrev. ffv hk 6 Xafiv- 
pivdo^f hv AaiSaXo^ fcarea-teevaa-ev, otxTf/ia xafi- 

^ Baka<riroKpar4\<ras . . . ^ir^p|€v omitted by Hercher. The 
words seem out of place here. But they occur in S as well 
as E. iinipltv ES : inrriplfv A. 

* Kafi^v KoL Heyne, Westermann, Miiller: fiaXiov ESA, 
Wagner : ^oK^v mX Bekker. ' MoBtv ES : i<rw9cv A. 

^ Ck)mpare Diodorus ISiculus, iv. 77. 2 ; J. Tzetzes, ChUiades, 
i. 479 sqq, (who seems to follow ApoUodorus) ; Lactantius 
PlaciduB, on Statius, Theb, v, 431, according to whom the 
bull was sent,- in answer to Minos's prayer, not by Poseidon 
but by Jupiter (Zeus). 


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and in proof of it he said that whatever he prayed 
for would be done. And in sacrificing to Poseidon 
he prayed that a bull might appear from the depths, 
promising to sacrifice it when it appeared. Poseidon 
did send him up a fine bull, and Minos obtained 
the kingdom, but he sent the bull to the herds and 
sacrificed another.^ Being the first to obtain the 
dominion of the sea, he extended his rule over 
almost all the islands.^ But angry at him for not 
sacrificing the bull, Poseidon made the animal savage, 
and contrived that Pasiphae should conceive a 
passion for it.^ In her love for the bull she found an 
accomplice in Daedalus, an architect, who had been 
banished from Athens for murder.* He constructed 
a wooden cow on wheels, took it, hollowed it out in 
the inside, sewed it up in the hide of a cow which 
he had skinned, and set it in the meadow in which 
the bull used to graze. Then he introduced Pasiphae 
into it ; and the bull came and coupled with it, as if 
it were a real- cow. And she gave birth to Asterius, 
who was called the Minotaur. He had the face of a 
bull, but the rest of him was human ; and Minos, in 
compliance with certain oracles, shut him up and 
guarded him in the Labjrrinth. Now the Labyrinth 
which Daedalus constructed was a chamber '^ that 

2 Compare Herodotus, i. 171 ; Thucydides, i. 4 and 8. 

* Here Apollodorus seems to be following Euripides, who 
in a fragment of his drama. The Cretans, introduces Pasiphae 
excusing herself on the ground that her passion for the bull 
was a rorm of madness inflicted on her by Poseidon as a 
punishment for the impiety of her husband Minos, who had 
broken his vow by not sacrificing the bull to the sea -god. See 
W. Schubart una U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Cfriech- 
ische Dichterfragmentey ii. (Berlin, 1907), pp. 74 aq. 

* See below, iii. 15. 8. 


VOL. I. X 

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7ra?9 7roXi;7rXo/co69 trXav&v Ttjv e^oSov, rit fiev 
oiv wept Mivaoravpov teal ^ApBp6y€€o koI ^aiBpa^ 
Koi *ApidSvr)(; iv Tot9 'rrepi Grjaico^ iarepov 

IL KaT/0€G)9 Se tov M/i/a>09 ^Aepoirr) xal 
KXvfiivq Koi ^ATn^fioa-vpf) kclL * A\dai>fi€Vfj^ vio<s 
yivovrat. ')(po>pL€V(p Sk Karpet irepl KaraaTpo^rfi 
TOV Piov 6 ^€09 €<f)ff viro €vo<; T&v T^Kvcov ^ reOvrj- 
^eadai. KaTp€U9 fJiev oiv aTreKpvfiero tou9 XP^' 
a-fiov^, *A'K0aifiipr)^ Be aKovaa^, koX ieiaa^ firj 
(f)ov€v<; yevTfrai rod Trarpo^, apa^ iic KpijTi]<; fierh 
T^9 dSeX^rj^ * AiTTj/xoavvrff; Trpoaiaxei tlvI roirtp 
TTj^ 'PoSov, teal KaTa^x^v JS,pi]TivLav ' cavofiaaev. 
ava^cL<i Bk iirl to ^ATa/Svpiov KaXov/xepov Spo^i 
idedaaTO tA9 iript^ v^aov^, /caTiBcov Be xal KpT]- 
Tfjv, Kol T&v iraTptioDV inrofivija'Oel^ de&v, IBpvero 
ffcofiov *ATa^vpLOV A409. fi€T ov iroXif Be t^ 

^ riKvwv R : irtdZw A. 

* Kpfjriviav R, Hercher, Wagner : Kpariviav A : Kfnirriyiai' 
Heyne, Westermann, Muller, Bekker (compare Stephanus 
Byzantius, «.v. Kfnirriyla). 

^ In the Greek original these words are seemingly a quota- 
tion from a poem, probably a tragedy — perhaps Sophocles's 
tragedy Daeaalus, of which a few fragments survive. See 
Tragicorum Oraecorvm FragmerUa, ed. A. Nauck^ pp. 167 sq,; 
The Fragments of Sophocles, ed. A. C. Pearson, vol. i. pp. 
110 sqq. As to the Minotaur and the labyrinth, compare 
Diodorus Siculus, iv. 77. 1-6; Plutarch, Theseus, 16 sqq.\ 
Hyginus, Fab. 40 ; Lactantius Placidus, on Statius, AchUl, 
IS^. As to the loves of Pasiphae and the bull, see also 
Scholiast on Euripides, Hippolytus, 887; J. Tzetzes, ChUiades, 
i. 479 sqq,\ Virgil, Eel, vi. 45 sqq,\ Ovid, Ars Amator. i. 
289 sqq. 

* See below, iii. 15. 7-9 ; Epitome, i. 7-11. 


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THE LIBRARY, III. i. 4-11. i 

with its tangled windings perplexed the outward 
way." 1 The story of the Minotaur^ and Androgens, 
and Phaedra^ and Ariadne, I will tell hereafter in 
my account of Theseus.^ 

II. But Catreus, son of Minos, had three daughters, 
Aerope, Clymene, and Apemosyne, and a son, Al- 
thaemencs.^ When Catreus inquired of the oracle 
how his life should end, the god said that he would 
die by the hand of one of his children. Now Catreus 
hid the oracles, but Althaemenes heard of them, and 
fearing to be his father's murderer, he set out from 
Crete with his sister Apemosyne, and put in at a 
place in Rhodes, and having taken possession of it 
he called it Cretinia. And having ascended the 
mountain called Atabjrrium, he beheld the islands 
round about ; and descrying Crete also and calling to 
mind the gods of his fathers he founded an altar 
of Atabyrian Zeus.^ But not long afterwards he 

3 The tragic story of the involuntary parricide of Althae- 
menes is similarly told by Diodorus Siciuus, v. 59. 1-4, who 
says that this murderer of his father and of his sister was 
afterwards worshipped as a hero in Rhodes. 

* As to Atabyrian Zeus and his sanctuary on Mount Atabyr- 
tum, Atabyrum, or Atabyris, the highest mountain in Rhodes, 
see Pindar, Olymp, vii. 87 (159) sq, ; Polybius, vii. 27. 7, ed. 
L. Dindorf ; Appian, Bell, MUhridat, 26 ; Strabo, xiv. 2. 12, 
p. 655 ; Diodorus Siculus, v. 59. 2 ; Lactantius, Divin. Inatitut. 
i. 22. Diodorus Siculus tells us that the sanctuary, crowning 
a lofty peak, was highly venerated down to his own time, 
and that the island of Crete was visible from it in the distance. 
Some rude remains of the temple, built of grey limestone, 
still exist on a summit a little lower than the highest. See 
H. F. Tozer, The Islands of the Aegean (Oxford, 1890), pp. 
220 sq.; Cecil Torr, Rhodes in Ancient Times, (Cambridge, 
1885), pp. 1, 75. Atabyrian Zeus would seem to have been 
worshipped in the form of a bull ; for it is said that there 
were bronze images of cattle on the mountain, which bellowed 

X 2 

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aB€\(f^7J^ avrox^ip iyevero. 'Epfirjs y^p avrfj^ 
ipaadeL^f iy; ifmfyovcrav avrffv xaraXafieip ovk 
ySvvaro (irepiiji/ yap avrov t^ rd^^i r&v iroh&v), 
Karh TTj^ oSov fivpaa^ tnri(TTp{oa-€ veoSdproi/^,^ 
€<f>* ah * oXiaOovaa,^ fjjvlKa airo t^9 Kprfvri^ * 
iiravfjei, ^OeLperai, Ka\ r^ dB€\<f>^ fjLfjvvei to 
yeyovo^' 6 hk aKrjy^iv vofdaa<i elvai rov deov, XAf 
2 evdopoav direKT^ivev. 'AepoTrrjv Se xal KXv/iivrfv 
Karpeif^ Nai/TrXt^ hLhtoaiv eh dWoSank^ TiiteL- 
pov^ airefiTroXtja'ac. rovrmv ^Aepoirrfv fihf cyrjfie 
Tl\€i(r0€Vf)<; xal TralSa^ ^Aya/jbi/nvova xal Meve- 
\aov €T€/cvo}a€,^ K\vfiivr)v Be yafiel Nai57rX^09, 
Kal T€/cv(av irarifp ylvercu 0?a/co9 Kal HaXafiri' 
Bov^* Karpeif^ Bk varepov yr\pa Karexofievo^; 
hrodei rriv ^aaiKeiav ^ AXdaLpuevet r^ iraiZl 
TTapaBovvai, Kal Bict, tovto fjkdev eU 'PoSov. 
diTO^h^ Bk T^9 veoD^ avv roh 'qpaxri ^ Kara riva 
T779 vrjo-ov TOTTOP eprjfiov rjKavvero virb r&v l3ov- 
KoXmv, XtfaTct^ ifi^epkriKevai BoKovvrtov Kal firj 
Svva/ievmv aKOvtrai Xeyovro^ avrov rrfv dXi^Oeiav 
Bid Tf)v Kpavyriv r&v kvvwv, d\Xd /3dX\6vT<»>v 

^ y€o^dpTov5 ER : ytoSdpras A. 

2 ats Heyne, Hercher: its EA, Westermann, Miiller, 
Bekker, Wagner. 

^ 6\i<r$ovaa £ : i\i(r$iiffcura A. 

* Kpiivris Hercher, Wagner : Kfyfirits EA. 

« MKVwtr^ ERR« : tnne A. 

^ Kpvi<r\ Bekker. 

when some evil was about to befall the state, and small 
bronze figures of bulls are still sometimes found on the moun- 
tain. See J. Tzetzes, ChUiadea, iv. 390 aqq,; Scholiast on 
Pindar, Olymp. vii. 87 (169) ; Cecil Torr, op. cU, p. 76, with 
plate 4. Further, we know from Greek inscriptions found in 


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THE LIBRARY, III. ii. 1-2 

became the murderer of his sister. For Hermes 
loved her^ and as she fled from him and he could 
not catch her, because she excelled him in speed of 
foot, he spread fresh hides on the path, on which, 
returning from the spring, she slipped and so was 
deflowered. She revealed to her brother what had 
happened, but he, deeming the god a mere pretext, 
kicked her to death. And Catreus gave Aerope and 
Clymene to Nauplius to sell into foreign lands ; and 
of these two Aerope became the wife of Plisthenes, 
who begat Agamemnon and Menelaus ; and Clymene 
became the wife of Nauplius, who became the father 
of Oeax and Palamedes. But afterwards in the grip 
of old age Catreus yearned to transmit the kingdom 
to his son Althaemenes, and went for that purpose to 
Rhodes. And having landed from the ship with the 
heroes at a desert place of the island, he was chased 
by the cowherds, who imagined that they were 
pirates on a raid. He told them the truth, but they 
could not hear him for the barking of the dogs, 
and while they pelted him Althaemenes arrived 

the island that there was a religious asaociatiou which took 
its name of The Atabyriaata from the deity ; and one of these 
inscriptions (No. 31) records a dedication of oxeu or bulls 
(rohs Bqvs) to the god. See Inscriptionta Qraecae InatUarum 
Rhodiy Chalcea, Carpathi, cum JSaro Cctai, ed. F. Hiller de 
Gaertringen, (Berlin, 1895), Nos. 31, 161, 891. The oxen so 
dedicated were probably bronze images of the animals, such 
as are found in the island, though Dittenberger thought that 
they were live oxen destined for sacrifice. 8ee his paper, 
De aacria Rhodiorum CommentcUio altera (Halle, 1887), pp. 
viii. aq. The worship of Atabyrian Zeus may well have been 
of Phoenician origin, for we have seen that there was a 
Phoenician colony in Rhodes (see above, iii. 1. 1 note), and the 
name Atiibyrian is believed to be Semitic, equivalent to the 
Hebrew Tabor. See Encyclopaedia Biblica, a. v. "Taboi/' 
vol. iii. eol. 4881 sqq. Compare A. B. Cook, Zcita, i. i\42 aqq. 

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fcafc€iva)v, irapa/yevofiepo^ *A\0cufjL6inj<; aKOVTvaa^ 
aire/creipev ar/vo&v Karpia. fiaffoi>v Se vtrrepov 
TO yeyovo^, ev^dfisvo^ vtto )(a<TfjLaTO^ iicpvfirj. 

III. AevKoKicovi Bi iyivopro ^IBofi€V€v<: re kol 
Kpijrr) Kol voOo^ Mo\o9. TTuivko^ Sk erv vijinof; 
v7rdpx<ov, pSfv Skokodv el^ fiiXiro^ iriOov ireaoov 
airiOavev, a^avov^ Se ovto<; avrov Mlvco^; ttoX- 
Xifv ^rJTTjaiv iTOLOVfievo^i irepX t^9 evpiaeco^ ifiav- 
T€V€ro. KovprjTc^ Se etirov di/r^ rpiypcofuiTov 
iv rai^ ayikai^ €')(€iv ^ovv, top Se rrjv ravrr}^ 
Xpoav ^ apitrra elKaaav SwrjOivra kclL ^&VTa tov 
TraiSa dirohdxTeiv. a-vyKXtfdijncov Be t&v pbdv- 
T€€OP TloXviSo<i 6 JS^oipavov rrjv ypoav ttj^ ^ob<; 
etxaa-e ^drov fcapir^, /cal ^rjreiv tov iralBa dvay- 
KaaOe)^ Bid tlvo^ fiavTcia^ dv€vp€. XiyovTo<; Be 
Mivo)0^ OTi Bet Kol ^&VTa diroXa/Seiv avTov, dire- 
/eXeiadi] cvv tw vcKp^* iv dfiri^avia Be iroXK^ 
Tvyxjdvoav elBe BpaKovTa eirl tov vefcpov lovtw 
TovTov ffaXobv Xidq> direKTeive, Beiaa^ fxtj fc&v' 

^ Xp6av EOR*, Hercher, Wacner : 94av R (with xpottv 
written as a correction above tne line) : 04av BCy Heyne, 
Westermann, Miiller, Bekker. 

2 khv Bekker : t^v EA, Wagner. 

^ Compare Diodorus Siculus, v. 79. 4. 

^ Glaucus was a son of Minos and Pasiphae. See above, 
iii. 1. 2. For the story of his death and resurrection, see 
Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 811 ; Apostolius, CerU. v. 
48 ; Palaephatus, De incredib, 27 ; Hy^nus, Fab, 136 ; id. 
Astronom, ii. 14. Sophocles and Euripides composed trage- 
dies on the subject. See Tragicorum Oraecorum Fragmenta, 
ed. A. Nauck^, pp. 216 sqq,, 558 aqq,; The Fragmenta oj 
Sophocles, ed. A. C. Pearson, vol. ii. pp. 56 sqq. 

3 The cow or calf (for so Hyginus describes ii) was said to 


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THE LIBRARY, III. ii. 2-111. i 

and killed him with the cast of a javelin^ not 
knowing him to be Catreus. Afterwards when he 
learned the truth, he prayed and disappeared in a 

III. To Deucalion were bomldomeneus and Crete 
and a bastard son Molus.^ But Glaucus, while he 
was yet a child, in chasing a mouse fell into a jar of 
honey and was drowned. ^ On his disap{>earance 
Minos made a great search and consulted diviners as 
to how he should find him. The Curetes told him that 
in his herds he had a cow of three different colours, 
and that the man who could best describe that cow*s 
colour would also restore his son to him alive. ^ So 
when the diviners were assembled, Polyidus, son of 
Coeranus, compared the colour of the cow to the 
fruit of the bramble, and being compelled to seek 
for the child he found him by means of a sort of 
divination.* But Minos declaring that he must 
recover him alive, he was shut up with the dead 
body. And while he was in great perplexity, he 
saw a serpent going towards the corpse. He threw 
a stone and killed it, fearing to be killed himself if 

change colour twice a day, or once every four hours, being 
first white, then red, and then black. The diviner Polyidus 
solved the riddle by comparing the colour of the animal to a 
ripening mulberry, which is first white, then red, and finally 
black. See Hyginus, Fab, 136 ; Tzetzes, Schol, on I/yco- 
phron, 811 ; Sophocles, quoted by Athenaeus, ii. 36, p. 51 d, 
and Bekker's Anecdota Oraeca, i. p. 361, lines 20 sqq.} The 
Fragments 0/ Sophocles^ ed. A. C. Pearson, vol. ii. p. 60, 
frag. 395, 

* He is said to have discovered the drowned boy by 
observing an owl which had perched on a wine-cellar and was 
driving away bees. See Hyginus, Fab, 136. Compare 
AeHan, Nat, Anim, v. 2, from which it would seem that 
Hyginus here followed the tragedy of Polyidus by Euripides. 


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aifTO^ TcXevr ijat), el ri to a&fia iraBoL^ ^p^e- 
rat Se erepo^ opaKtov, Kal deaadfievo^ ve/cpov top 
TrpoTCpov^ aTreiaiv, elra viroarpe^i iroav /co/u- 
^(t>v, Kal ravrrjv etrnid'qaiv iirl irav to toO irepov 
a&fia' iTTLTeffeiari^ Be Trj<: *ir6a<: avearij, deaad- 
fiepo^ Be HoXviBo^ fcal OavpAaa^, ttjv avrrfv iroav 
TTpoaeveyfcwv r^ rov TXavKOV aa>pMTi dvea-Ttjaev. 
1 diroXapaiv Be Mti/G)9 toi^ iralBa ovB* ovro}^ el^ 
*'Ap709 diriepai rov JloKmBov eta, irplv rj rifv 
fjuavreiav BiBd^ai rov l\avfcov' dvayxaaOel^ Be 
Ilo\mBo<; BiBdaKei, Kal eireiBrf dirhrXei, xeXevei 
rov rXavKov eh to arofxa ifnrrvaar ^ Kal tovto 
TToiTjaa^ rXavKO^ t^9 p>avreia^^ eireXddero. ra 
fiev oiv irepl t&v rrj^ Ei/xoTny? diroyopayv fiexP^ 
TovBe fioi XeXex^^* 

IV. Ka8/i09 Be dtrodavovaav ffdyfta^ TrjX€<l>a<T' 
aav, UTTo SpcLK&v ^eviaffei^, TjKdev eh AeX^oi)? 
trepl T% Evpft)7r»79 irvv6av6p.evo^» o Be de6<; 
elfre irepl fiev Etvp(0'7rr)<; p>i} iroXvirpary/jLovelv, 
'XpTjadai Be Ka0oBr)yi^ j3ot, Kal iroKiv KTi^eiv 

* tX n rh aufia vd$oi Bekker : €* rovrtp (rvfxird$p E, Wagner : 
€i rovro ffvfiirdOrj A : «l ToJry avfxwdOot Heyiie, Miiller : fi 
rovro ffvfijrdBoi Westermann. 

- rp6Ttpov ER (first hand) ; vpSnov R (Hecoud hand, cor- 

^ ifiwrvaai Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 811, He3rne (in 
note), Bekker, Hercher, Wagner : 4wnrrinrai EA, Heyue (in 
text), Westermann, Miiller. 

* Tfj! navrfias E : t^I' fuiprtiav A. 

* Accepting Bekker's emendation of the text. See Critical 

^ According to another account, Glaucus was raised from 
the dead by Aesculapius. See below, iii. 10. 3 ; Scholiast on 
Pirtdar, Pyth, iii. 54 (90) ; Hyginus, Fab. 49 ; id. Astronom. 


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THE LIBRARY, III. iii. i-iv. i 

any harm befel the body.^ But another serpent 
came^ and, seeing the former one dead, departed, 
and then returned, brmgiug a herb, and placed 
it on the whole body of the other; and no sooner 
was the herb so placed upon it than the dead ser- 
pent came to life. Surprised at this sight, Polyidus 
applied the same herb to the body of Glaucus and 
raised him from the dead.^ Minos had now got 
back his son, but even so he did not suffer Polyidus 
to depart to Argos until he had taught Glaucus the 
art of divination. Polyidus taught him on compul- 
sion, and when he was sailing away he bade Glaucus 
spit into his mouth. Glaucus did so and forgot the 
art of divination.^ Thus much must suffice for my 
account of the descendants of Europa. 

IV. When Telephassa died, Cadmus buried her, 
and after being hospitably received by the Thracians 
he came to Delphi to inquire about Europa. The 
god told him not to trouble about Europa, but to 
be guided by a cow, and to found a city wherever 

ii. 14. In a Tongan tradition a dead boy is brought to life 
by being covered with the leaves of a certain tree. See 
P^re Reiter, "Traditions Tonguiennes," Anthropos, xii.-xiii. 
(1917-1918),. pp. 1036 sq. ; and Appendix, "The Resurrec- 
tion of Glaucus." 

^ It is said that when Cassandra refused to grant her 
favours to Apollo in return for the gift of prophecy which he 
had bestowed on her, he spat into her nioutn and so prevented 
her from convincing anybody of the truth of her prophecies. 
See Servius, on Virgil, Aen, ii. 247. On ancient superstitions 
about spittle, see Pliny, Nat. Hist, xxviii. 35 aqq. ; C. de 
Mensignac, Becherclies Ethnographiques sur la Salivc et le 
Crachat (Bordeaux, 1892), pp. 41 sqq. 


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€V0a &v avTt]^ treari fcafwvaa, toiovtov Xaffmv 
)(firjafiov Sia ^a>/c€a)v iTTOpevero, elra jSoi aw- 
Tvx^v iv T0J9 TleXd/yovTo^ fiovfcoXtoi^ ravrij 
fcaroTrKrffev eXirero, r) ik Sie^t^ovaa ^okotUlv 
ifcXiOrj, 7roXt9 evda vvv elai Srj^ai.^ l3ov\6fi6VO<; 
Se 'AOrjva Karadvaai ttjv fiovv, Tre/ATret Tivct<i t&v 
IJL€0* eavTOv Xriyfrofjuevov*; ^ aTTo t% 'A/0€ta9 fcpij- 
vrj^ vSayp* <f>povpa>v Se ttjv Kpi]Vf)V ipaKwv, hv ef 
*'Ap€o^ elirov ripe^ yeyovivai, tou9 irXeiova^ t&v 
7r€fi(f)d€VT(ov Bi€<f>0€ip€P. ayavaxTijaa^ Se KdSfio^ 
fcrelvev rov Spcueovra, Kal t% ^Affrjvd^ virodcfievri^ 
T0U9 ohovra^ avrov <nreipei,* rovrtov Sk airapev- 
TCDV ap€T€i\av CK yrj<; avhpe^ evoirXoi, 0(^9 ifcd- 
\eaav XirapTOV^, ovtol Be direKreivav aWi]\ov^, 
oi /jL€V €49 epvv cLKOvaiov^ i\06vT€^, oi Si dyvo- 
ovvT€<;, ^€p€KvBrj<i Bi <f)rjaiv on K^dB/jux;, iBa}V ck 
7^9 dva(l>vofi€vov<; dvBpa^ ivoirXovf;, hr avroif<; 

* atirri Scholiast on Homer, //. ii 494, Hercher : ainii AS. 
^ ir6\is Ma vvv tici Brifiai A, Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, 

Bekker, Wagner : Ma Kri(€t ir6\iv KaBfitlav 5irov vvv ^Urtv at 
Srj&ai E : ir6\is omitted by the Scholiast on Homer, IL n. 
494 {Ma vvv cltrlv at e^iScu), and by Hjeaccbsr. 

* rivhs . . . \ri^ofji4vovs El, Scholiast on Homer, IL ii. 494 : 
rivk \ff^6fi€vov SA. 

* kKovffiov AS : kKoitoiov E. 

' With this story of the foundation of Thebes by Gadmns 
compare Pausanias, ix. 12. 1 eq,, ix. 19. 4 ; Scholiast on 
Homer, IL ii. 494 ; Scholiast on Euripides, Phoeniasae^ 638 
(who quotes the oracle at full length); Scholiast on Aeschylus, 
Seven against Thebes, 486 ; Hy|;inns, Fob, 178 ; Ovid, 
Metamorph, iii. 6 sqq. The Scholiast on Homer (i.e.) agrees 
almost verbally with Apollodorus, and cites as his authorities 
the Boeotica of Hellanicus and the third book of Apollodorus. 
Hence we may suppose that in this narrative ApoUodorus 
followed Hellanicus. According to Pausanias, the cow which 

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she should fall down for weariness.^ After receiving 
such an oracle he journeyed through Phocis; then 
falling in with a cow among the herds of Pelagon, 
he followed it behind. And after traversing Boeotia, 
it sank down where is now the city of Thebes. 
Wishing to sacrifice the cow to Athena, he sent 
some of his companions to draw water from the 
spring of Ares. But a dragon, which some said 
was the offspring of Ares, guarded the spring and 
destroyed most of those that were sent. In his in- 
dignation Cadmus killed the dragon, and by the 
advice of Athena sowed its teeth. When they were 
sown there rose from the ground armed men whom 
they called Sparti.^ These slew each other, some 
in a chance brawl, and some in ignorance. But 
Pherecydes says that when Cadmus saw armed 
men growing up out of the ground, he flung stones 

Cadmus followed bore on each flank a white mark resembling 
the full moon ; Hyginus says simply that it had the mark of 
the moon on its flank. Varro says {Eerum rtisticarumy iii. 1) 
that Thebes in Boeotia was the oldest city in the world, having 
been built by King Ogyges before the great flood. The tradi- 
tion of its high antiquity has been recently confirmed by the 
discovery of many Mycenaean remains on the site. See A. D. 
KerampouUos, in 'Apxaio\oyiKhv AcKriov (Athens, 1917), pp. 

2 That is, **sown." Compare Euripides, Phoenissae, 939 
sq. For the story of the sowing of the dragon's teeth, see 
Pausanias, ix. 10. 1 ; Scholiast on Homer, II. ii. 494 ; Hyginus, 
Fob. 178 ; Ovid, Metamorph. iii. 26-130. Similarly, Jason 
in Colchis sowed some of the dragon's teeth which he had 
received from Athena, and from the teeth there sprang up 
armed men, who fought each other. See ApoUodorus, i. 9. 23, 
As to the dragon-guarded spring at Thebes, see Euripides, 
Phoenis8ae, 930 sqq, ; Pausanias, ix. 10. 5, with my note. It 
is a common superstition that springs are guarded by dragons 
or serpents. Compare TJie Magic Art and the Evolution of 
Kings, ii. l^^aqq. 

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iffaXe^ Xidov^, oi Be vtt' dXKrjXcov vo/ML^OVTe<; 
/SdWeo'dai €t9 fJ^XV^ Kariarrjorav. irepteaw- 
Orjaav Be irevTe, ^Exi(i>v OvBaio^ X0ovlo<; 'TTre/or;- 

2 va>p HeXcDpo^.^ KaS/xo? Be dv0* &v e/CTecvev 
aioiov^ epiavTov eOrfTevaev "Apei' rjv Be 6 eviavro^ 
Tore 6/cTa> errj, 

Merd Be rrjv Orjreiav ^Adrjvd avr^ Tr)V ffaai- 
Xeiav*^ KareaKevaae, Zeu? Be eBwKev avT& yvvalKa 
'ApfjLovlav, *A^poBiTrj<; kol "Apeo^i dvyarepa. KaX 
7rai/T€9 deol KaTaXiirovTe^ top ovpavop, ip rfj 
KaBfieia top ydjxop evaoyovfjuepot fcadvfiprjaap, 
eBtoxe Be avTy KaS/xo? ireirXop Kal top ^^aiaro- 
TevKTOp opfiop, OP viro '}i<f)ai(TTov Xeyovai Tive<; 
BoOrjpcu K.dBfi(p, ^ep€KvBrj<i Be virb ^ipdirrj^' op 
irapd A409 avTTjp Xa/Secp, yvpoprac Be KdBfKo 
6vyaTepe<; fiep Avtopotj *lpa) XefieXr) *Ayavi], 7ral<; 
Be TIoXvBo>po<;. 'Ii/o) fiep ohf 'Affdfia^ eyi^fiep, 
AvTOPorjp Be ^ApKTTalo^, ^ Ay avrjp Be 'E^^twr. 

3 XefieXrji; Be Zev<; epaaOeU "H/>a9 fcpv^a avpevpd- 

^ ei8aA€ A : f/SaAAe S. 

''^ TlfKupos R : ITcAwf) A. 

-' aliiov EA : "Apfos vt6y Hercher. 

"* r^v fiaoiKtiav E : fiaaiKeiav S. 

^ The names of the tive survivors of the Sparti are similarly 
reported by Pausanias (ix. 5. 3), the Scholiast on ApoUonius 
Rhodius {Argon, iii. 1179), and Hyginus (Fab. 179). Fix)in 
the Scholiast on ApoUonius (Z.c), we leai*n that their names 
were given in like manner by Pherecydes, as indeed we might 
have inferred from ApoUodorus's reference to that author in 
the present passage. Ovid {Metamorph. iii. 126) mentions 
that five survived, but he names only one (Echion). 

2 The ** eternal year" probably refers to the old eight 
years' cycle, as to which and the period of a homicides 
banishment, see the. note un ii. 5. 11. 

^ As to the marriage of Cadmus and Harmonia, see Pindar, 


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THE LIBRARY, III. iv. t-3 

at them^ and they^ supposing that they were being 
pelted by each other, came to blows. However, five 
of them survived, Echion, Udaeus, Chthonius, Hype- 
renor, and Pelorus.^ But Cadmus/ to atone for the 
slaughter, served Ares for an eternal year ; and the 
year was then equivalent to ei^ht years of our 
reckoning. 2 

After his servitude Athena procured for him the 
kingdom, and Zeus gave him to wife Harmonia, 
daughter of Aphrodite and Ares. And all the gods 
quitted the sky, and feasting in the Cadmea cele- 
brated the marriage with hymns.' Cadmus gave her a 
robe and the necklace wrought by Hephaestus, which 
some say was given to Cadmus by Hephaestus, but 
Pherecydes says that it was given by Europa, who 
liad received it from Zeus.* And to Cadmus were 
born daughters, Autonoe, Ino, Semele, Agave, and 
a son Polydorus.^ Ino was married to Athamas, 
Autonoe to Aristaeus, and Agave to Echion. But 
Zeus loved Semele and bedded with her unknown to 

Pyth, iii. 88 (157) sqq. ; Euripides, Phoenis3(ie, 822 sq, ; 
Theognis, 15-18 ; Diodorua Siculus, iv. 2. 1, v. 48. 5, v. 49. 1 ; 
Pausanias, iii. 18. 12, ix. 12. 3 ; Scriptores rerum mythicarum 
Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 101 (Second Vatican Mytho- 
grapher, 78, who calls the wife Hermiona). 

^ According to another account, this golden necklace wa» 
]>estowed by Aphrodite on Cadmus or on Harmonia. See 
Diodorus Siculus, iv. 65. 5 ; Scholiast on Pindar, Pyth, iii. 94 
(167) ; Scholiast on Euripides, Phoenissae, 71. But, according 
to yet another account, the necklace and robe were both 
bestowed by Athena. See Diodorus Siculus, v. 49. 1. The 
Second Vatican Mythographer (78, see preceding note) says 
that the necklace was made by Vulcan (Hephaestus) at the 
instigation of Minerva (Athena), and that it was bestowed by 
him on Harmonia at her marriage. 

' Compare Hesiod, Theog. 975-978 ; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 
2. 1. As to the daughters Semele and Ino, compare Pindar, 
Olymp. ii. 22 (38) sqq, 


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^erai* tf Be i^aTraTrjOela-a vtto ''Hpa?, Karavev- 
aravro^ avr^ Ato9 irav ro alrrjffev Troiijaeiv, 
alrelraL roiovrov avrov iXdelv olo<: TfKjBe fivrj- 
arevofievo^ "Hpav. Zev^ Bk fiij Bvvdfi€Po<: dva- 
v€vaai irapayiperai el^ tov ffaXafiov avrrj^ i(f>* 
dpfiaro^ aarpairah opiov koI fipovrai^, xal Kcpav- 
vov '{rjaiv. XefiiXt]^ Be Bid tov <f>6fiov ifcXcTrovarjf;, 
i^afirjviaiov to fipii^o^ i^afijSXcoOkp ifc rod irvpo^ 
aptrdcra^ iveppa^e r^ f^VPV' dirodavovarj^ Be 
2,€fjLi\fj^, ai Xonral KdBfiov dvyuTepe^ BiijveyKav 
\6yov, avvrjvvrjaOac 0vrfT(^ tivi> XefiiKrjv /cal 
fcarayh^evaaadai At6<;, /cal <0Tt>^ Bia rovro ixe- 
pavva}0r}. Kara Be tov xP^^^^ '^^^ /cadtjKOVTa 
Atovvaov yewa Zeu? Xvaa^ to, pdfifxaTa, xal 
BiBaxriv 'Ftpfi^. 6 Be /copX^ec 7rpb<: 'Ivw Kai 
^A0dpMPTa KoX TreLOeL Tpe^ecp ©9 xoprjv. dya- 
paKTYjaaaa Be ''H/>a pxipvap avToh evi^aXe, koI 
*Addp/i^ fiep TOP TTpeafivTepop TraiBa Aeap^op <»9 
eXa^ov 0r)p€V(ra<; direKTeipev, ^Ivoa Be tov MeXi- 

^ '6ri inserted by Hercher. 

^ For the loves of Zeus and Semele and the birth of Dio- 
nysus, see Hesiod, Theog, 940-942 ; Euripides, Bacchtie, 1 aqq.^ 
242 aqq,, 286 aqq, ; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 2. 2 «g., v. 52. 2 ; 
Philostratus, Imag. i. 13; Pausanias, iii. 24. 3, ix. 5. 2; 
Scholiast on Homer, II. xiv. 325 (who copies Apollodorus 
without mentioning him) ; Scholiast on Pindar, Olymp. ii. 
25 (44; ; Luclan, DicU, deorum, ix.; Nounus and Nicetas, in 
Westermann's Mythographi Orcteci, Appendix Ncmrationum, 
Ixxi. p. 385 ; Ovid, Metamorph. iii. 259 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 
167 and 179 ; Fulgentius, Mytholog. ii. 15 ; Lactantius 
Placidus, on Statins, Theh. i. 12 ; Scriptorea rerum mythtcO' 
rum LcUini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. ijp. 38 aq., 102 (First Vati- 
can Mythographer, 120 ; Second Vatican Mythographer, 79). 

- So the infant Dionysus is described by the Scholiast on 


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Hcra.i Now Zeus had agreed to do for her whatever 
she asked, and deceived by Hera she asked that he 
would come to her as he came when he was wooing 
Hera. Unable to refuse, Zeus came to her bridal 
chamber in a chariot, with lightnings and thunder- 
ings, and launched a thunderbolt. But Semele 
expired of fright, and Zeus, snatching the sixth- 
month abortive child ^ from the fire, sewed it in his 
thigh. On the death of Semele the other daughters 
of Cadmus spread a report that Semele had bedded 
with a mortal man, and had falsely accused Zeus, 
and that therefore she had been blasted by 
thunder. But at the proper time Zeus undid the 
stitches and gave birth to Dionysus, and entrusted 
him to Hermes. And he conveyed him to Ino 
and Athamas, and persuaded them to rear him as 
a girl.^ But Hera indignantly drove them mad, and 
Athamas hunted his elder son Learchus as a deer and 
killed him,* and Ino threw Melicertes into a boiling 

Homer, II, xiv. 325, who however may be copying Apollo- 
dorns, though he refers to the Bacchcte of Euripides. But 
Lucian {Dial, deorum, ix. 2) and Nonnus (in Westermann's 
Mythographi Oraeci, p. 385) speak of the infant as a seventh - 
month child at birth. 

^ So Achiiies is said to have been dressed in his youth as a 
girl at the court of Lycomedes, king of Scyros. See below, 
iii. 13. 8 note. These traditions may embody reminiscences 
of an old custom of dressing boys as girls in order to avert 
the evil eye. See my article, ** The Youth of Achilles," The 
Classical Review, vii. (1893), pp. 292 sq.^ and my note on 
Pausanias, i. 22. 6. 

* Compare Pausanias, i. 44. 7, ix. 34. 7 ; Tzetzes, Schol. 
on Lycophron, 229 ; Schol. on Homer, Od. v. 334 ; Hyginus, 
FcA, 2 and 4 ; Ovid, Fasti, vi. 489 sqq.; id. Metamorph, iv. 
512 sqq.; Lactantius Placidus, on Statins, Theb. i. 12 ; Servius, 
on Virgil, Aen. v. 241 ; Scriptores return, mythicarum Latini, 
ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 102 (Second Vatican Mythographer, 


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fciprrjv eh 'ireTrvptofiivop \ij3f)Ta pi^aaa, elra 
ficuTToa-aaa fiera vcKpov tov 7raiSb<: rjXaro Karit 
ffvffoOJ fcal A€vxo04a pkv avTfj KoKelrcu, Ila- 
Xalfuov Bk 6 iraU, ovtco^ ovofjMaOivre^ v*rro r&v 
'rr\€6vrcf)jr rot? xeifiafypAvoi^ ykp fior)0ovacv, 
iriOfj 8i €7rl MeXi^ipri; <6>^ dya>v r&v ^la-dfufop, 
%i(rii<f>ov divTO^, Ai6vv(tov Se Zeu? eh €pi<l>ov 
aXKd^a^ rov '^Hpa? Ovfiov e/cXe^e, koi \a0oop 
avTov 'Epfirj^ 7r/509 vvfuifia^ eKOfiiaev iv ^vtrr} 
KaToiKOvara^ t^9 ^ Atrial, &9 varepov Zei'? Kara- 
(TTepia-a^ oavofiaaev 'TdBa<;. 

^ fivOov ES : fivBQv A. * 4 inserted by Hereher. 

* Compare Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 229 ; Scholiast 
oil Pindar, Isthm., Argum, p. 514, ed. Bocckb. • 

2 On Ino and Melicertes see also Pausanias, i. 42. 6, i. 44. 
7 sq,, ii. 1. 8, iv. 34. 4; Zenobius, Cent. iv. 38; Tzetzes, 
Schol, on Lycophronf 107, 229-231 ; Scholiast on Homer, II. 
viii. 86, and on Od. v. 334 ; Scholiast on Euripides, Medea, 
1284 ; Hyginus, Fob. 2 and 4; Ovid, Metamorph. iv. 519-542 ; 
id. Fasti, vi. 491 8qq. ; Servius, on Virgil, Aen. v. 241 ; 
Lactantius Placidus, on Statins, Theb. i. 12 ; Scriptores 
rerum mythicarum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 102 
(Second Vatican Mythographer, 79). 

' On the foundation of the Isthmian games in honour of 
Melicertes, see Pausanias, i. 44. 8, ii. 1. 3; Scholiasts on 
Pindar, Isthm., Argum. pp. 514, 515, ed. Boeckh ; Scholiast;: 
on Euripides, Medea, 1284 ; Clement of Alexandria, Protrept. 
ii. 34, p. 29, ed. Potter; Zenobius, Cent. iv. 38; Tzetzes, 
Schol. on Lycophron, 107, 229-231 ; Hyginus, Fab. 2. 

* Dionysus bore the title of Kid. See Hesychius, s.v. 
"Epiipos 6 Ai6w(ro5 ; Stephanus Byzantius, s.v. *AKpt&p€ia, When 
the gods fled into Egypt to escape the fury of Typhon, 
Dionysus is said to have been turned into a goat. See Anto- 
ninus Liberalis, Transform, 28 ; Ovid, Metamorph, v. 39 ; 
Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. 
p. 29 (First Vatican Mythographer, 86). As a god of fertility, 
Dionysus appears to have been conceived as embodied, now 


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cauldron,! then carrying it with the dead child she 
sprang into the deep. And she herself is called 
Leucothoe, and the boy is called Palaemon, such 
being the names they get from sailors; for they 
succour storm-tossed mariners.- And the Isthmian 
games were instituted by Sisyphus in honour of 
Melicertes.^ But Zeus eluded the wrath of Hera 
by turning Dionysus into a kid,* and Hermes took 
him and brought him to the nymphs who dwelt at 
Nysa in Asia, whom Zeus afterwards changed into 
stars and named them the Hyades.^ 

in the form of a goat, now in the form of a bull ; and his 
worshippers accordingly entered into communion with him 
by rending and devouring live goats and bulls. See Spirits 
0} the Com and of the Wild, i. 12 sqq., ii. 1 sqq. The goat 
was the victim regularly sacrificed in the rites of Dionysus, 
because the animal injured the vine by gnawing it ; but the 
reason thus alleged for the sacrifice may have been a later 
interpretation. See Virgil, Oeorg, ii. 380-384, who refers 
the origin both of tragedy and of comedy to these sacrifices 
of goats in honour of the wine-god. Compare Varro, Rerum 
Rtisticarum, i. 2. 19 ; Ovid, FasH, i. 353 aqq.; Cornutus, 
Theologiae Oraecae Compendium, 30; Servius, on Virgil, 
Aen, iii. 118. 

* Apollodorus seems here to be following Pherecydes, who 
related how the infant Dionysus was nursed by the Hyades. 
See the Scholiast on Homer, 11, xviii. 486 ; Hyginus, Aatro- 
nom. ii. 21 ; Scholiast on Germanicus, Aratea (in Martianus 
Capella, ed. Fr. Eyssenhardt, p. 396) ; Fragmenta Histori- 
corum Oraecorum, ed. C. Midler, i. 84. Frag. 46. Nothing 
could be more appropriate than that the god of the vine 
should be nursed by the nymphs of the rain. According to 
Diodorus Siculus (iii. 59. 2, iii. 64. 5, iii. 65 7, iii. 66. 3), 
Nysa, the place where the nymphs reared Dionysus, was in 
Arabia, which is certainly not a rainy country ; but he 
admits (iii. 66. 4, iii. 67. 5) that others placed Nysa in Africa, 
or, as he calls it, Libya, away in the M'est beside the great 
ocean. Herodotus speaks of Nysa as **in Ethiopia, above 
Egypt" (ii. 146), and he mentions *'the Ethiopians who 


VOL. I. Y 

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4 AvTOVorj^ Bk Kal ^Apiaraiov iral<; ^AKTaicov 
€y€V€TO, 09 rpcupeU frapa Xeipcovt Kvvrjyo^ iSi- 
Sax^Vf ^^^ etreiTa varepov^ iv r& Ki0avp&vi 
Kareffpooffrj vtto tmv ihitov kvv&v. fcal rovrov 
irekevrrjae rov rpoTrov, a)9 fJL€v ^ AKovaiXao^ Xeyec, 
fir}VLaavTo<; rov At09 on ifivqarevaaro XefjLeXrjv, 
ft)9 Se ol irXeiove^y on rifv "Apreixiv Xovofjuivrjv 
elSe, Kai i^aai ttjv deov Trapaxprjfia avTOV rrjv 
fiop<f)r)p eh €\a(f>ov aWd^ai, Kal toI<: eirofjievoi^ 
avr& TrevTtjfcovTa Kvalv ifi/Sdkelv Xvaaav, v<f>^ &v 
Kara ayvoiav i^pcodrj, airoXofiivov^ Be 'A/cratG)- 
V09' oi /cvv€<; iiri^rfTovvre^ rov Sea-TroTrjv Kara}- 
pvovro, Kal ^rjTrjaiv Trotovfievoi irapeyevovro 
eirl TO Tov XeCpcovo*: avrpov, 89 etScoKov xaTc- 
(TKevaaev ^KKraLoDvo^, h Kal t^v Xvtttjv avr&v 

[t^* opofjuara r&v ^KKraioivo^ kvv&v eK t&v . . . 

Bff vvv KaXov cr&fxa irepiaTaSov, rjVTe Orjpo^, 
TOvSe Sdaavro fcvve^ KparepoL ireXa^; jApKCva^ 


^ Kirtira vtrrtpov ES. tlireira is apparently omitted in the 
other MSS. 

' &,'tro\ofi4vou R : airoWvpL^vov A. ' 

^ *\Krai<»vos ESA : *AKralovos Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, 

* The passage enclosed in square brackets, which contains 
a list of Actaeon's dogs, has probably been interpolated from 
some other source. It is wanting in the Vatican Epitome 
(E) and the Sabhaitic fragments (§.)• 

• "ApKeva A : "hpKva Aegius, Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, 
Bekker : "kprvia Scaliger : "Apyta Mitscherlich : "AKxatva 


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Autonoe and Aristaeus had a son Actaeon, who was 
bred by Chiron to be a hunter and then afterwards 
was devoured on Cithaeron by his own dogs.^ He 
perished in that way, according to Acusilaus, because 
Zeus was angry at him for wooing Semele; but 
according to the more general opinion, it was because 
he saw Artemis bathing. And they say that the 
goddess at once transformed him into a deer, and 
drove mad the fifty dogs in his pack, which de- 
voured him unwittingly. Actaeon being gone, the 
dogs sought their master howling lamentably, and in 
the search. they came to the cave of Chiron, who 
fashioned an image of Actaeon, which soothed their 

The names of Actaeon 's dogs from the .... 

Now surrounding his fair body, as it were that of a 

The strong dogs rent it. Near Arcena first. 

dwell about sacred Nysa and hold the festivals in honour of 
Dionysus" (iii. 97). But in fact Nysa was sought by the 
ancients in many different and distant lands and was probably 
mythical, perhaps invented to explain the name of Dionysus. 
See Stephanus Byzantius and Hesychius-, 8,v. NtJtro ; A.Wiede- 
mann, on Herodotus, ii. 146 ; T. W. Allen and E. E. Sikes, on 
Homeric Hymn to Dionysus, i. 8. p. 4. 

^ As to Actaeon and his dogs, see Diodonis Siculus, iv. 
3-5 ; Nonnus, Dionys. v. 287 sqq. ; Palaephatus, De incredib, 
3 ; Nonnus, in Westermann's Mythographi Oraeci, Appendix 
Narrationum, 6, p. 360 ; Hyginus, Fab, 181; Ovid, Meta- 
morph, iii. 138 sq.; Fulgentius, Mytholog» iii. 3 ; Scriptores 
rerum mythicarum LcUini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 103 
(Second Vatican Mythographer, 81). Hyginus and Ovid give 
lists of the dogs' names. 

Y 2 

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. . . /x€tA ravrrjv oKxtfJua TCfcva, 
Avy fC€v<; Kal BaXto?^ TroSa? alvero^, 7)8' 'A/ia- 

pvv6o<;. — 
/cal TovTov^ ovofiaarl Sirjvefceco*; fcariXe^e*^ 
fcal TOT€ ^Afcraioiv edavev Ai09 evveairiai? 
TTp&Toi yap fiiXav aljxa irlov^ (T(f)€T€poio avafcro^ 
XirapTo^ T Tlfiapyo^^ t€ BopPj<; r alyjrTjpofce- 


ovToi S*^ ^A/craLov 7rpa>T0i <^dyov alfia r eKay^avJ 
Toi>9 hk fiir^ aXXot iravre^ iireaavdev^ ififie- 

/Xaft)T€9. — 

dpya\e(ov ohvv&v uko^ e/j^fievai avdp<o7roL(Tiv.] 

V. Ai6vvao(; he evpcTrj^ dfiireXov yevofxepo^, 
"Hpa^ fiaviav avT<M ifijSaXovarj^ TrtpiirXavdrai 

* Ba\(os Mitscherlich : $ap6s A. 

^ Kal rovrovs ovoftaarl diY}V€Kfu5 /tarcAe^e Scaliger : koI o(fs 
ovofjMffr) di'fivtyKtv . . ., «s KaraXf^jj Wagner. 

2 Koi r6r€ *AfcTa((Bv ^davty Aths ivvtaiyat Heyne, Wester- 
inann, Miiller, Bekker (except that he reads aiyeaiytri for 
ipyffflrjat). tBav^v is 4*giu8'8 correction of the MS. reading 
KTilvai (A) or ktuv^ (PRc). Wagner edits the passage thus : 
. . . t<Jt* 'A/cTalov KT^Ivai Ai^s alviffir^ffi. Bergk proposed to 
read Krtivav for Knlvai or Kreivt. * viov Scaliger : dir^ A. 

^ *'nfiapyos Bekker : 2»v itpyhs A : OUapyos Heyne : "O^apyos 
Bergk. • ohroi 5* R : o5 5* A. 

' tXa^av Ruhnken : ^5a»|^oi' A. 

® ittftravdcv Scaliger : irriatrvdoy A. 

^ As to the discovery of the vine by Dionysus and the 
wanderings of the god, see Diodorus Siculus, iii. 62 sq.^ iv. 
1. 6 sq., iv. 2. 5 sqq,; Strabo, xv. 1. 7-9, pp. 687 sq. The 
story of the rovings of Dionysus, and in particular of his 
journey to India, was probably suggested by a simple 
observation of the wide geographical diffusion of the vine. 
Wherever the plant was cultivated and wine roade from the 
crapes, there it would be supposed that the vine-god must 
have tarried, dispensing the boon or the bane of his gifts to 


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THE LIBRARY, III. iv. 4-v. i 

.... after her a mighty broody 
Lynceus and Balius goodly-footed, and Amaryn- 

thus. — 
And these he enumerated continuously by name. 
And then Actaeon perished at the instigation of Zeus. 
For the first that drank their master's black blood 
Were Spartus and Omargus and Bores, the swift on 

the track. 
These first ate of Actaeon and lapped his blood. 
And after them others rushed on him eagerly .... 
To be a remedy for grievous pains to men. 

V. Dionysus discovered the vine,^ and being 
driven mad by Hera 2 he roamed about Egypt and 

mortals. There seems to be some reason to think that the 
original home of the vine was in the regions to the south of 
th*? Black Sea, the Caucasus, and the Caspian Sea, where the 
plant still grows wild "with the luxuriant wildness of a 
tropical creeper, clinging to tall trees and producing abundant 
fruit without pruning or cultivation." See A. de Candolle, 
Origin of Cultivated Plants (London, 1884), pn. 191 8qq. 
Compare A. Engler, in Victor Hehn, Kulturpjtamen und 
HavMhiere in threm tjbergang aus Aaien'' (Berlin, 1902), 
pp. 85 sqq. But these regions are precisely those which 
Dionysus was supposed to have traversed on his journeys. 
Certainly the idea of the god's wanderings cannot have been 
suggested, as appears to be sometimes imagined, by the 
expedition of Alexander the Great to India (see F. A. Voigt, 
in W. H. Roscher's Lexikon der griech, und rom. Mytholo^^ 
i. 1087), since they are described with geographical precision 
by Euripides, who died before Alexander the Great was born. 
In his famous play, The Bacchae {w. 1,3-20), the poet intro- 
duces the god himself describing his journey over Lydia, 
Phrygia, Bactria, Media, and all Asia. And by Asia the 
poet did not mean the whole continent of Asia as we under- 
stand the word, for most of it was unknown to him ; he meant 
only the southern portion of it from the Mediterranean to the 
Indus, in great part of which the vine appears to be native. 
2 Compare Euripides, Cyclops, 3 sq. 


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AtyvTTTov T€ Kol %vpiav. KoX TO fiev Trp&rov 
npft)T€V9 avrbv viroBex^TcCi ^a(Ti\ev<; AlyvinUov, 
aJfdi^ Be eU KvBeka Trj<; ^pvyia<; d<f>i/cv€lTai, 
KCLKel KaOapOel^ viro 'Pea? fcal tA? reXerd,^ ifcfxa- 
0(ov, Kal Xa^cov trap iKeivrj^ rtfv aroXrjv, [iirX 
^Ivhovsiy- hih T^9 %paKr]<; rjireiyeTO. Avfcovpyo<: 
Se iraU Apvavro<;, *llocov&v ^aaiXevoDP, ot Xrpv- 
fiova TTOTafiov irapoiKovai, irp&TO<; v^piaa^; e^e- 
^aXev avTov. Kal Atovvao^ fikv ek OdXaaaav 
7r/?09 Qirtv Trjv Nrfpico^ fcare^vye, Ba/c%at Be 
eyevovTo al'^^fjudXcoTOi kol to avveirofievov '^arv- 
poDV TrXrjOof; avr^, aidi^ Bk ai Bax^ai ekvdrjcrav 
€^ai<f>vr)^y KvKovpyfp Be puviav ivevoirjae^ Aiovu- 
ao<;. 6 Be fiefirjvw^ Apvavra rov iracBa, dpLiriXov 
vofii^cov KXrjfia KOTrreiv, ireXixei TrXr]^a<: atre- 

* M ^IvZovs, These words are out of place here. Wagner 
is probably right in thinking that we should either omit 
them (with Hercher) or insert arpan^taas after them, so as 
to give the meaning: **and after marching against the 
Indians he hastened through Thrace." 

- 4veitoir\>T€ Heyne : iirolrjire A. 

^ The visit of Dionysus to Egypt was doubtless invented 
to explain the close resemblance which the ancients traced 
between the worships of Osiris and Dionysus. See Herodotus, 
ii. 42, 49, and 144 ; Diodorus Siculus, i. 11. 3, i. 13. 5, i. 96. 5, 
iv. 1. 6 ; Plutarch, Isia et Osiris, 28, 34, and 35 ; TibuUus, 
i. 7. 29 sqq. For the same reason Nysa, the place where 
Dionysus was supposed to have been reared, was by some 
people believed to be in the neighbourhood of Egypt. See 
Homeric Hymn to Dionysus, i. 8 sq,; Diodorua Siculus, 
i. 15. 6, iv. 2. 3. 

2 For the association of Dionysus with Phrygia, see Euripi- 
des, Bacchae, 58 sq., 78 sqq., where the chorus of Bacchanals 
is represented escorting Dionysus from the mountains of 
Phrygia to Greece. According to one account, Dionysus was 


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Syria. At first he was received by Proteus, king of 
Egypt,^ but afterwards he arrived at Cybela in 
Phrygia.2 And there, after he had been purified by 
Rhea and learned the rites of initiation, he received 
from her the costume and hastened through Thrace 
against the Indians. But Lycurgus, son of Dryas, 
was king of the Edonians, who dwell beside the 
river Strymon, and he was the first who insulted and 
expelled him.' Dionysus took refuge in the sea with 
Thetis, daughter of Nereus, and the Bacchanals were 
taken prisoners together with the multitude of Satyrs 
that attended him. But afterwards the Bacchanals 
were suddenly released, and Dionysus drove Lycur- 
gus mad. And in his madness he struck his son 
Dryas dead with an axe, imagining that he was 
lopping a branch of a vine, and when he had cut off 

reared by the great Phrygian goddess Rhea (Stephanus 
Byzantius, a.v, MdtrTavpa). These legends were probably 
iD tended to explain the resemblances between the Bacchic 
and the Phrygian religions, especially in respect of their wild 
ecstatic and orgiastic rites. 

• For the story of the hostility of Lycurgus to Dionysus, 
see Homer, II. vi. 129 sqq., with the Scholia; Sophocles, 
Antigone, 955 sqq.; Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron^ 273 ; 
Hyginus, Fab, 132 ; Servius, on Virgil, Aen. iii. 14 ; Scrip- 
tores renim tnythicarum LcUini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 39 
(First Vatican Mythographer, 122). According to Sophocles, 
it would seem that Lycurgus suffered nothing worse at the 
hands of his subjects than imprisonment in a cave, where his 
frenzy graduallv subsided. According to Hyginus, Servius, 
and the First Vatican Mythographer, the furious king, in 
attempting to cut down the vines, lopped off one of his own 
feet or even both his legs. It appears to be a common belief 
that a woodman who cuts a sacred tree with an axe wounds 
himself in so doing. See W. Mannhardt, BaumkuUtis, pp. 
36 aq. It is said that when the missionary Jerome of Prague 
was preaching to the heathen Lithuanians and persuading 
them to cut down their sacred woods, one of the converts, 


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/eT€iv€, Koi afcpcoTijpida-a^ avTOv iaaxfypovrjae.^ 
T^9 Se yrj<: dfcdpirov fievovarj^, eyprjaev 6 Oeb^ 
Kap7ro<f>opriaeiv avrjjv, av davarcoafj Av/covpyo<;, 
^HScovol Se dfcovaavre^ e/? to Hayyalov avrbv 

^ i(roo(f>p6vijcrt Aegius : i<raKpp6viar€ A. 

moved by his exhortation, struck at an ancient oak with an 
axe, but wounded himself in the legs and fell to the ground. 
See Aeneas Sylvius, Opera (B41e, 1571), p. 418 [wrongly 
numbered 420]. The accident to this zealous convert closely 
resembles the one which is said to have befallen the Edonian 
king in a similar attempt on the sacred vine. 

^ Greek murderers used to cut oflF the extremities, such as 
the ears and noses, of their victims, fasten them on a string, 
and tie the string round the necks and under the armpits of 
the murdered men. One motive assigned for this custom, and 
probably the original one, was the wish by thus mutilating 
the dead man to weaken him so that he, or rather his ghost, 
could not take vengeance on his murderer (Tva, <pacr(Vf ii(r0€P^s 
yivoiro vphs rh iLvriTlaaaOai rhv <poy4af Scholiast on Sophocles, 
Electra, 445 ; Bih, to^toov &<rvep rrjv Bvvafxiy iKelvwv \scil. ray 
apatpedivrcov] iitpaipovfiivoif 8iot rh fi^ vaBeiv 4s fiarepSy ri ^eiyhv 
trap* ^Keivwy, Suidas, 8.V. juaorxaA^^o'^^vaO- ^^ ^^^^ barbarous 
custom see the Scholiast on Sophocles, Z.c; Suidas, I.e.; 
Hesychius and Photius, Lexicon, s.v. fxatrxaKifffiara ; Scholiast 
on Apollonius Rhodius, Argon, iv. 477. According to one 
account (Scholiast on Sophocles, Z.c), the murderer fastened 
the extremities of his victim about his own person, but the 
better attested and more probable account is that he tied 
them about the mutilated body of his victim. Compare 
E. Rohde. Psyche*, i. .322-326 ; R. C. Jebb, on Sophocles, 
Electro, 445, with the Appendix, pp. 211 sq. The practice is 
perhaps illustrated by an original drawing in the Ambrosian 
manuscript of the Iliady which represents the Homeric 
episode of Dolon {II. x. 314 sqq.); in the drawing the corpse 
of the slain Dolon is depicted shorn of its feet and hands, 
which lie beside it, while Ulysses holds Dolon's severed head 
in his hand. See Annali delT Instituto di Correspondenza 
Archeologica (Rome, 1875), tav. d'agg. R. ; A. Baumeister, 


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his son's extremities,^ he recovered his senses.^ But 
the land remaining barren, the god declared oracu- 
larly that it would bear fruit if Lycurgus were put 
to death. On hearing that, the Edonians led him to 

Denkmdler des hUuaiachen AUertumSy i. 460 99., fig. 5(f6. 
It appears to be a widespread belief that the ghost of one who 
has died a violent death is dangerous to his slayer, but that 
he can be rendered powerless for mischief by maiming his 
body in such a way as would have disabled him in life. For 
example, some of the Australian aborigines used to cut oflF the 
thumbs of the right hands of dead enemies to prevent their 
ghosts from throwing spears. See A. Oldfield, **The Abo- 
rigines of Australia," Transactions of the Ethnological Society 
of London, iii. (1865) p. 287. In Travancore the spirits of 
murderers who have oeen hanged are thought to be very 
mischievous ; hence, in order to prevent them from doing 
harm, it used to be customary to cut off the heels of the 
criminal with a sword or to hamstring him as he swung on 
the gallows. See S. Mateer, The Land of Charity (London, 
(1871), pp. 203 sq. In Armenia, when a person falls sick soon 
after the death of a member of the family, it is supposed that 
the sickness is caused by the dead man, who cannot rest in 
his grave until he has drawn away one of his kinsfolk to the 
spirit land. To prevent this catastrophe, the body of the 
deceased is disinterred and decapitated, and to make assurance 
doubly sure the head is smashed or a needle is stuck into it 
and into the heart. See Manuk Abeghian, Der armenische 
VoUcsglavbe (Leipsic, 1899), p. 11. In some parts of West 
Africa it is similarly customary to disinter and decapitate a 
corpse of a person whose ghost is supposed to be causing pick- 
ness, • * because the deceased, having his head cut off, will not 
have the same strength as before, and consequently will not 
be in a position to trouble him (the patient)." See J. B. 
Labat, Relation Historique de VEthiopie Occidentale (Paris, 
1732), i. 208. 

* So Orestes, driven mad by the Furies of his murdered 
mother, is said to have recovered his senses on biting off one 
of his own fingers (Pausauias, viii. 34. 2). By the sacrifice he 
may be supposed to have appeased the anger of his mother's 
ghost, who was thought to be causing his madness. Compare 
Folk-lore in (he Old Testament, iii. 2iQsq, 


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oLTrayayovre^ opo^ eBrja-av, KaKei fcarcb Aiovvaov 
^ovXtjo-iv xrrro ittttcov Sia<f>dap€U airWave. 

2 AieXdoov Se &paK7)v [zeal ttjv ^IvScktjv diraaav, 
(TTijXa^ €/e€L arijaa^Y ^^^^ ^^^ Si]l3a^, /cal Ta<: 
yvvoLKa^ r)vdyKaa€ feaTaknrov(Ta<; tA? oixia^ 
0aK'^ev€CV ev rtp Kidacp&vi, Hevdev^ Se yevpr}- 
deh i^ ^Ayavrj^ ^Ex^ovi, irapa K.dhfiov €tXr)<f>Q)<; 
TYjv ^aatXeiav, Bi€fcdi\v€ ravra yiveadai, koX 
'7rapay€v6/M€vo<; eh KiOaipcova t&v Bafcx&v fcard- 
CKOTTO^ viro Trj<: fir)Tpo<; ^Ayav7]<; Kara puavLav 
ifieXia-dij' ivofuae yap avrov Orjpiov elvai. Bei- 
fa9 Bk &ij^aLoi<; on deo^ iariv, fj/eev el^ "^ A/0709, 
Kafcel^ irdXiv ov Tifid)VT(ov avTOv i^efi-qve Ta9 
yvvaLKa<;. al Be ev Tol<i opeat rov^ einpxLaTvBLov^ 
exovaai^ TralBa^; ra^ adpKa^ avr&p iairovpro, 

3 $ovX6p€vo<; Be diro t?}? ^ I Kaplan eU ^d^ov Biuko- 
pmOijvai, Tvpp7jva>v Xrja-rpiKrjv ep^iaOwaaTO rpL- 
rjpT), oi Be avTov evOep^voi Nd^ov p,ev TrapeirXeop, 
fiireLyopTo Be €t9 rrip ^Aaiap d7rep,'jroXi]a'OPT€<i, 
6 Be TOP p^p larcp^ fcal t^? fC(07ra<; eiroi'qaep o^ei^, 
TO Be afed<f>o<; eTrXrjae /ciaaov koX l3orj<; avX&p* oi 
Be eppupeh yepopuevoi Kara t^9 daXdTTq<; €<f>vyov 

^ The words enclosed in brackets are probably an inter- 
polation, as Heyne thought. Hercher omits them. 

2 KkK€ivo»v Eberhard. 

' t^ovvai A. Ludwich, perhaps rightly. But we should 
expect i^4\<Taaai, 

* iarhv Aegius : lfT0ij.hv A. 

^ The king thus done to death was perhaps supposed to die 
in the character of the god ; for Dionysus himself was said to 
have been rfeut in pieces by the Titans. See Adonia, AUie, 
Osiris, 3rd ed. ii. 98 sq.; Spirits of the Oom and of the Wild, 
i. 24 sq. 

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Mount Pangaeum and bound him, and there by the 
will of Dionysus he died, destroyed by horses.^ 

Having traversed Thrace and the whole of India 
and set up pillars there,^ he came to Thebes, and 
forced the women to abandon their houses and rave 
in Bacchic frenzy on Cithaeron. But Pentheus, 
whom Agave bore to Echion, had succeeded Cadmus 
in the kingdom, and he attempted to put a stop to 
these proceedings. And coming to Cithaeron to spy 
on the Bacchanals, he was torn limb from limb by 
his mother Agave in a fit of madness; for she 
thought he was a wild beast. ^ And having shown 
the Thebans that he was a god, Dionysus came to 
Argos, and there again, because they did not honour 
him, he drove the women mad, and they on the 
mountains devoured the flesh of the infants whom 
they carried at their breasts.^ And wishing to be 
ferried across from Icaria to Naxos he hired a pirate 
ship of Tyrrhenians. But when they had put him 
on board, they sailed past Naxos and made for 
Asia, intending to sell him. Howbeit, he turned 
the mast and oars into snakes, and filled the vessel 
with ivy and the sound of flutes. And the pirates 
went mad, and leaped into the sea, and were turned 

2 Compare J. Tzetzes, ChUiadea, viii. 582 sqq, 

• In these lines ApoUodorus has summarized the argument 
of the Bacchae of Euripides ; for the death of Pentheus, see 
w, 1043 aqq. Compare Hyginus, Fab, 184 ; Ovid, Meta- 
morph. iii. 511 aqq., especially 701 sqq.; Scriptores rerum 
mywicarum LcUint, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 103 (Second 
Vatican Mythographer, 83). Aeschylus wrote a tragedy on 
the subject of Pentheus {Tragiconim Ora^corum Fragmenta, 
ed. A. Nauck^ pp. 60 sq.), 

* The reference is to the madness of the daughters of 
Proetus. See above, ii. 2. 2 note. 


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Kcu iyevovTo SeX^tw?. &9 8e^ fiadovre^ avrov 

0€ov ap0pa)7roL irifKov, 6 Se dvayaycbv ef "AiSov 

Tf)V firjrepa, /cal Trpoaayopevaa<; &v(ovi]v, /jl€t 

aifTr]<; €t9 ovpavov avrfKBev, 

^ 6f 86 Miiller, Westermann : S5€ Heyne : its 5c Bekker, 
Hercher, Wagner. 

^ The story of Dionysus and the pirates is the theme of the 
Homeric Hymn No. VII. To Dionysus. Compare Ovid, Meta- 
morph. iii. 581 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 134 ; id. Astronaut, ii. 17; 
Servius, on Virgil, Aen. i. 67 ; Scriptores rerwm mythicarum 
Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 39, 133 (First Vatican 
Mythographer, 123; Second Vatican Mythographer, 171) 

* Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 25. 4. Dionysus is said 
to have gone down to hell to fetch up his mother Semele at 
Lema, where he plunged into the Alcyouian Lake, a pool 
which was supposed to be bottomless and therefore to afford 
an easy access to the nether world. See Pausanias ii. 37. 5 ; 
and for a description of the pool as it is at the present time, 
see my commentary on Pausanias, vol. v. pp. 604 sq. Never 
having been in hell before, Dionysus did not know how to go 
there, and he was reduced to the necessity of asking the 
way. A certain Prosymnus pointed it out to the deity on 
condition of receiving a certain reward. When Dionysus 
returned from the lower world, he found that his guide 
had died in the meantime ; but he punctually paid the 
promised reward to the dead man at his grave with the 
help of a branch of fig wood, which he whittled into an 
appropriate shape. This story was told to explain the 
similar implements which figured prominently in the pro- 
cessions of Dionysus. See Clement of Alexandria, Protrept. 
ii. 34, pp. 29 sq.j ed. Potter ; Nonnus, in Westermann's 
Myihographi Oraeci. Appendix Narrationum. xxii. 1, p. 368; 
Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 212 ; Arnobius, Adversua 
NoHoneSf v. 28 ; Hyginus, Astronom. ii. 5. Pausanias calls 
the god's guide Polymnus, unless that form of the name is 
the mistake of a copyist for Prosymnus, as seems to be 
suggested by the epithet Prosymna, which was applied to 
Demeter in the sacred grove at Lema, where Dionysus also 
had an image. See Pausanias, ii. 37. 1. However, Hyginus 
gives Hypolipnus as the name of the guide to hell. Every 
year the descent of the god through the deep water was 

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into dolphins.^ Thus men perceived that he was a 
god and lionoured him ; and having brought up his 
mother from Hades and named her Thyone, he 
ascended up with her to heaven.^ 

celebrated with nocturnal rites on the reedy margin of the 
pool (Pausanias, ii. 37. 6). The pious Pausanias shrank from 
divulging the nature of the rites ; but from Plutarch we 
learn that a lamb was thrown into the lake as an offering to 
the warder of hell, while on trumpets hidden in the god's 
leafy emblems the buglers blew blasts which, startling the 
stillness and darkness of night, were believed to summon up 
the lost Dionysus from the watery depths. See Plutarch, 
lais et OsiriSf 35. Perhaps in answer to this bugle call an 
actor, dressed in the vine-god's garb, may have emerged 
dripping from the pool to receive the congratulations of the 
worshippers on his rising from the dead. However, accord- 
ing to others, the resurrection of Dionysus and his mother 
took place, not in the gloomy swamp at Lerna, but on the 
beautiful, almost landlocked, bay of Troezen, where now- 
adays groves of oranges and lemons, interspersed with the 
dark foliage of tall cypresses, fringe the margin of the calm 
blue water at the foot of the rugged mountains. See Pau- 
sanias, ii. 31. 2. Plutarch has drawn a visionary picture of 
the scene of the ascension. It was, he says, a mighty chasm 
like the caves sacred to Bacchus, mantled with woods and 
green grass and blooming flowers of every sort, and exhaling 
a delicious, an intoxicating, perfume, while all about it the 
souls of the departed circled and stooped upon the wing like 
flights of birds, but did not dare to cross its tremendous 
depth. It was called the Place of Forgetfulness. See Plu- 
tarch, De sera numinis vindicta, 22, pp. 565 aq, A pretty 
story was told of the device by which Dionysus induced the 
grim warden of the dead to release the soul of his mother 
from the infernal gaol. It is said that Hades consented to 
set her free provided that her son would send of his best 
beloved to replace her shade in the world of shadows. Now 
of all the things in the world the dearest to Dionysus were 
the ivy, the vine, and the myrtle ; so of these he sent the 
myrtle, and that is why the initiated in his rites wreathed 
their brows with myrtle leaves. See Scholiast on Aristo- 
phanes, Frogs, 330. The harrying of hell is the theme of 
Aristophanes's amusing comedy The Frogs, 


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4 *0 Sk Ka8/Lco9 fJLercl, 'Ap/iovia^ Si]j3a<; iKKnronv 
7r/oo9 'E7;^€\€a9^ TrapayLverai, tovtoi<; Se viro 
^iXkvpi&v TToXefiovfiivoL^ 6 0€o<; e^pv^^v 'iWu- 
pitov KpaTTjcreiv, iav '^€fi6va^ J^dBfiov koI ^Ap/juo- 
viav exfoaiv, oi he Treiadiine^ TToiovvTai /cara 
^iXkvpmv '^ye/j.ova^ tovtov^ koI Kparovai. teal 
ffaatXevei J^dSfio^ ^iWvpi&v, tcaX iraU *lWvpio<; 
avT(p ylveTai, avOt^ he fierce ^Kpfwvia<; el<^ Spa- 
fcovra fjL€Tal3a\a)V etV ^HXvaiov neSiov viro Ato9 

5 IloXvB(opo<: he &r}0&v I3aai\€if<; yevofjuevof: Nvk- 
Ttjiha yafJLet, ^vxtcco^ <tov>^ Xdoviov Ovyarepa, 
Koi yevva Ad/SSa/cov, ovto<; dircoXeTo, fiera^ 
Ylevdea i/ceivo) <f>pov(ov TrapaTrXija-ia. /caraXi- 
TTovTO^ hk Aa/3Sd/cov iracha eviavaiaiov Adiov, 
TTjv dpxn^ d(f>€iXeTo Avfco^, Ico^ ovTo<i fjv 7ra?9, 
dh€X<\>o^ &v Nv/CT€6)9. dfi(l>6T€poi Sk [diro Ev- 

^ 'E7xeA^a$ R : iiyx^^^as A. • rod inserted by Aegius. 
* Kark Siebelis. 

^ As to the departure of Cadmus and Harmonia to Illyria 
and their transformation into snakes in that country, where 
their tomb was shown in later ages, see ApoUonius Rhodius, 
Argon, iv. 516 sqq. ; Dionysius Periegetes, Orbis Descriptio, 
390 aqq., with the commentary of Eustathiua on v, 391 ; 
Strabo, i. 2. 39, p. 46, vii. 7. 8, p. 326 ; Pausanias, ix. 5. 3 ; 
Athenaeus, xi. 5, p. 462 b ; Stephanus Byzantius, s.v. Avppd- 
Xiop ; J. Tzetzes, Uhiliades, iv. 393 aqq. ; Ovid, Metamorph, 
iv. 563-603 ; Hyginus, Fab, 6 ; Lactantius Placidus, on 
Statius, Theb. iii. 290 ; Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latini, 
ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 48 (First Vatican Mythographer, 
150). Euripides mentions the transformation of the couple 
into snakes, but without speaking of their banishment to 
Illyria {Bacchcte, 1530 sq,)^ probably because there is a long 


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But Cadmus and Harmonia quitted Thebes and 
went to the Encheleans. As the Encheleans were 
being attacked by the lUyrians, the god declared by 
an oracle that they would get the better of the 
lUyrians if they had Cadmus and Harmonia as their 
leaders. They believed him, and made them their 
leaders against the Illyrians, and got the better of 
them. And Cadmus reigned ovier the Illyrians, and 
a son Illyrius was born to him. But afterwards he 
was, along with Harmonia, turned into a serpent 
and sent away by Zeus to the Elysian Fields.^ 

Polydorus, having become king of Thebes, married 
Nycteis, daughter of Nycteus, son of Cht;honius, and 
begat Labdacus, who perished after Pentheus because 
he was like-minded with him.*^ But Labdacus having 
left a one-year-old son, Laius, the government was 
usurped by Lycus, brother of Nycteus, so long as 
Laius was a child. Both of them^ had flfed from 

lacuna in this part of the text. According to Hyginua, the 
transformation of the two into serpents was a punishment 
inflicted by Ares on Cadmus for killing his sacred dragon 
which guarded the spring at Thebes, which Hyginus absurdly 
calls the Castalian spring. It is a common belief, especially 
among the Bantii tribes of South Africa, that human beings 
at death are turned into serpents, which often visit the old 
home. There is some reason to think that the ancestors of 
the Greeks may have shared this widespread superstition, of 
which the traditional transformation of Cadmus and Har- 
monia would thus be an isolated survival. See Adonis, AtUs, 
Oairia, 3rd ed. i. 82 aqq, 

2 Compare Euripides, Phoenissae, 8; Pausanias ii. 6. 2, 
ix. 5. 4 sq. Apollodorus implies that Labdacus was mur- 
dered by the Bacchanals because he set himself against the 
celebration of their orgiastic rites. But there seems to be no 
express mention of his violent death in ancient writers. 

• That is, the two brothers Lycus and Nycteus. 


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^oia^Y <t>yy6vT€^, iirel ^Xeyvap dnefCTeivav top 
"A/oeo? Kal Aa>r lSo<; tt)? BotwrtSo?, 'Tpiav^ /carw- 
Kovv, Kal , . .^ Bict rr)v irpb^ UevOea oifceiorrjTa 
iyeyoveaav iroXlrai, aipedei^ ovv Av/co^ ttoXc- 
fxapXo^ xnro %Y}^ai(ov iiriOeTO^ TJj hiwaareia, kol 
^a<TiXevaa<; cttj elicoai^ ^ovcvQw vtto ZtjOov kuI 
^AfiA^iovo^ dvrjaKev hi alriav T^vSe. Avrioirrj 
OvycLTqp YjV Ni;^T€G)9' ravrt) Zeu? avvrjkdev, 77 
he (i? €yKvo<; iyivero, rov irarpo^ a7r€t\ovvTo<i €t9 
Xifcv&va aTToBiSpda-Kei tt/do? 'ETTWTrea Koi rovray 
ya/JL€LTai, Nvkt€v<; Be dOvfirjtja^ kavrov (f>ov€V€i, 
Boif<; ivToXa^^ KvK(p irapd ^Eiircoirew^ Kal irapa 
^AvTi6'n"ri<i Xa^elv BiKa^, 6 hk arpaTevadfievo^ 
XcKv&va 'xeipovTac, Kal rbv fiev ^J^irtoirea KTcCvei, 
Tr)v Se ^AvTioTTTjv jjyayev al^fiaXaoTOV, 1} Se dyo- 

^ kvh Eitfiolas A. These words are deleted by Hercher 
and Wagner. Heyne also preferred to omit them. See 
exegetical note. ^ "Tplav Heyne : :ivpiav A. 

3 There seems to be a lacuna here, which Heyne proposed 
to supply by the words iKe'idev i\d6vr€5 tU 0^i8as. I translate 

* itcidero E : ivtridtro A. ^ eXKoat A : ScKaoKrdo E. 

« ^vToXctj ERS : iyro\^v A. 

^ This Phlegyas is supposed to be Phlegyas, king of Orcho- 
menus, whom Pausanias (ix. 36. 1) calls a son of Ares and 
Chryse. If this identification is right, the words "from 
Euboea" appear to be wronc, as Heyne pointed out, since 
Orchomenus is not in Euboea but in Boeotia. But there were 
many places called Euboea, and it is possible that one of 
them was in Boeotia. If that was so, we may conjecture 
that the epithet " Boeotian," which, applied to Dotis, seems 
superfluous, was applied by Apollodorus to Euboea and has 
been misplaced by a copyist. If these conjectures are 
adopted, the text will read thus : "Both of them fled from 
Euboea in Boeotia because they had killed Phlegyas, son of 

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Euboea because they had killed Phlegyas, son of 
Ares and Dotis the Boeotian,^ and they took up 
their abode at Hyria, and thence having come to 
Thebes, they were enrolled as citizens through their 
friendship with Pentheus. So after being chosen 
commander-in-chief by the Thebans, Lycus com- 
passed the supreme power and reigned for twenty 
years, but was murdered by Zethus and Amphion 
for the following reason. Antiope was a daughter 
of Nycteus, and Zeus had intercourse with her.^ 
When she was with child, and her father threatened 
her, she ran away to Epopeus at Sicyon and was 
married to him. In a fit of despondency Nycteus 
killed himself, after charging Lycus to punish 
Epopeus and Antiope. Lycus marched against 
Sicyon, subdued it, slew Epopeus, and led Antiope 
away captive. On the way she gave birth to two 

Ares and Dotis, and they took up their abode at Hyria." 
As to the various places called Euboea, see Stephanus 
Byzantius, a.v, EHfioia ; W. Pape, Wdrterbt4ch der griechischen 
Eigennamen, «.v. EtfjSoia. 

^ With the following story of Antiope and Dirce compare 
Pausanias, ii. 6. 1 sqq,, ix. 25. 3 ; J. Malala?, Chronographia, 
ii. pp. 45-49, ed. L. Uindorf ; Scholiast on ApoUonius Rho- 
dius, Argon, iv. 1090; Nicolaus Damascenus, frag. 11, in 
FragmerUa Historicorum Qraecorum, ed. C. Miiller, iii. 
365 sq. ; H^ginus, Fab. 7 and 8 ; Scriptorea rerum mythi- 
carum Lcami, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 32, 99 sq. (First 
Vatican Mythographer, 97 ; Second Vatican Mythographer, 
74). Euripides wrote a tragedy Antiope^ of which Hyginus 
(Fab. 8) gives a summary. Many fragments of the play 
have been preserved. See Tragicorum Oraecorum Frag- 
menta, ed. A. Nauck,* pp. 410 sqq. In his version of the 
story ApoUodorus seems to have followed Euripides. The 
legend is commemorated in the famous group of statuary 
called the Farnese bull, which is now in the museum at 
Naples. See A. Baumeister, Denhmdler des klaaaischen 
Altertwna, i. 107, fig. 113. 


VOL. ] 

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fihn} hvo yevvd 7raZSa9 iv ^EXevOepaU r^ Boiay- 
TLa^, 0U9 i/CK€ifi€VOv<; cvpwv ^ovfc6\o<i dvarp€(l>€i, 
Kol rov fjL€v KaXel ZrjOov tov Se *Afi(f>Lova. Zi]0o^ 
fiev ojfp iTrcfieXeiTO /3ov<f>op^i(ov,^ ^AfKJ>La)v Bk 
KtOapcpiiav Tjaxei, S6vto<; avrtp \vpav 'Ep/j.ov. 
^AvTCOTTfjv Se yKL^CTO Avfco^ KaOeip^a^ koX t) tov- 
Tov yvvT) AipKT)' \adovaa Be irore, t&v ieafi&v 
avTOfidro)^^ \v0€VT(ov, fj/cev iirl rrjv t&v TraiSeov 
€7rav\iv, hexPrivai 7rpo<; airoov OiXovaa, oi Be 
dvayvoypcadfievoi Tfjv fi'qrepa, rov fiev Av/cov 
KT€ivovai, TTjv Sc AipfCTjv B'^aavTC^ ifc ravpov 
piiTTOvaL davovaav ek tcprjvrjv t-^i/ dir* €KeLvq^ 
KaXovfiivrjv Aipferjv, irapaXajSovre^ Be ttjv Buva- 
areiav rrjv fiev iroXiv ereixt'fJ'tiVt eTraKoXovdrjaup- 
Tft)!/ T§ *Afi<f)Lovo<; Xvpa t&v XlOcov, Adiov Be 
i^e/SaXov. 6 Bk ev TLeXoirovvrjatp BiareX&v hri^e- 
vovrai IleXoTrt, ical tovtov iralBa ^pvannrov 
dpfxaroBpOfielv BiBdcnccov ipaaOeU avapTrd^ec, 

^ $ov<pop&l<av ES : 0ov<f>opai<ov A, 

^ avro/jLarus Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, Her- 
cher : avro/Mdruy ESA, Wagner. 

* Compare Pausanias, ix. 5. 7 sq. The two brothers are 
said to have quarrelled, the robust Zethus blaming Amphion 
for his passionate addiction to music and urging him to 
abandon it for what he deemed the more manly pursuits of 
agriculture, cattle-breeding and war. The gentle Amphion 
yielded to these exhortations so far as to cease to strum the 
lyre. See Dio Chrysostom, Or, Ixxiii. vol. ii. p. 254, ed. 
L. Dindorf ; Horace, Epist. i. 18. 41-44 ; Tragicorum Orae- 
corum Fragmenta, ed. A. Nauck', pp. 414-416, frag. 184-188. 
The discussion between the two brothers, the one advocating 
the practical life and the other the contemplative or artistic, 
seems to have been famous. It is illustrated by a fine relief 
in which we see Amphion standing and holding out his lyre 
eagerly for the admiration of his athletic brother, who sits 


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sons at Eleurethae in Boeotia. The infants were 
exposed, but a neatherd found and reared them, 
and he called the one Zethus and the other 
Amphion. Now Zethus paid attention to cattle- 
breeding, but Amphion practised minStrelsy, for 
Hermes had given him a lyre.^ But Lycus and his 
wife Dirce imprisoned Antiope and treated her 
despitefully. Howbeit, one day her bonds were 
loosed of themselves, and unknown to her keepers 
she came to her sons' cottage, begging that they 
would take her in. They recognized their mother, 
and slew Lycus, but Dirce they tied to a bull, and 
flung her dead body into the spring that is called 
Dirce after her. And having succeeded to the 
sovereignty they fortified the city, the stones follow- 
ing Amphion's lyre ^ ; and they expelled Laius.^ 
He resided in Peloponnese, being hospitably received 
by Pelops ; and while he taught Chrysippus, the son 
of Pelops, to drive a chariot, he conceived a passion 
for the lad and carried him off* 

regarding it with an air of smiling disdain. See W. H. 
Roscher, Lexihon der griech. und rdm, Mythologie, i. 311. 

2 Compare Homer, Od, xi. 260-265 (who does not mention 
the miracle of the music) ; ApoUonius Rhodius, Argon, i. 
735-741; Pausanias, ix. 5. 6-8; Propertius, i. 9. 10, iv. 2. 
3 sq, ; Horace, Odea, iii. 11. 2, Ar8 Poetica, 394-396. Apol- 
lonius represents Zethus staggering under the load of a 
mountain, while Amphion strolls along drawing a cliff twice 
as large after him by singing to his golden lyre. He seems to 
have intended to suggest the feebleness of brute strength by 
comparison with the power of genius. 

' As to the banishment and restoration of Laius, see Pau- 
sanias, ix. 5. 6 and 9 ; Hyginus, Fah, 9. 

* Compare Athenaeus, xiii. 79, pp. 602 «g., who says that 
Laius carried off Chrysippus in his chariot to Thebes. Chry- 
sippus is said to have killed himself for shame. See tne 
Scholiast on Euripides, Phoeniaaae, 1760. 


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6 Va/jLel Se Zrjdo<; fiev ^rj^r^Vy u<f> ^^ rj iroKi^ 
&r]^ai, ^A/jL<f)i(ov Be Nlo^tjv rr^v TuptoXov, tj 
y€wa TTttftSa? fi€v eTrra, ^lirvXov KvTrivvrov 
*lafirjvov AafjLa<TLxOopa ^Ayijvopa ^aiStfiov Tdv- 
raXov, 0vyar€pa<^ Be Ta<; Tcra?, *E0oBatav (fj a>9 
T4j/€9 Neaipav) KXeoBo^av ^Aarvoxv^ ^OLav 
TlekoTriav ^ Aarv/cpdreiau ^[lyvylap, 'H<TtoSo9 Be 

^ For the story of Niobe and her children, see Homer, 
Iliad, xxiv. 602 aqq. ; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 74 ; Pausanias, 
i. 21. 3, ii. 21. 9, v. 11. 2, v. 16. 4, viii. 2. 5 and 7 ; J. Tzetzes, 
ChUiades, iv. 416 sqq, ; Ovid, Metamorph. vi. 146 sqq. ; 
Hyginus, Fab. 9 and 11; Lactautius Placidus on Statlus, 
TIteb. iii. 191 ; Scriptores rerum tnythicarum LcUini, ed. 
G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 60 (First Vatican Mythographer, 156). 
Great diversity of opinion prevailed among the ancients with 
regard to the number of Niobe's children. Diodorus, Ovid, 
Hyginus, Lactantius Placidus, and the First Vatican Mytho- 
grapher agree with ApoUodorus as to the seven sons and 
seven daughters of Niooe, and from the Scholiast on Euri- 
pides, Phoenisaae, 169, we learn that Aeschylus, Euripides, 
and Aristophanes in lost plays adopted the same numbers, 
but that Pherecydes agreed with Homer in reckoning eix 
sons and six daughters, while Hellanicus allowed the lady 
no more than four sons and three daughters. On the 
other hand, Xantbus the Lydian, according to the same 
Scholiast, credited her with a score of children, equally 
divided between the two sexes. Herein he probably fol- 
lowed the authority of Hesiod (see ApoUodorus, below), 
and the same liberal computation is said to have been 
accepted by Bacchylides, Pindar, and Mimnermus, while 
Sappho reduced the figure to twice nine, and Alcman to ten 
all told (Aulus Gellius, xx. 70 ; Aelian, Varia Historia, xii. 
.36). Aeschylus and Sophocles each wrote a tragedy Niobe, 
of which some fragments remain. See Tragicorum Qrae- 
corum Fragmenta, ed. A. Nauck^, pp. 50 sqq., 228 sq. ; The 
Fragments of Sophocles, ed. A. C. Pearson, ii. 94 sqq.y frag. 
442-451. The subject is rendered famous by the fine group 
of ancient statuary now in the Utfizi gallery at Florence. See 


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Zethus married Thebe, after whom the city of 
Thebes is named ; and Amphion married Niobe, 
daughter of Tantalus,^ who bore seven sons, Sipylus, 
Eupinytus, Ismenus, Damasiehthon, Agenor, Phae- 
dimus, Tantalus, and the same number of daughters, 
Ethodaia (or, as some say, Neaera), Cleodoxa, 
Astyoehe, Phthia, Pelopia, Astyeratia, and Ogygia. 
But Hesiod says that tliey had ten sons and ten 

A. Baumeister, Denkmdler dea klassischen Altertuma, iii. 
1674 aqq. Antiquity hesitated whether to assign the group 
to Scopas or Praxiteles (Pliny, Nat, Hist, xxxvi. 28), and 
modern opinion is still divided on the question. See my note 
on Pausanias, ii. 29. 9 (vol. iii. p. 201). The pathetic char- 
acter of the group may perhaps be held to speak in favour of 
Scopas, who seems to have excelled in the portrayal of the 
sterner, sadder emotions, while Praxiteles dwelt by preference 
on the brighter, softer creations of the Greek religious 
imagination. This view of the sombre cast of the genius of 
Scopas is suggested by the subjects which he chose for the 
decoration of the temple of Athena Alea at Tegea (Pausanias, 
viii. 45. 5-7), and by the scanty remains of the sculptures 
which have been found on the spot. See my commentary on 
Pausanias, vol. iv. pp. 426 sqq. However, the late historian 
of Greek sculpture. Professor M. CoUignon, denied that the 
original of this famous group, which he regarded as a copy, 
was either by Scopas or Praxiteles. He held that it belongs 
to an Asiatic school of sculpture characterized by picturesque 
grouping, and that it could not have been executed before the 
third century B.C. To the same school he would assign 
another famous group of sculpture, that of Dirce and the bull 
(above, iii. 5. 5 note). See M. CoUignon, Hutoire de la 
Sculpture Grecque (Paris, 1892-1897), ii. 532 sqq. The tomb 
of the children of Niobe was shown at Thebes (Pausanias, 
ix. 16. 7 ; compare Euripides, Phoenissae.^ 159 sq.) ; but ac- 
cording to Statius (Theh. vi. 124 sq.) the Mater Dolorosa 
carried the ashes of her dead children in twice six urns to 
be buried on her native Mount Sipylus. Thus the poet 
dutifully follows Homer in. regard to the number of the 


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Sexa fiev vtov^ Se/ea Bk Ovyaripa^;, ^HpoBaypo^ ^ ie 
Bvo fJL€V appeva^ rpeh Be drjXeia^, '^Ofjuijpo^ Be If 
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vo<; Be ova a NiojSrj ttj^ A/qrov^ evreKVorepa ecTrev 
virdp'xeLV' ArjTa} Be ayavaKTriaaaa ttjv re "Ap- 
T€/jLiv teal Tov ^ATToWtova Kar avr&v 7rap<o^vv€, 
KoX Ta9 piv OrjXeia*; eirl t^9 ol/cia*; Karero^evarev 
"Aprep^t^, T0U9 Be appeva^ Koivfj iravra^ ev TLiOai- 
pcovt ^ATToWtDv KVvrjyeTovvra^ airefcreivev, eaay- 
07) Bk T03V p^ev appevtov *Ap,<f>L(0Vy t&v Be BifKeL&v 
X\ci)/ot9 r} Trpea^VTepa, ^ Nt^Xcl'? avvcoKrjae. 
Kara Be TeXec^Wav iatoOrjaav 'A/iV/cXa?^ xal 
MeXi^oia, ero^evdr) Be vw avr&v kcu ^Ap^iayp, 
avrr) Be Nc60r] 0^ySa9 diroXiTrovaa irpo*; rov 
irarepa TdvToXjov ^kcv el<; ^lttvXov, xd/cei Au 
ev^ap.evY] ttjv p,op<l>r}v €t9 \i6ov p^ere^aXe^ koX 
Xelrai Bdxpva vvKToap kol pjeS" r)p,epav rod \idov, 
MerA Be rrjv 'A/i<^oi/o9 TeXevrrjv Adio^ rrjv 
^aaiXeiav irapeKa^e* koX yrjpLa^ Ovyarepa M.€voi- 
KecD^i r)v evLOL p^ev ^lofcdaTtjv evtoi Be ^FiTrcxdaTT^v 
Xeyovai, XPV^^^'^^^ '^^^ ^^^^ M'V y^vvdv (rbv 

^ 'HpoSwpos Aegius : iipSBoros A. 

2 ^AfivKKas A, Westermann, Miiller, Wagner : *A,uvkAq 
Heyne, Bekker, Hercher. 

^ Compare Pausanias, ii, 21. 9, v. 16. 4, according to whom 
Meliboea w?i8 the original name of Chloris ; but she turned 
pale with fear at the slaughter of her brothers and sisters, 
and so received the name of Chloris, that is, the Pale 
Woman. As to the marriage of Chloris with Neleus, see 
Homer, Od, xi. 281 sqq, 

^ The ancients differed as to the death of Amphion. 
According to one account, he went mad (Luci&n, De aaUa- 
Hone, 41), and in attempting to attack a temple of ApoUoj 


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daughters; Herodorus that they had two male 
children and three female ; and Homer that they 
had six sons and six daughters. Being blessed with 
children, Niobe said that she was more blessed with 
children than Latona. Stung by the taunt, Latona 
incited Artemis and Apollo against them, and 
Artemis shot down the females in the house, and 
Apollo killed all the males together as they were 
hunting on Cithaeron. Of the males Amphion alone 
was saved, and of the females Chloris the elder, 
whom Neleus married. But according to Telesilla 
there were saved Amyclas and Meliboea,! and 
Amphion also was shot by them.^ But Niobe her- 
self quitted Thebes and went to her father Tantalus 
at Sipylus, and there, on praying to Zeus, she was 
transformed into a stone, and tears flow night and 
day from the stone. 

After Amphion*s death Laius succeeded to the 
kingdom. And h^ married a daughter of Menoe- 
ceus ; some say that she was Jocasta, and some that 
she was Epicasta.^ The oracle had warned him not 

doubtless in order to avenge the death of his sons on the 
divine murderer, he was shot dead by the deity (Hyginus, 
Fab, 9). According to Ovid (Metamorph, vi. 271 «?.)» he 
stabbed himself for grief. 

3 For the tragic story of Laius, Jocasta or Epicasta, and 
their son Oedipus, see Homer, Od, xi. 271-280, with the 
Scholiast on v, 271 ; Euripides, Phoenisaae, 1^2 ; Diodcrus 
Sioulus, iv. 64 ; Pausanias, ix. 2. 4, ix. 5. 10 sq.^ x. 5. 3 sq. ; 
Scholiast on Euripides, PhoenUsaet 1760 ; Hyginus, Fab, 66 
and 67. In Homer the mother of Oedipus is named Epi- 
casta ; later writers call her Jocasta. The mournful tale of 
Oedipus is the subject of Sophocles's two great tragedies, the 
Oedipus Tyrannus and the Oedipus CoUmeus, It is also 
the theme of Seneca's tragedy Oedipus, From the Scholiast 
on Homer (/.c.) we learn that the story was told by Andro- 
tion. Apollodorus*s version of .the legend closely follows 


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y€VV7)0evTa yci,p irarpoKTovov etretrOai) 6 Se olvto- 
deU avvij\0€ rf} yuvatKi, koX to yevvr^dkv ifcdeipai 
SiBaxri vofi€L, wepopai^ BiarpTjaa^; ra <r<f)vpd, aW' 
o5to9 fJL€v i^€dr)K€V €i9 KiOaip&va, tlo\vj3ov Be 
^ovKoXoi, Tov KoptvdLcov iSaaiKio)^, to /3p€(f)o^ 
€vp6vT€<; Trpo^ TTjP avTOV yvvalfca Uepi^oiav i]V€y- 
xav, ri Sk aveXovaa viro^dWcTai, kcll Oepairev- 
(Tatra tol a^vpct OISlttovv KaXel, tovto Oe/iivr) to 
ovofia Bia to tov^ iroBa^ avoiBijaai. TeXeitoOel^ 
Se 6 7rai9, kol ita^ep(ov t&v rfKiKfov ptop/rj,^ Sea 
<f>06vov ^ a>v€iBi^€TO v7r6ff\r}T0s» 6 Se irvvdavo- 
p.€vo^ irapa^ t% Xlepi^oia^ p.a6€lv ovk rjBvvaTO' 
d<l>tf{6p£P0^ Be 649 A€\<l>oif^ irepl t&v IBLcdv iirvvOd- 
V€To yov€(Dv, 6 Be Oeo^ elirev avTtp 6t9 tyjv iraTpiSa 
p^T) iropevea-dar top p,€v yap iraTepa (f>ov€V€r€iv^ 
TTj prjTpl Be p.tyrjaea'Oai, tovto d/covaa^;, xal 
vopi^av ef &v iXeyeTO yeyevprjaOai,,^ KopivOov p,€v 
direkiTrev, €<f)^ appaTO^ Be Bid t^<; <I>ft)^tSo9 (f>€po' 
pepo^ avvTvyxdvec KaTd Tiva (TTSprjp oBov iff)* 
dppaTO^ o'xpvpevtp Aatcp, xal Ilo\v(f>6vTOV^ (f^VP^t 

^ ^(^fifi E : 4v p<il>ixri A. '^ (pB6vov E ; <p6vov A. 

^ vapk E : irtpX A. 

4 ytytvyyfffSai E, Zenobius, Cent, ii. 68 : yiyfv9i<reai A. 
■' TVoXvtpSvrov . . . K*\*^ovros E : TloKv<p6im^ . . . koX KeKtu- 
ffavTos A. 

Sophocles and is reproduced by Zenobius (Gent, ii. 68) in a 
somewhat abridged form with certain verbal changes, but 
as usual without acknowledgment. Some parallel stories 
occur in the folk-lore of other peoples. See Appendix, 
" The Oedipus Legend." 

1 Sophocles calls her Merope (Oedipits Tyrannus, 775), 
and so does Seneca {Oedipus^ 272, 661, 802). But, according 
to Phereoydes, the wife of Poly bus was Medusa, daughter 
of Orsilochus (Scholiast on Sophool«B, he), 


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to beget a son, for the son that should be begotten 
would kill his father; nevertheless, flushed with 
wine, he had intercourse with his wife. And when 
the babe was bom he pierced the child's ankles 
with brooches and gave it to a herdsman to ex 
pose. But the herdsman exposed it on Cithaeron; 
and the neatherds of Polybus, king of Corinth, found 
the infant and brought it to his wife Periboea.^ 
She adopted him and passed him off as her own, 
and after she had healed Jiis ankles she called 
him Oedipus, giving him that name on account of 
his swollen feet.^ When the boy grew up and 
excelled his fellows in strength, they spitefully 
twitted him with being supposititious. He in- 
quired ot Periboea, but could learn nothing; so 
he went to Delphi and inquired about his true 
parents. The god told him not to go to his native 
land, because he would murder his father and lie 
with his mother. On hearing that, and believing 
himself to be the son of his nominal parents, 
he left G>rinth, and riding in a chariot through 
Phocis he fell in with Laius driving in a chariot 
in a certain narrow road.' And when Polyphontes, 

'^ The name Oedipus was interpreted to mean "swollen 
foot." As to the piercing of the child's ankles, see Sophocles, 
Oedipus Tyrcmnus, 718 ; Euripides, Pkoenissae, 26 sq, ; 
Diodorus Siculus, iv. 64. 1 ; Pausanias, x. 5. 3; Hyginns, Fab. 
66 ; Seneca, Oediptta, 812 sq, 

• The ** narrow road" is the famous Cleft Way (Pausa- 
nias, X. 5. 3 sq,) now called the Cross-road of Megas (Stavro- 
dromi tou Mega), where the road from Daulis and the road 
* from Thebes and Lebadea meet and unite in the single road 
ascending through the long valley to Delphi. At this point 
the pass, shut in on either hand by lofty and precipitous 
mountains, presents one of the wildest and grandest scenes 
in all Greece; the towering cliffs of Parnassus on the 


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Be 0UT09 ^v Aatov) xeXevovro^ ex'^aipelv KaX Si 
aTretOeiav /cal ava^okrjv KreLvavro^ tS)v iirrr&v 
TOP erepov, ayavaKTija-af; OiSinov^; koX IIoXv- 
(f)6vTr)v Kol Adiov d7r€fCT€iv€, KOL 7rap€yip€T0 eh 
8 &7]j3a<;, Adtov fiev oiv OdiTTev fiaatkev^; HXarai- 
ecov ^ Aafia<TL(rTpaTo<;, rrjv 8k ^aaiXeiav Kpetov 6 
Mevocfceox; 7rapd\afi/3dv€C, tovtov Se /SaatXev- 
0J/T09 ov fiiKpa <TVfi(f)oph KaTetTYe ^rfBa^;. ewcfMyfre 
ydp'^Hpa X<f>iyya, r) fvqTpof; pkv 'E;\;tSi;r;9 fjv irar- 
po^ Be Tv<l>&vo^, elx^ Bk Trpoawirov fiev yvvacKo^;, 
arrjOo^ Bk xal ^daiv koX ovpcbv Xeovro^ koX Tne- 
pvya^ opvL0o<;, fiaBovaa Be atviyfia irapa fiova&v 
iirl TO ^i/ctov 6po<; i/caOi^ero, koI tovto irpovreive 
Sr)^aLOL^, ffv Be to aXviypM' ri e<TTiv % yXav 
exov (jxovrjv^ reTpdirovv kuX BLttovv kol TpCirovv 

^ ir\arai€Q}v E : ir\arvfi4o>v A. Wagner reports ir\arvfi4(ov 
to be the reading of E. But this is apparently a misprint 
for A. See Heyne ad. L: ** n\arvfi4<ov vUiose omnes codd." 

^ <l>cf>v^v A : ^op<p))v E. The reading ^iari\ is supported by 
the Argument to Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannua (p. 6 ed. 
Jebb), the Argument to Euripides, Phoeniasae, and the 
Scholium on verse 50 {Scholia in Euripidem, ed. E. Schwartz, 
vol. i. pp. 243 sq, 256), Athenaeus, x. 83, p. 456 b, and the 
Palatine AntJiology, xiv. 64, in all of which jpassages the 
oracle is quoted with ^cov^ instead of fiop<p^. On the other 
hand the reading fioptfrfi is supported by some MSS- of 
Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 7, though the editor, Miiller, 
prints (fxovii in the text. 

northern side of the valley are truly sublime. Not a trace of 
human habitation is to be seen. All is solitude and silence, 
in keeping with the tragic memories of the spot. Compare 
my commentary on Pausanias, x. 5. 3 (vol. v. pp. 231 sq.). ' 
As to the Cleft Way or Triple Way, as it was also called, and 
the fatal encounter of the father and son at it, see Sophocles, 
Oedipus Tyrannies, 7l5sqq.y 1398 «gg. ; Euripides, Pho&nissae, 
37 sqq. ; Seneca, Oedipus, 276 sqq. 
^ Compare Pausanias, ix. 5. 4. 


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the herald of Laius^ ordered him to make way and 
killed one of his horses because he disobeyed and 
delayed, Oedipus in a rage killed both Polyphontes 
and Laius, and arrived in Thebes. Laius was buried 
by Damasistratus, king of Plataea,^ and Creon, son of 
Menoeceus, succeeded to the kingdom. In his reign 
a heavy calamity befell Thebes. For Hera sent the 
Sphinx,* whose mother was Echidna and her father 
Typhon; and she had the face of a woman, the 
breast and feet and tail of a lion, and the wings of a 
bird. And having learned a riddle from the Muses, 
she sat on Mount Phicium^ and propounded it to the 
Thebans. And the riddle was this : — What is that 
which has one voice and yet becomes four-footed 

2 As to the Sphinx and her riddle, see Hesiod, Theog. 
326 sq. (who says that she was the offspring of Echidna and 
Orthus); Sophocles, Oedipus TyranmiSy 391 ^gg.; Euripides, 
Phoenissae, 45 sqqr, Diodorus Siculus, iv. 64. 3 sq. ; Pau- 
sanias, ix. 26. 2--4 ; Schoh'ast on Euripides, PhoenissctCy 
45 ; Hyginus, Fab, 67 ; Seneca, Oedipus, 92 sqq. The 
riddle is quoted in verse by several ancient writers. See 
Athenaeus, x. 81, p. 456 b ; Tzetzes, Schol. an Lyco- 
phron, 7 ; Anthologxa PcUatinay xiv. 64 ; Argument to 
Sophocles, Ofjdipus Tyrannus, p. 6, ed. R. C. Jebb ; Argu- 
ment to Euripides, Phoenissae, and Scholiast on id. v. 60 
(Scholia in Euripiden, ed. E. Schwartz, vol. i. pp. 243 sq. 
256). Outside of Greece the riddle seems to be current in 
more or less similar forms among various peoples. Thus it is 
reported among the Mongols of the Selenga (R. G. Latham, 
Descriptive Ethnology, i. 325), and in Gascony (J. F. Blad6, 
Contes populavres de la Oascogne, i. 3-14). Further, it has 
been recently recorded, in a form precisely similar to the 
Greek, among the tribes of British Central Africa : the mis- 
sionary who reports it makes no reference to the riddle of 
the Sphinx, of which he was apparently ignoralbt. See 
Donald Fraser, Winning a primitive people (London, 1914), 
p. 171, ^^What is it thaH goes on fowr legs in the morning, on 
two at midday, and on three in the evening f -Answer:. A 
mao, who crawls on hands and knees in childhood, walks 
ereet when grown, and with the aid of a stick in his old uge." 


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yiverat; 'x^prjo'fjLOv Se &rjl3aiot<: xnrdp')(0VT0^ t7)vl- 
Kavra atraWayrjaeo'dai t^9 S<f 47709 7}viKa &v to 
atvcyfia Xvacoai, avvi6vT€<; et9 ravro ^ iroWaKi^ 
i^ijTovv ^ TL TO Xeyofievov iaTLV, eVel ^ Se fir) 
evpiaKOV, apTrdaaa'a eva KaT€^L/3pcoaK€» iroW&v * 
he d7ro\o/ji€P(i)p, koI to rekevToiov Ai/xoi/09 tov 
KpeovTo^;, Krjpvaaei Kpetov T(p to aivtyfia Xvaovri^ 
Kol Tr)V ^aaikeitLV kol ttjv Aatov Scoaeiv yvvaiKa. 
OlhiTTOVf; Se cLKovaa^ eXvaev, eiiro^v to aiviyfxa to 
VTTO T?j9 2^*7709 Xeyofievov avOpcoirov elvar yive- 
aOaL ^ yap Terpdrrovv l3p€<f}0^ ovtu *^ Tot9 TCTTapa-iv 
6')(pvp>€Vov /cft)\ot9, Teketovfievov^ Se hiirovv,^ yrjpwv- 
Ta Se rpiTrfv TrpoaXafi^dveiv /Sdaiv to /Sd^Tpov, r) 
piev oZp 2<^t7f diro rrj^ dfcpoTroXeo)*; iavTrjv eppt- 
yjrev, OISlttov^ Be fcal ttjv ^aaCkeiav irapeka^e 
/cat TTjv p^rjTepa eyrjfiev dyvooov, xal TralSa^ eVeV- 
va)(T€v i^ auT^9 HoXweUrj ^^ /cal 'Ereo^Xea, Ovya- 
T€pa9 Be ^lap.rjv'qv kgX ^AvTiyovrfv, elal Se 01 
yevvTjOrjvat Ta Te/cva <f>aaiv i^ Fivpvyaveiaf; ainS 
9 T^9 'T7r€/o^az/T09.^^ (pavivTcov Be vaTepov TCdv Xav- 
davopTdov, ^loKdfjTrj fiev ef dy)^6vrjf; eavTrjv dvqp' 

^ avvi6vres els roLvrh E : Koi <rvvi6vr€s eh avrh A. 

2 iChrovv E : iC4irei A. 

^ 4ire\ Heyne, M tiller, Wagner : iirhv EA, Westermann, 
Bekker. * iro\\S>v E : voWaKis A. 

^ Kvaovri EA, Zenobius, Gent. ii. 68 : Xinravri Hercher. 

^ ylveaOat E : ytvvaffBai A : yevvaadat </i6i'> Bekker. 

^ ivra E, Wagner : wanting in A. 

* rtXeiovfitvov §€ rhv &vdp6oirov A, Heyne, Westermann, 
Mtiller, Bekker: rhv HvOpuvov omitted in E and by Hercher 
and Wjl|ner. * Slvovv < thai > Bekker. 

^^ TFoKvveiKti A, Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, Her- 
cher: voKvveiicnv E, Zenobius (Ceni. ii. 68), Wagner. Koth 
forms are attested by ancient writers. See W. Pape, 
Wdrt&rhtuih dergriecMachen Sigennamen^, s.v. UoKvyttmis. 
" *Tir4p<f>avros Aegius : re^pavros A. . 


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and two-footed and three-footed ? Now the Thebans 
were in possession of an oracle which declared that 
they should be rid of the Sphftix whenever they had 
read her riddle ; so they often met and discussed 
the answer, and when they could not find it the 
Sphinx used to snatch, away one of them and gobble 
him up. When many had perished, and last of all 
Cr eon's son Haemon, Creon made proclamation that 
to him who should read the riddle he would give both 
the kingdom and the wife of Laius. On hearing that, 
Oedipus found the solution, declaring that the riddle 
of the Sphinx referred to man ; for as a babe he is 
four-footed, going on four limbs, as an adult he is 
two-footed, and as an old man he gets besides a third 
support in a staff. So the Sphinx threw herself from 
the citadel, and Oedipus both succeeded to the 
kingdom and unwittingly married his mother, and 
begat sons by her, Polynices and Eteocles, and 
daughters, Ismene and Antigone.^ But some say the 
children were borne to him by Eurygania, daughter 
of Hyperphas.2 When the secret afterwards came to 
light, Jocasta hanged herself in a noose,^ and Oedipus 

* Compare Euripides, Phoenisscie, 55 sqq. ; Diodorus Sicii- 
his, iv. 64. 4 ; Hyginus/jPa6. 67. 

^ This account is adopted by Pausanias (ix. 5. 10 sq.) and 
by the Scholiast on Euripides {Pfioenissae, 1760), who cites 
Pisander as bis authority. According to another version, 
Oedipus, after losing Jocasta, married Astyraedusa, who 
falsely accused her stepsons of attempting her virtue. See 
Scholiast on Homer, II. iv. 376 ; Eustathius on Homer, i.c., 
p. 369 ; Scholiast on Euripides, Phoenisscie, 53. 

* Compare Homer, Od, xi. 277 sqq. ; Sophocles, Oedipus 
Tyrannus, 1 235 sqq. According to Seneca, in one passage 
(Oedipus, 1034 sqq. ), Jocasta stabbed herself to death on 
the discovery of her incest. But Euripides makes Jocasta 
survive lier two sons and stab herself to death on 
their dead bodies. See Euripides, Phoenissae, 1455-1459. 
Herein he was perhaps followed by Seneca in his tragedy 


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T7)<T€V, OlSiirov^ Se t^9 oyjrei^ TV<f)\(oaa^ ite Srjfi&v 
rfKavverOy aph^ rol^ iraial dep^evo^, ot T?j9 TroXew? 
avTov ix^aWofievov deaypovvre^ oif/c hrrjfivvav. 
napayevofievo^; Se avv ^AvTiyovrj t^v 'Att^a:?}? ek 
K.o\(i)v6v, evOa to rSiv ^v/jueviSmv earl T€fJL€PO<;, 
Ka0L^€C itc€Trj<;, irpoaSex'^eU vtto 0i;<7€G)9, KaX fier 
oif TToXvv xpovov cLTredavev. 

VI. 'Et€o/c\^9 Se ical TloXweUr)^ irepl rrjs 
/3aai,\eia<; avvTiOevrai irpo^ aW'^Xov^, fcal avrok 
SoKci Tov erepov irap iviavrbv ap^eiv. rtv€<: fiev 
oiv Xeyovcn irp&TOv ap^avra HokvveLKr)^ irapa- 
Bovvat fi€T iviavrov rrfv fiatrikeiav ^FtTCOxKei, 
T41/69 Be irp&Tov 'Ereo/cXia ap^avra ^ pur) jSovXeff- 
dai irapaSovvai ttjv jSaaiXeiav, KJyvyaSevdel^ oh 

TioXweiKTI^ €K &rjfi&V fj/C€V €t9 ''A/)709, TOV T€ 
^ &p|ayra TloKwelKfi Hercher, Wagner : Ap^avros UoXv- 


'•^ *Er€0K\4a &p^avra Faber, Hercher, Wagner: ircoKXtovs 
&p^avTos A. 

P?ioeni88<ie, for in the fragments of that play {w. 443 sqq.) 
Seneca represents Jocasta attempting to make peace between 
Eteocles and Polynices on the battlefield ; but the conclusion 
of the play is lost. Similarly Statins describes how Jocasta 
vainly essayed to reconcile her warring sons, and how she 
stabl)ed herself to death on learning that they had fallen by 
each other's hands. See Statius, Thsb. vii. 474 aqq., xi. 634 W- 
* A curious and probably very ancient legend assigned a 
different motive for the curses of Oedipus. It is said that 
his sons used to send him as his portion the shoulder of 
every sacrificial victim, but that one day by mistake they 
sent him the haunch ( l<rxiov) instead of the shoulder, which 
so enraged him that he cursed them, praying to the gods 
that his sons might die by each other's hands. This story 
was told by the author of the epic Thebaid, See Scholiast 
on Sophocles, Oedipus Goloneua, 1375; Zenobius, CerU' y- 

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THE LIBRARY, III. v. 9-vi. i 

was driven from Thebes, after he had put out his 
eyes and cursed his sons, who saw him cast out of 
the city without lifting a hand to help him.^ And 
having come with Antigone to Colonus in Attica, 
where is the precinct of the Eumenides, he sat down 
there as a suppliant, was kindly received by Theseus, 
and died not long afterwards. ^ 

VI. Now Eteocles and Polynices made a compact 
with each other concerning the kingdom and re- 
solved that each should rule alternately for a year 
at a time.' Some say that Polynices was the first 
to rule, and that after a year he banded over the 
kingdom to Eteocles; but some say that Eteocles 
was the first to rule, and would not hand over 
the kingdom. So, being banished from Thebes, 
Polynices came to Argos, taking with him the 

43. A different cause of his anger is assigned by Athenaeus 
(xi. 14, pp. 465 8q.)t also on the authority of the author of 
the Thehaid, 

* The coming of Oedipus and Antigone to Colonus Hippius 
in Attica, together with the mysterious death of Oedipus, 
are the subject of Sophocles's noble tragedy, Oedipus Colo- 
neu8. As to the sanctuary of the Eumenides, see that play, 
w, 36 sqq. The knoll of Colonus is situated over a mile from 
Athens, and it is doubtful whether the poet intended to 
place the death and burial of Oedipus at Colonus or at 
Athens itself, where in later times the grave of Oedipus was 
shown in a precinct of the Eumenides, between the Acropolis 
and the Areopagus (Pausanias, i. 28. 7); See my notes on 
Pausanias, i. 28. 7, i. 30. 2, vol. ii. pp. 366 *g., 393 sq. ; 
R. C. Jobb, on Sophocles, Oedipus Coloneus, pp. xxx. sqq, 

' That is, thoy were to reign in alternate years. Compare 
Euripides, Phoeniasae, 69 sqq.y 473 sqq, ;'Diodorus Siculus, 
iv. 65. 1 ; Zenobius, Gent, i. 30 ; Hyginus, Fab. 67 ; Scrip- 
tores rerum mythicarum Latini, ed. O. H. Bode, vol. i. 
pp. 48 sq. (First Vatican Mythographer, 162). In this and 
the sequel Zenobius {I.e.) closely follows ApoUodorus and 
probably copied from him. 

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opfiov Koi rbv ireifKov l^^^' i/SaaiKeve Se^Apyov^ 
"'ASpaaro^ 6 TaKaov* koI toi^ tovtov ^aaCKeiot^ 
vvKT(t)p TTpoa-TreXd^et, zeal a-vvdinev fidxv^ TvSel 
T^ OtVe'ft)? (f)€vyovTi Ka\vS&va, yevofievrj^; Be 
€^aL<f)vri(; )8o^9 iirt^avel^ "ASpatrro^ SiiXvaev aif- 
Tou?, fcal fidvTed)^ tivo^ virofivr^aOei^; Xeyovro^ 
avT^ Kcnrptp koL Xcovti av^ev^ai tA? 0vyaT€pa<;, 
dfJL<f}OT€pov<; eiXero vvfi^Lov^* clxov yhp iirl t&v 
dairiScov 6 pcev Kdirpov irpoTO/jLt)!^ 6 Se XiovTO^;. 
yafiei Sk Ar)L7rv\rfv fiev TuSei? ^Apyeirjv Se IIoXu- 

V€LK7)^, KOL aVTOV^''ABpa<TTO<; d/jJ(f>OTipOV<; €A9 Ta9 

irarpLBas virea-x^TO xard^eLV. xal irp&rov iirl 
®riPa^ eawevhe aTpareveadai, koI tov^ dpiaT€a<; 
avvrjd poi^€V. 

^ Afi<f)idpao^ Be 6 ^Oi/e\eov<;,^ fidvTi^ &v koX 
TrpoecBw OTL Bel Trdvra^ tov9 a-rparevaaiJiAtfov^ 
X(opU^ABpd<TTOv reXevTrjaaif avro^; re &Kvei> arpa- 
reveaOai Koi rov^Xonrov^ diriTpeTre, HoXvvei/cij<: 
Be d<f>ifc6/ji€vo<; 7r/)09 ^l(f)iv rbv ^AXexropo^ rf^iov 
fiadeiv 7ra)9 av ^Afi^idpao^ dvayKaa-Oeif) arpa- 

^ *OiicAcovs Aegius : IokK4ovs A. 

^ That is, the necklace and the robe which Cadmus had 
given to Harmonia at their marriage. See above, iii. 4. 2. 

2 See above i. 8. 5. 

^ Adrastus received the oracle from Apollo. See Euripides, 
Phoen%98(key 408 aqq,, SuppliarUa, 132 sqq. In these passages 
the poet describes the nocturnal brawl between the two 
exiled princes at the gate of the palace, and their reconcilia- 
tion by Adrastus. Compare Zenobius, i. 30 ; Hyginus; Fab. 
69 ; and the elaborate description of Statins, Theb, i. 370 aqq. 
The words of the oracle given to Adrastus are quoted by the 
Scholiast on Euripides, Pjhoenissc^, 409. According to one 
nterpretation the boar on the shield of Tydeus referred to 


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THE LIBRARY, III. vi. 1-2 

necklace and the robe.^ The king of Argos was 
Adrastus, son of Talaus; and Polynices went up 
to his palace by night and engaged in a fight with 
Tydeus, son of Oeneus, who had fled from Caly- 
don.* At the sudden outcry Adrastus appeared 
and parted them, and remembering the words of 
a certain seer who told him to yoke his daughters 
in marriage to a boar and a lion,* he accepted them 
both as bridegrooms, because they had on their 
shields, the one the forepart of a boar, and the 
other the forepart of a lion.* And Tydeus married 
Deipyle, and Polynices married Argia ^ ; and 
Adrastus promised that he would restore them both 
to their native lands. And first he was eager to 
march against Thebes, and he mustered the chiefs. 

But Amphiaraus, son of Oicles, being a seer and 
foreseeing that all who joined in the expedition 
except Adrastus were destined to perish, shrank 
from it himself and discouraged the rest. However, 
Poljrnices went to Iphis, son of Alector, and begged 
to know how Amphiaraus could be compelled to go 

the Calydonian boar, while the lion on the shield of Poly- 
nices referred to the lion-faced sphinx. Others preferred to 
suppoBe that the two chieftains were clad in the skins of a 
boar and a lion respectively. See Scholiast on Euripides, 
l,c, ; Hyginus, Fab. 69. 

^ As to the devices which the Greeks painted on their 
sbieldSy as these are described by ancient writers or depicted 
in vase-paintings, see G. H. Chase, "The Shield Devices of the 
Greeks,^' Harvard Studies in ClaasiccU Philology^ vol. xiii. 
pp. 61-127. From the evidence collected in this essay (pp. 98 
and 112 sq.) it appears that both the boar and the lion are 
common devices on shields in vase-paintings. 

^ Compare Diodorus Sicnlus, iv. 65. 3 ; Scholiast on Euri- 
pides, Phoeniaaae, 409; Hyginus, Fab, 69; Statins, Theb. 
ii. 201 sqq, 


VOL. I. A A 

y Google 


T€V€adar 6 Bi elirev el Xd^oc rov opfiop 'Eoii^uXiy. 
*Afuf>idpao^ fi€v oJfv d7r€i7rev*Epi<f}v\ij rrapa IIoXi;- 
v€L/cov<; B&pa Xafiffdveiv, IloXvveifcrf^ S^ Soif<; avTp 
TOP opfjLov ri^iov Tov ^Afi<f>idpaov ireurat a-rpareveiv. 
fiv yctp iirl Tavrtf^ yevop^mj^ yctp f auT^9 * Trpo^ 
"AZpaarov, hiaXvadp^vo^ &p.o<T€, irepl &v <&v> * 
*ASpd(TT^^ 8ia<f>ip7)Tai, Biafcpiveiv ^E,pi<f>v\7j ^ a-t/y- 
yapTja-aL, ore ovv iirl %ri^a^ IBei, arpaTeueiv, 
Aopda-Tov p,ev TrapaKa\ovvTO<; * Ap,<l>iapdov Se 
d7roTp€7rovTo^, ^Eipi<l)vkT] TOV opp>ov \a0ov(ra eirei- 
<T€v axnov avv ^ABpdartp^ arpareveiv, 'A/i^^o- 
pao^ Bk dvdy/er)v l^^^ arparevea-ffai rot^ Traitrlp 
ivroXit^ eBm/ce reXeicoOeia-i rijv re p^tfripa Kretveiv 
Koi iirX %riPa^ a-rpareveiv, 

"AS/oacTTo? Be avvaOpoia-wi <<rTpaTov>^ avv 1776- 
fioaiv kiTTh TToXefielv laTrevBe ©^yySa?. oi Bk 1776- 
/i6v€<; fjtrav oXBe' '^ABpaaro^ TaXaov, *Apxf>idpao^ 

* rairji Heyne : rairris A. 

^ ahrrjs corrupt : airr^ M^XV^ Bekker : avr^ Btcupopas 
Hercher. Perhaps we should read : abr^ Trphs **hhpatrrov 
Sia^opos. I have translated accordingly. Heyne conjecture 
fu£x^^) ^pi^os, or iifi^ifffiTir^frfus for aifrrjs, Sommer con- 
jectured ardtrfcos^ which is perhaps supported by Diodorus 
Siculus, iv. 65. 6, 'Afi^iapdov irphs "ABpcurrop <rra<rii(oyros, 

* hv inserted by Bekker. 

* ^AUpdffrtp Emperius, Hercher, Wagner : "AJpacrro* A, 
Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker. 

* 4pi(p{t\Ti V : ipi<j>6Xriy A. 

* abrhp ffhp *AbpdaTfp Wagner: rhv v AZpaffrup PR*>: t^ 
ii^pda-Tcp C : rhp "A^paarop Heyne (regarding the words as an 
interpolation), Westermann (preferring to read r^ 'A^pdffr^ 
ffvffrpareUip) : rhp ApUpa Commelinus, Bekker, Hercher. 

^ ffTparhp a conjecture of Heyne, accepted by Hercher and 

* For the story of the treachery of Eriphyle to her hus- 
band AmphiarauB, see also Diodorus Siculus, iv. 65. 5sq.; 


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THE LIBRARY, III. vi. 2-3 

to the war. He answered that it could be done if 
Eriphyle got the necklace.^ Now Amphiaraus had 
forbidden Eriphyle to accept gifts from Polynices ; 
but Polynices gave her the necklace and begged 
her to persuade Amphiaraus to go to the war ; for 
the decision lay with her, because once, when a 
difference arose between him and Adrastus, he had 
made it up with him and sworn to let Eriphyle decide 
any future dispute he might have with Adrastus.^ 
Accordingly, when war was to be made on Thebes, and 
the measure was advocated by Adrastus and opposed 
by Amphiaraus, Eriphyle accepted the necklace and 
persuaded him to march with Adrastus. Thus forced 
to go to the war, Amphiaraus laid his commands on 
his sons, that, when they were grown up, they should 
slay their mother and march against Thebes. 

Having mustered an army with seven leaders, 
Adrastus hastened to wage war on Thebes. The 
leaders were these ^ : Adrastus, son of Talaus ; 

Pausanias, v. 17. *J sq,, ix. 41. 2 ; Scholiast on Homer, Od. xi. 
326 (who refers to Asclepiades as his authority) ; Hyginus, 
Fab. 73 ; Scriptores rerum mytJUcarum LctUni, ed. 5. H. 
Bode, vol. i. p. 49 (First Vatican Mythographer, 152). The 
story is alluded to but not told by Homer {Od, xi. 326 sq., 
XV. 247), Sophocles (Electra, 836 sqq.), and Horace (Odes, 
iii. 16. 11-13). Sophocles wrote a tragedy Eriphyle, which 
was perhaps the same as his Epigoni. See The Fragments 
of Sophocles, ed. A. 0. Pearson, vol. i. pp. 129 sqq, 

2 Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 65. 6 ; Scholiast on 
Homer, Od. xi. 326 ; Scholiast on Pindar, Nem. ix. 13 (30). 
As the sister of Adrastus (see above, i. 9. 13) and the wife of 
Amphiaraus, the traitress Eriphyle might naturally, seem 
well qualified to act as arbiter between them. 

' For lists of the seven champions who marched against 
Thebes, see Aeschylus, Seven against Thebes, 375 sqq. ; 
Sophocles, Oedipus Coloneus, 1309 sqq. ; Euripides, Phoe- 
nissae, 1090 sqq. and Suppliants, 857 sqq. ; Diodorus Siculus, 
iv. ij5. 7 ; Hyginus, Fab. 70. 

A A 2 

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^OiKkiov^,^ Kairavev^'lTTTTovoov, ^l7nrofi€8a>v ^Api- 
(TTOfidxov, 01 Be Xiyovac Tdkaov. oiroi fiev i^ 
"Apyov*;, HoKweifcr)^ <8€>^ OISlttoBo^ ix Srf/3&i/, 
Ti/Sev? Olvito^ AtTG)Xo9, TJapOevoiraio^; MeXa- 
vliovo^ ^Apxd^, Tiv€<; Be TvB^a fiev koI HoXu- 
veixrjv ov KarapiB p^ovci, <TvyKaraKiyov<TL Bi toZ<; 
eirra ^EriofcT^v *I<^t09 koI Mti/curria. 

Hapcuyevofievoi Be €t9 Ne/ieai^, ^9 i/3aai\€V€ 
AvKOvpyo^t i^i]Tovv vBcop. /eai avrol^ '^yqa-aro 
T^9 iirl Kprjprjv oBov ^TyjnTTvXr), vrfinov iralBa 
[ovTa\ ^ ^Oi^iXTTjv airoXiirovtra, hv €Tp€<f)€V Evpu- 
Bi/ci]^ 6vra koI Av/eovpyov. aiadopevai yhp ai 

* *OiK\4ovs Aegius : lotcXeovs A. * th inserted by Bekker. 
' ima omitted by Hercher. 

^ The place of Eteoclus among the Seven Champions is 
recognized by Aeschylus {Seven against Thebes^ 468 aqq,), 
Sophocles (Oedipua ColoneU8^ 1316), and Euripides in one 
play {Suppliants, 871 sqq,), but not in another {Phoeniasae, 
1090 sqq,) ; and he is omitted by Hyginus (^06. 70). His 
risht to rank among the Seven seems to have been acknow- 
ledged by the Argives themselves, since they included his 
portrait in a ^oup of statuary representing the Champions 
which they dedicated at Delphi. See Pausanias, x. 10. 3. 

a Brother of Adrastus. See i. 9. 13. 

' As to the meeting of the Seven Champions with Hypsi- 
pyle at Nemea, the death of Opheltes, and the institution of 
the Nemean games, see Scholia on Pindar, Nem,, Argument^ 
pp. 424 sq. ed. Boeckh ; Bacchylides, Epinic. viii. [ix.] 10 s^.; 
Clement of Alexandria, Protrept. ii. 34, p. 29, ed. Potter, with 
the Scholiast ; Hyginus, FcU). 74 and 273 ; Statius, Theb, 
iv. 646-vi. ; Lactantius Placidus, on Statius, Theb. iv. 717 ; 
Scriptores rerum mythicarum LoHni, ed. 6. H. Bode. vol. i. 
p. 123 (Second Vatican Mythographer, 141). The institution 
of the Nemean games in honour of Opheltes or Archemorus 
was noticed by Aeschylus in a lost play. See Tragicorum 
Oraecorum Fragmenta, ed. A. Nauck^ p. 49. The judges at 
the Nemean games wore dark-coloured robes in mourning, it 


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THE LIBRARY, III. vi. 3-4 

Amphiaraus, son of Oicles; Capaneus, son of Hip- 
ponous ; Hippomedon, son of Aristomachus, but 
some say of Talaus. These came from Argos; but 
Polynices, son of Oedipus, came from Thebes; 
Tydeus, son of Oeneus, was an Aetolian ; Partheno- 
paeus, son of Melanion, was an Arcadian. Some, 
however, do not reckon Tydeus and Polynices 
among them, but include Eteoclus, son of Iphis,^ 
and Mecisteus ^ in the list of the seven. 

Having come to Nemea, of which Lycurgus was 
king, they sought for water ; and Hypsipyle showed 
them the way to a spring, leaving behind an infant 
boy Opheltes, whom she nursed, a child of Eury- 
dice and Lycurgus.^ For the Lemnian women, after- 

is said, for Opheltes (Scholiast on Pindar, Nem,, Argum, 
p. 425, ed. Boeckh) ; and the crown of parsley bestowed on 
the victor is reported to have been chosen for the same sad 
reason (Servius, on Virgil, Eel, vi. 68). However, according 
to another account, the crowns at Nemea were originally 
made of olive, but the material was changed to parsley after 
the disasters of the Persian war (Scholiast on Pindar, ^c). 
The grave of Opheltes was at Nemea, enclosed by a stone 
wall; and there were altars within the enclosure (Pau- 
sanias, ii. 15, 3). Euripides wrote a tragedy Hypsipyhf 
of which many fragments have recently been discovered in 
Egyptian papyri. See Tragicorum Oraecorum Fragmenta, 
ed. A. Nauck^, pp. 594 sqq. ; A. S. Hunt, Tragicorum Orae- 
corum Fragmenta Papyracea nuper reperta (Oxford, no 
date, no pagination). In one of these fragments (col. iv. 27 sq.) 
it is said that Lycurgus was chosen from all Asopia to be the 
warder («Xij5ovxoj) of the local Zeus. There were officials 
beanug the same title (/rXctSoDxoi) at Olympia (Dittenberger, 
SyUoge InscripHonum Qraecarum^y vol. ii. p. 168, No. 1021) 
in Delos (Dittenberger, Orientis Oraeci InscripUones Selec- 
toBj vol. i. p. 252, No. 170), and in the worship of Aescula- 
pius at Athens (E. S. Roberts and E. A. Gardner, Introduction 
to Greek Epigraphy, Part ii. p. 410, No. 157). The duty 
from which they took their title was to keep the keys of the 


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Krjfivi^ai varepov is>6avTa aeaaxTfiepOP i/cetvoi/ /jlsv 
€/CT€ipap, rf)P Bk 'Typ-iirvXr^p dirrffjLTroXrja-ap' Sio 
irpadela-a ^ iXdrpeve iraph Av/co vpytp . Sei/cpvo varf^ 
hk Tf)p fcpi]pr)p, o 7rat9 a7ro\ei(f>0€l<; vtto hpaKOVTo^ 
Sia<f>d€Lp€rai, top fiep ovp hpaicopra iiri^apevTe^ 
oi fi€rd *ASpdaTOV /CTcipovai, top Se iraiSa Odir- 
Tovaip. ^ A/ii<f>idpao<; Be elirep ix€Cpoi<% to arjpuecot/ 
tA pAXKoPTa TrpopMPTeveadar top Se iracSa 'Ap- 
X^p^pop i/cdkeaap,^ oi Be effeaap iir avT^ rot/ 
T&v T^ep^ewp dy&pa, /cal vinrtp pip ipi/crjaev 
^ABpatTTo^, <TTaBL(p Be 'Et€oac\o9, Trvypfj TvSev^, 
SXpaTi^ Kol BL<TK(p ^Ap^idpao^f aKOPTi^ Aao- 
BoKO^, irdXrj TloXvpelxrj^, TO^tp Yiapdevoiralo^. 
• 'II9 Bk TjXOop eh TOP Ki0aip&pa, Trepnrovat 
TvBea irpoepovPTa 'EreoAcXet rrj^ j3a<TiXeia^ * 
irapaxcopelp tloXvpei/cei,, xaOh a-vpeOevTO. puij irpoa-- 
exoPTO^ Bk 'Ereo/cXiovv, Bidireipap t&p &rj/3aiaip 

^ itpaduaa Heyne (who also conjectured rp4^ovaa or rpo- 
<t>€6ovaa) : irpa^clcra P : rpafptlffa A. 
^ iKd\9fffv Herchcr. 

* iXfiari Valckenar, Bekker, Hercher, Wagner : ipfiari A, 
Heyne, Westermann. 

* rrjs $affi\tlas Hercher : r^v HaaiKtlav Heyne, Wester- 
mann, Miiller, Bekker, Wagner (following apparently the 

temple. A fine relief in the Palazzo Spada at Rome represents 
the serpent coiled round the dead body of the child Opheltes 
and attacked by two of the heroes, while in the background 
Hypsipyle is seen retreating, with her hands held up in horror 
and her pitcher lying at her feet. See W. H. Boscher, 
Lexikon der griech. und rom. Mythologie, i. 473; A 
Baumeister, Denkmdler des kUusischen AUertums, i. 113, 
fig. 119. The death of Opheltes or Archemorus is also the 
subject of a fine vase-painting, which shows the dead boy 
lying on a bier and attended by two women, one of whom is 


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THE LIBRARY, III. vi. 4-5 

-wards learning that Thoas had been saved alive/ 
put him to death and sold Hypsipyle into slavery : 
wherefore she served in the house of Lycurgus as a 
purchased bondwoman. But while she showed the 
spring, the abandoned boy was killed by a serpent. 
When Adrastus and his party appeared on the 
scene, they slew the serpent and buried the boy; 
but Amphiaraus told them that the sign foreboded 
the future, and they called the boy Archemorus.^ 
They celebrated the Nemean games in his honour ; 
and Adrastus won the horse race, Eteoclus the foot 
race, Tydeus the boxing match, Amphiaraus the 
leaping and quoit-throwing match, Laodocus the 
javelin-throwing match, Pol3mices the wrestling 
match, and Parthenopaeus the archery match. 

When they came to Cithaeron, they sent Tydeus 
to tell Eteocles in advance that he must cede the 
kingdom to Polynices, as they had- agreed among 
themselves. As Eteocles paid no heed to the 

about to crown him with a wreath of myrtle, while the other 
holds an umbrella over his head to prevent, it has been 
suggested, the sun's rays from being aefiled by falling on a 
corpse. Amongst the figures in the painting, which are identi- 
fied by inscriptions, is seen the mother Eurydice standing in 
her palace between the suppliant Hypsipyle on one side and 
the dignified Amphiaraus on the otner.* See E. Gerhard, 
'* Archemoros," Gesa/mmelte Ahhandlungen (Berlin, 1866- 
1868), i. 6 aqq., with Ahhildungen, taf. i.; K. Friederichs, 
Prckxitelea und die Niobegruppe (Leipzig, 1856), pp. 123 sqq.; 
A. Baumeister, op, cit. i. 114, fig. 120. 

^ See above, i. 9. 17. 

* That is, "beginner of doom"; hence "ominous," 
"foreboding." The name is so interpreted by Bacchylides 
{Epinic. viii. 14, ffafia fitWoyros ^6vov)f by the Scholiast on 
Pindar {Nem,, Argum, pp. 424 aq, ed. Boeckh), and by 
Lactantius Placidus in his commentary on Statins {Theb, iv. 


y Google 


TvSeif^ iroLovfievo^, Koff eva irpoKaXoufievo^; irav- 

Tdov irepieyiveTO, oi hi nevrijfcovTa avBpa^ ottXa- 

aavre^ diriovra ivrjhpevaav avrov iravra^ hi 

avTOv^ Xo>pU Maiopof; oTrifCTeive, fcaTreiTa €7ri to 

aTparoirehov ^\0€V. 

Apyeioi he KajOoTrkiadevTe^ irpo<Ti^eaav T0t9 

Teix^o-i, teal ttvX&v eiTTCb oifa&v AZpaaro^ piv 

iraph tA? '0/iQXa)tSa9 irvka^ ea-Ttj, Kanaveif^ Be 

irapa tA? ^ilyvyia^;, ^ KpL<f>idpao<; ik irapa ra^ 

TlpoirlSa^, 'ImropAhwv he iraph tA? ^OyKathw;,^ 

TloXvveifcij^ he irapct tA? 'T'^tcrTa9, TlapOepoiralo^ 

<h€>^ irapa tA? *H\i/erpa^, Tvhev^ he iraph ra^ 

Kprjviha^. Kad<i>if>ua€ hi /cai 'Et€0/cX% Sij0aiov<;, 

/cal KaraffTrjaa^ '^yep^ova^ i<rov^ iaoi^; era^e, 

zeal ir&^ &v irepiyevoivro r&v iroXep^icov epLavrevero, 

' fjv hi irapct €hfj3a£oL^ p,dvTi<; Teipeaia^ Ei^ypow 

fcal KapiKXov^ vvp^r}<:, airo yevov^ Ovhalov rov 

Xiraprov, yevop^vos tv^Xo? tcls opdaei^, ov irepl 

T^9 irrfpaxrew^ xal t^9 p>avri/c7J^ Xeyovrai \oyoi 

hia^opoL. aXKoi p^v yhp avrov vtto de&v <f>a(ri 

TV(f>\(i)di]pai, oTi T0A9 dpdpdTTOi^ & Kpvineiv 

fjffeKov ip,i]VV€i <Pep€Kvhf)<: hi viro ^Adrjvdf; ainov 

^ *OyKaihas Aegius : hxvy\i^as A. 
' 8€ inserted by Heyne. 

^ For the embassy of Tydeus to Thebes and its sequel, see 
Homer, IL iv. 382-398, v. 802-808, with the SchoUaet on 
V, 376 ; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 65. 4 ; Statins, Theh, ii. 307 «gg. 

* The siese of Thebes by the Argive army under the Seven 
Champions is the subject of two extant Greek tragedies, the 
Seven against Thebes of Aeschylus, and the Phoenissae of 
Euripides. In both of them the attack on the seven gates 
by the Seven Champions is described. See the Seven cigainst 
Thebes, 375 sqq. ; Phoenissae, 105 sqq., 1090 sqq. The siege 
is also the theme of Statius's long-winded and bombastic 


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THE LIBRARY, IN. vi. 5-7 

message, Tydeus, by way of putting the Thebans t6 
the proof, challenged them to single combat and 
was victorious in every encounter ; and though the 
Thebans set fifty armed men to lie in wait for him 
as he went away, he slew them all but Maeon, and 
then came to the camp.^ 

Having armed themselves, the Argives approached 
the walls ^ ; and as there were seven gates, Adrastus 
was stationed at the Homoloidian gate, Capaneus at 
the Ogygian, Amphiaraus at the Proetidian, Hippo- 
medon at the Oncaidian, Polynices at the Hypsistan,® 
Parthenopaeus at the Electran, and Tydeus at the 
Crenidian.* Eteocles on his side armed the Thebans, 
and having appointed leaders to match those of the 
enemy in number, he put the battle in array, and 
resorted to divination to learn how they might over- 
come the foe. Now there was among the Thebans 
a soothsayer, Tiresias, son of Everes and a n3rmph 
Chariclo, of the family of Udaeus, the Spartan,^ and 
he had lost the sight of his eyes. Different stories 
are told about his blindness and his power of sooth- 
saying. For some say that he was blinded by the 
gods because he revealed their secrets to men. But 

epic, the TJhebaid. Compare also Diodoms Siculus, iv. 65. 
7-9 ; Pausanias, i. 39. 2, ii. 20. 5, viii. 25. 4, x. 10. 3 ; Hygi- 
nu8, ^06. 69, 70. The war was also the subject of two lost 
poems of the same name, the Thebaid of Callinus, an early 
elegiac poet, and the Thebaid of Antimachus, a contem- 
porary of Plato. See Epicorum Oraecorum FragmenUiy ed. 
G. KinkeL pp. 9 aqq,, 275 sqq. As to the seven gates of 
Thebes, see Fausanias, ix. 8. 4-7, with my commentary 
(vol. iv. pp. 35 8^q. ). The ancients were not entirely agreed 
as to the names of the gates. 

» That is, **the Highest Gate." 

* That is, *Hhe Fountain Gate." 

^ That is, one of the Sparti, the men who sprang from the 
dragon's teeth sown by Cadmus. See above, iii. 4. 1. 


y Google 


Tv<f>\a>0rjvar oiaav yhp Trjv ^apiK\a> 7rpoa-<f>i\ij 
T^ ^Adrjva^ . . . yvfjLvijv iirl iravra iSeiP, rrjv Se 
ral^ X^po^l Tot'9 6<f>0a\fwv<; avTOV /caTa\a/3o' 
/jiivrjv^ irrfpov iroirjaai, XapcKXov^ Se Seo/jUvrj^ 
aTroKaraarrja'ai, ttoXiv Tct<; opdaet^, firj Svvafievrjv 
TOVTO TToirjo'ai, Tct^ dfcoct^ SiaKaffapaaap irdaaif 
opvidtov (fxovfjv TTOirja-ai, (rvvelvai, xal a/crJTTTpov 
avT^ ScopijaaaOai xpdveiop,^ o <f>ep(ov o/xoia)^ toa9 
^Xiirova-iP ifidSc^ei/, 'HaioBo^ Si <f>i]a-tp ort dea- 

^ The lacuna was indicated by Heyne, who proposed to 
restore the passage as follows : oZfrav ykp t$ XapiicXot vpoir- 
^iKri r^v *K9nvav ainhv yv/iP^iv iwurrdvra (or itufidvra) iStitf, 
**For Athena was a friend of Chariclo, and he came upoa 
her and saw her naked." This gives the requisite sense, 
and probably represents very nearly the original reading of 
the passage. The friendship of Athena for the nymph 
Chariclo, the mother of Tiresias, is mentioned to explain 
the opportunity which Tiresias had of seeing the goddess 

^ rah x^P^^ "^^^^ 6^Ba\fjLobs aurov KaraXa$ofi4vriv, These 
words have been wrongly suspected or altered by the editors. 
Hoyiie proposed to omit robs 6^0ei\fiobs as a gloss or to re- 
write the passage thus : r^v Se ra7s x*/^^ ^^^^ 6<l>0a\fiAy altrov 
58«p Kara&eiXovaav miphv irot^crai. Hercher wrote : r^y Be 
rats x*P<^^ '''^^ 6<l>6a\fiwv avrov \afiofi4vriv irqphv iroi^<rai. They 
all apparently suppose that the goddess blinded Tiresias by 
scratching out his eyes. But she simply held her hands over 
the eyes of the prying intruder, and the mere touch of her 
divine fingers sufficed to blind him for ever. Compare Plato, 
TheaetetuSy p. 165 bo : ri yh.p XP^^*^ hipiicTtp ipon-t\nariy rh 
\ey6fA€vov iv <f>p4ari <rvycx(J/Ac>'05, Zray ipwrq i,yiKw\fiKros (un- 
abashed) aviip, Kara\afiitv rf? x«*P^ ^'^^ '''^^ trtpov 64>BaXfi6v, 
61 6p^s rh ifuiriov rtp KaruXrififiivt^; If any change were 
desirable, it would be KaraXafiovffav for Kara\a&ofji4vriv, but 
even this is not necessary. Compare Diodorus Siculus, 
iii. 37. 5 Kar€\dfiovro BcfffAoTs rh irr6fAiov (the mouth of a 
serpent's den). 

' Kpdv€iov Aegiui, Bekker, Hercher, Warner : Kvdy§iov EA, 
Commelinus, Gale, Heyne, Westermann, Miillert 


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Pherecydes says that he was blinded by Athena ^ ; 
for Charielo was dear to Athena . . . and Tiresias 
saw the goddess stark naked, and she covered his 
eyes with her hands, and so rendered him sightless. 
And when Charielo asked her to restore his sight, 
she could not do so, but by cleansing his ears she 
caused him to understand every note of birds ; and 
she gave him a staff of cornel-wood,^ wherewith he 
walked like those who see. But Hesiod says that he 

^ The blinding of Tiresias by Athena is described by Calli- 
machus in his hymn, The Baths of Pallas, He tells how the 
nymph Charielo, mother of Tiresias, was the favourite atten- 
dant of Athena, who carried her with her wherever she went, 
often mounting the nymph in her own car. One summer day, 
when the heat and stillness of noon reigned in the mountains, 
the goddess and the nymph had stripped and were enjoying 
a cool plunge in the fair-flowing spring of Hippocrene on 
Mount Helicon. But the youthful Tiresias, roaming the 
hills with his dogs, came to slake his thirst at the bubbling 
spring and saw what it was not lawful to see. The goddess 
cried out in anger, and at once the eyes of the intruder were 
quenched in darkness. His mother, the nymph, reproached 
the goddess with blinding her son, but Athena explained 
that she had not done so, but that the laws of the gods 
inflicted the penalty of blindness on anyone who beheld an 
immortal without his or her consent. To console the youth 
for the loss of his sight the goddess promised to bestow on 
him the gifts of prophecy and divination, long life, and after 
death the retention of his mental powers undimmed in the 
world below. See Callimachus, Baths of Pallas^ 57-133. In 
this account Callimachus probably followed Pherecydes, who, 
as we learn from the present passage of ApoUodorus, assigned 
the same cause for the blindness of Tiresias. It is said that 
Erymanthus, son of Apollo, was blinded because he saw 
Aphrodite bathing. See Ptolemaeus Hephaest. Nov. Hist, i, 
in Westermann's Mythographi Oraeci^ p. 183. 

* According to the MSS., it was a blue stafiF. See Critical 
Note. As to the cornel-tree in ancient myth and fable, see 
C. Boetticher, Der Baumkulttis der Hellenen (Berlin, 1856), 
pp. 130 sqq. 

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(rdfuvo^ irepl K,vWi]vi]v 6<f}€t^ avvovatd^opra^ 
fcal TovTOVf; rp<i<Ta<; iyevero i^ dvBp6<i ^ yvvij, 
ttolKiv hk T0V9 avrov^ 6^€i^ irapaTqprjtra^ <rvvov- 
aid^ovra^ iyivero avijp, Stoirep ''Hpa /cal Zeif^ 

^ iiy^phs E : itvdpwv A. 

^ This curious story of the double change of sex ex- 
perienced by Tiresias, with the cause of it, is told also by 
Phlegon, JIf tro&iZia, 4 ; Tzetzes, SchoL on Lycophron^ 683; 
Eustathius on Homer, Od, x. 492, p. 1665; scholiast on 
Homer, Od. x. 494 ; Antoninus Liberalis, Transform, 17 ; 
Ovid, Melamorph. iii. 316 sqq. ; Hyginus, Fab, 76 ; Lactan- 
tins Placidus, on Statins, Tlteb. ii. 95 ; Fulgentius, Mytho- 
log. ii. 8 ; Scriptores remm mythicarum LaHniy ed. G. H. 
Bode, vol. i. pp. 6, 104, 169 (First Vatican Mythographer, 16; 
Second Vatican M vthographer, 84 ; Third Vatican Mytho- 
grapher, iv. 8). Phlegon says that the story was told by 
Hesiod, Dicaearchus, Clitarchus, and Callimachus. He aerees 
with ApoUodorus, Hyginus, Lactantius Placidus, and the 
Second Vatican Mythographer in laying the scene of the 
incident on Mount Gyllene in Arcadia ; whereas Eustathius 
and Tzetzes lay it on Mount Cithaeron in Boeotia, which is 
' more appropriate for a Theban seer. According to Eusta- 
thius and Tzetzes, it was by killing the female snake that 
Tiresias became a woman, and it was by aftervrards killing 
the male snake that he was changed back into a man. 
According to Ovid, the seer remained a woman for seven 
years, and recovered his male sex in the eiffhth ; the First 
Vatican Mythographer says that he recovered it after eight 
years; the Third Vatican Mythographer affirms that he 
recovered it in the seventh year. All the writers I have 
cited, except Antoninus Liberalis, record the verdict of 
Tiresias on the question submitted to him by Zeus and Hera, 
though tboy are not all agreed as to the precise mathematical 
proportion expressed in it. Further, they all, except Anto- 
ninus Liberalis, agree that the blindness of Tiresias was a 
punishment inflicted on him by Hera (Juno) because his 
answer to the question was displeasing to her. According to 
Phlegon, Hyginus, Lactantius Placidus, and the Second 


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beheld snakes copulating on Cyllene, and that having 
wounded them he was turned from a man into a 
woman, but that on observing the same snakes 
copulating again, he became a man.^ Hence, when 

Vatican Mythographer the life of Tiresias was prolonged by 
Zeus (Jupiter) so as to last seven ordinaiiy lives. 

The notion that it is unlucky to see snakes coupling appears 
to be widespread. In Southern India *'the sight of two 
snakes coiled round each other in sexual congress is con- 
sidered to portend some great evil'* (E. Thurston, Ethno- 
graphic Notes in Southern India, Madras, 1906, p. 293). The 
Chins of North-eastern India think that "one of the worst 
omens that it is possible to see is two snakes copulating, and 
a man who sees this is not supposed to return to his house or 
to speak to anyone until the next sun has risen " (Bertram 
S. Carey and H. N. Tuck, The Chin Hills, vol. i. Rangoon, 
1896, p. 199). "It is considered extremely unlucky for a 
(Dhin to come upon two snakes copulating, and to avoid ill- 
fortune he must remain outside the village that night, with- 
out eating oooked food ; the next morning he may proceed 
to his house, but, on arrival there, must kill a fowl and, if 
within his means, hold a feast. If a man omits these pre- 
cautions and is found out, he is liable to pay compensation 
of a big mythun, a pig, one blanket, and one bead, whatever 
his means, to the first man he brings ill-luck to by talking to 
him. Before the British occupation, if the man, for any 
reason, could not pay the compensation, the other mieht 
make a slave of him, byclaiming a pig whenever one of his 
daughters married" (W. R. Head, Haka Chin Customs, 
Rangoon, 1917, p. 44). In the Himalayas certain religious 
ceremonies are prescribed when a person has seen snakes 
coupling {Journal of the Asiatic Society of BengcU, 1884, 

Et. i. p. 101 ; the nature of the ceremonies is not described). 
Q Timorlaut, one of the East Indian Islands, it is deemed 
an omen of great misfortune if a man dreams that he sees 
snakes coupling (J. G. F. Riedel, De sluik- en hroesharige 
rassen tusschen Selebes en Papua, The Hague, 1886, p. 285). 
Similarly in Southern India there prevails **a superstitious 
belief that, if a person sees two crows engaged in sexual 
congress, he will ale unless one of his relations sheds tears. 
To avert this catastrophe, false news as to the death are sent 

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a/JL(f>i<rfii]rovvT€^ irorepov ra^ yvvatxa^ fj Toif<; 
avSpa^ fjieaOai, fiaXXov iv TaU avvovaiai^ crv/x- 
/Saivoi, TOVTov avixpivav, 6 Be €<brj Bexa fioip&v 
Trepl Ta<; avvovaia^ ova&v rrjv pLCP piav avipa^ 
fjSeadai, ra^ Be ivvea ^ yvvaiKa^. oOev ''Upa puev 
avrov iTv<l>\a)(re, Zcu? Bk rrfv papTiKtfv avr^ 

[to vtto TeLpeaiov Xe^O^v tt/jo? Aia KaVUpav 
oirjv phf px)lpav Bi/ca p,oip&v ripTrerai avrfp, 
T^9 Bk BeK ip^TriTrXrjac yvvrj repirovaa v6r)p.aJ] ^ 

eyevero Bk koX iroXvxpovio^, 

OvTos ovv Srfl3aL0i^ p,avT€vop,€VOi^^ elire viKt]- 
aeip, ihv M€voLfC€v<; 6 Kpeovros "Kpet atbdyiov 
avTOV iiriB^. tovto axovaa^ Mevoc/cev^ o K/oe- 
01/T09 eavTov irpb r&v irvX&v €(T<f>a^€. /Aax^^ ^^ 
yevop^evrj^ oi KaBp£loi fiexp'' '^^^ T€t%a>i/ awe- 
Bid>xffv^o,v, /cal Kairavev^ dpirdaa^ K'Kip,a/ea iiri 
ra reixv Bi avTrj(; dvpei, koI Zeu? avrov xepavpot, 
8 TOVTOV Bk yevopevov Tpoirt)^ T&v^Apyeitov yiveTai. 
0)9 Bk dir(oXKvvTo ttoWol, Bo^av i/caTepoi^ T0Z9 

^ ScKo . . . r^v fi,€v fiiav . . . riis Se 4pp4a Barth, f^ekker, 
Hercher, Wagner : 9tKatvv4a , . , rks yikv 4vv4a . . . rks fi* 
h4Ka A, Heyne, Westermann, Mtiller. 

2 These verses are probably interpolated. They are re- 
peated by the Scholiast on Homer, Od, x. 494, and by 
Tzetzes, SchoL on Lycophron, 683. 

' fiayT9vofi4voi5 Heyne, Bekker, Hercher, Wagner : fiavr^v- 
6fifvos A, Westermann, Miiller. 

* Tpovii Heyne, Bekker, Hercher, Wagner: rpSiraioy A, 

by the post or telegraph, and subsequently corrected by a 
letter or telegram announcing that the individual is alive " 
(E. Thurston, op. cit. p. 278). A similar belief as to the dire 
effect of seeing crows coupling, and a similar mode of averting 


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THE LIBRARY, III. vi. 7-8 

Hera and Zeus disputed whether the pleasures of 
love are felt more by women or by men, they referred 
to him for a decision. He said that if the pleasures 
of love be reckoned at ten, men enjoy one and 
women nine. Wherefore Hera blinded him, but 
Zeus bestowed on him the art of soothsaying. 

The saying of Tiresias to Zeus and Hera. 

Of ten parts a man enjoys one only ; 

But a woman enjoys the full ten parts in her heart.^ 

He also lived to a great age. 

So when the Thebans sought counsel of him, he 
said that they should be victorious if Menoeceus, son 
of Creon, would offer himself freely as a sacrifice to 
Ares. On hearing that, Menoeceus, son of Creon, 
slew himself before the gates. ^ But a battle having 
taken place, the Cadmeans were chased in a 
crowd as far as the walls, and Capaneus, seizing a 
ladder, was climbing up it to the walls, when Zeus 
smote him with a thunderbolt.^ When that befell, 
the Argives turned to flee. And as many fell, 

the calamity, are reported in the Central Provinces of India 
(M. R. Pedlow, ** Superstitions among Hindoos in the Central 
Province!," TAc Indian Antiquary t xxix. Bombay, 1900, 
p. 88). 

* These lines are also quoted by Tzetzes {Schol. on 
Lycophron^ 683) from a poem Melampodia ; they are cited 
also by the Scholiast on Homer, Od. x. 494. 

2 As to the voluntary sacrifice of Menoeceus, see Euri- 
pides, Phoenissae, 911 sqq,; Pausanias, ix. 25. 1; Cicero, 
Tuscul. Dispui. i. 48. 116 ; Hyginus, Fab, 68 ; Statins, Theb. 
X. 589 aqq, 

* As to the death of Capaneus, compare Aeschylus, Seven 
against Thebes, 423 nqq, ; Euripides, Phoenissae, 1172 sqq. ; 
id. Suppliants, 496 ^g?.; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 65. 8; Hyginus, 
Fab. 71 ; Statins, Theb, x. 827 sqq, 


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(TTpaT€VfJLa(Tiv 'Et€oacX^9 Kol Tlo\vv€L/crj<: irepl T^9 
^(uriXeia^ fiovofiaxovcri, teal KTeivovavv aXKrjkov^, 
fcapT€pd^ Be irdXip y€vofiivr]<: fidxv^ ^^ ^AaTUKov^ 
TratSc? fipLarevaav* "Icfiapo^; fievyap 'Imrofiehovra 
airiKTeivefAedBr)^ S€*EiT€ok\ov, *Afi<f>iSi,Ko^ Se Hap- 
devoiralov. c»9 Be FtvpLTrlSr}<; <f>rf(ri, UapOevoiralov 
6 UoaeiSAvo^ irai^ HepiKXifievos direKTeive. Mc- 
XawTTTTO? Bk 6 Xot7ro9 T&p *A(rTaKOV ^ iraiBfov ei^ 
rijv ya<TT€pa TvBia rirpcoaxei, fifiiBvrfTO^ Be 
avTOV tcecfiepov irapa At09 alrrja-apAvr) *Adrjvd 
<f>dpfia/cov 7]V€yK€, Bi' oS iroieiv efieWev dffdvarov 
avTov. *Afji<f>idpao<; Bk alaffofievo^ tovto, fiia-&v 
TvBea OTV iraph Ttfv i/ceivov ypdfirjv el^ &^/3a^ 
hrei(T€ T0V9 ^Apyeiov^: arpareveaffai, rrjv MeXa- 
vimrov fC€<f>aXr)v dirorep^v eBwKCV avr^ [rirpo)' 
(r/c6p£vo<; Bk TuSev? efcretvev avrop],^ 6 Bk SieXayv 
Tov eyKe^akov i^eppoiprjaep. m Bk elBev ^AOrjva, 
fivaaxOetaa rtfv evepyea-iav eireax^ '^^ ^^^ i<\>d6v- 

* ^KfTTOKov Aegius : iLffrv^-yovs A 

* •A<rTo<coO Westermann, Miiller, Hercher, Wagner : i<m;- 
iyovs A. Aegius, Commelinus, Gale, Heyne, and Bekker 
omit the noun, reading simply rwr ira/8wv. 

* mQiaffK6iievos 8c TvSc^s ^KT€tv«y ahr6v. These words are 
probably an interpolation, as Heyne rightly observed. 
They are omitted by Hercher. 

^ As to the single combat and death of Eteocles and 
Polynices, see Aeschylus, Seven against Thebes, 804 sqq. ; 
Euripides, Phoeniasae, 1356 aqq.; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 65. 8; 
Pausanias, ix. 5. 12; Hyginus, Fah. 71; Statins, Theb. xi. 

^ According to Statins {Theb. ix. 455-539), Hipporaedon 
was overwhelmed by a cloud of Theban missiles after being 
nearly drowned in the river Ismenus. 

' As to the death of Parthenopaeus, see Euripides, Phoe- 
nissae, 1153 sqq. In the Thehaid^ also, Periclymenus was 


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Eteocles and Polynices, by the resolution of both 
armies, fought a single combat for the kingdom, 
and slew each other. ^ In another fierce battle 
the sons of Astacus did doughty deeds ; for 
Ismarus slew Hippomedon,^ Leades slew Eteoclus, 
and Amphidocus slew Parthenopaeus. But Euripides 
says that Parthenopaeus was slain by Pericljrmenus, 
son of Poseidon.3 And Melanippus, the remaining 
one of the sons of Astacus, wounded Tydeus in the 
belly. As he lay half dead, Athena brought a 
medicine which she had begged of Zeus, and by 
which she intended to make him immortal. But 
Amphiaraus hated Tydeus for thwarting him by 
persuading the Argives to march to Thebes; so 
when he perceived the intention of the goddess he 
cut off the head of Melanippus and gave it to 
Tydeus, who, wounded though he was, had killed 
him. And Tydeus split open the head and gulped 
up the brains. But when Athena saw that, in disgust 
she grudged and withheld the intended benefit.* 

represented as the slayer of Parthenopaeus. See Pausanias, 
ix. 18. 6. 

* (Compare Tzetzes, ScJiol. on Lycophron, 1066 ; Scholiast 
on Pindar, Nem, x. 7 (12) ; Scholiast on Homer, II. v. 126. 
All these writers say that it was Amphiaraus, not Tydeus, 
who killed as well as decapitated Melanippus. Pausanias also 
(ix. 18. 1) represents Melanippus as slain by Amphiaraus. 
Hence Heyne was perhaps right in rejecting as an interpolation 
the words *' who, wounded though he was, had killed him." 
See the Critical Note. The story is told also by Statius (TAefe. 
viii. 717-767) in his usual difiuse style ; but according to him 
it was Capaneus, not Amphiaraus, who slew and l^headed 
Melanippus and brought the gory head to Tydeus. The 
story of Tydeus's savagery is alluded to more than once by 
Ovia in his Ibis (427 sq., 515 sq.), that curious work in which 
the poet has distilled the whole range of ancient mythology 
for the purpose of commination. With this tradition of 


VOL. I. B B 

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rf(T€P. ^AfKl>tapd<p Sk ^vyovri irapa iroTa/wv 
^lafiffvov, irplv vtto Uepi/cXvfiivov tA v&tu TptoOrj, 
Zeif^ Kepawov fiaXayv rrjp yrjv BUarrjaev, 6 Se 
avv T^ apfjLari teal t^ fjvi6x<p Bdreovi, w Be evioi 
^EiXdrcopi,^ ixpv<f>0rj, fcal Zeif^ addvarov avTov 

^ 'EA,^TwFi Sommer, Wagner : ixirruvi R» : ixirrtovov B : 
^Airrv O: 'EXarrwF^ Heyne, Westermann, Miiller: 'EAa- 
rmv^ Bekker : 'EAdry L. Dindorf , Hercher. 

cannibalism on the field of battle we may compare the custom 
of the ancient Scythians, who regularly decapitated their 
enemies in battle and drank of the blood of the first man they 
slew (Herodotus iv. 64). It has indeed been a common 
practice with savages to swallow some part of a slain foe in 
order with the blc^, or flesh, or brains to acquire the dead 
man's valour. See for example L. A. Millet-Mureau, Voyage 
de laPerouae, auUmr du Monde (Paris, 1797), ii. 272 (as to the 
Califomian Indians) ; Fay-Cooper Cole, The Wild Tribes of 
Davao District^ Mindanao (Cnicago, 1913), pp. 94, 189 (as 
to the Philippine Islanders). I have cited many more in- 
stances in Spirits of the Com and of the WUd, ii. 148 sqq. 
The story of the brutality of Tydeus to Melanippus may 
contain a reminiscence of a similar custom. From the 
Scholiast on Homer {I.e.) we learn that the story was told by 
Pherecydes, whom ApoUodorus may be following in the 
present passage. The grave of Melanippus was on the road 
from Thebes to Chalcis (Pausanias, ix. 18. 1), but Clisthenes, 
tyrant of Sicyon, "fetched Melanippus" {imiydyero rhv 
MeKdviirwow) to Sicyon and dedicated a precinct to him in the 
Prytaneum or town-hall ; moreover, he transferred to Melan- 
ippus the sacrifices and festal honours which till then had 
been offered to Adrastus, the foe of Melanippus. See Herod- 
otus, V. 67. It is probable that Clisthenes, in ** fetching 
Melanippus," transferred the hero's bones to the new shrine 
at Sicyon, following a common practice of the ancient Greeks, 
who were as anxious to secure the miraculous relics of heroes 
as modem Catholics are to secure the equally miraculous relics 
of saints. The most famous case of such a translation of holy 
bones was that of Orestes, whose remains were removed from 

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Amphiaraus fled beside the river Ismenus, and before 
Periclymenus could wound him in the back, Zeus cleft 
the earth by throwing a thunderbolt, and Amphiaraus 
vanished with his chariot and his charioteer Baton, 
or, as some say, Elato;^ and Zeus made him immortal. 

Tegea to Sparta (Herodotus, i. 67 sq. ). Pausanias mentions 
many instances of the practice. See the Index to my trans- 
lation of Pausanias, a.v, "Bones," vol. vi. p. 31. It was, no 
doubt, unusual to bury bones in the Prytaneum, where was 
the Common Hearth of the city (Pollux, ix. 40; Corpus 
In8criptioni4/m Atticarum, ii. 467, lines 6, 73; my note on 
Pausanias, viii. 53. 0, vol. iv. pp. 441 sq.) ; but at Man tinea 
there was a round building called the Common Hearth in 
which Antinoe, daughter of Cepheus, was said to be buried 
(Pausanias, viii. 9. 6) ; and the graves of not a few heroes and 
heroines were shown in Greek temples. See Clement of 
Alexandria, Protrept, iii. 45, pp. 39 sq., ed. Potter. The 
subject of relic worship in antiquity is exhaustively treated 
by Fried. Pfister, Der BeliquienkuU i/m Altertum (G lessen, 

* Compare Pindar, Nem. ix. 24 (69) sqq., x. 8 (13) sq. ; 
Euripides, Suppliants, 925 sqq. ; Diodorus Siculus, iv. 65. 8 ; 
Strabo, ix. 2. 11, p. 404 ; Pausanias, i. 34. 2, ii. 23. 2, ix. 8. 3, 
ix. 19. 4; Statins, Theb. vii. 789-823. The reference to 
Periclymenus clearly proves that Apollodorus had here in mind 
the first of these passages of Pindar. Pausanias repeatedly 
mentions Baton as the charioteer of Amphiaraus (ii. 23. 2, v. 
17. 8, X. 10. 3). Amphiaraus was believed to be swallowed 
up alive, with his chariot and horses, and so to descend to 
the nether world. See Euripides, Suppliants, 925 sqq. ; Statius, 
TJheb. viii. 1 sqq. ; Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latini, 
ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 49 (First Vatican Mythocrapher, 
152). Hence Sophocles speaks of him as reigning fully alive 
in Hades {Electra, 836 sqq.). Moreover, Amphiaraus was 
deified (Pausanias, viii. 2. 4 ; Cicero, De divinatione, i. 40. 88), 
and as a god he had a famous oracle charmingly situated 
in a little glen near Oropus in Attica. See Pausanias, 
i. 34, with my commentary (vol. ii. pp. 466 sqq.). The 
exact spot where Amphiaraus disappeared into the earth 
was shown not far from Thebes on the road to Potniae. It 


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i7roir)<r€v, " AZpaarov hi fiovov XTnro<i Siecaxrev 
^Kpeiwv TOVTOv €K Tioaeih&vo^ iyivvrfae Arjfifjrrjp 
ielicaa'dela'a ipivvi Karh ttjv avvovaiav, 

VII. Kpecov Se rifv Srjfiaitov ^aaiXeiav irapaXa- 
/3a)v T0U9 Twi/ ^Afyyeiayv vefcpoif^ eppi-^^ev aTd<f>ov<:, 
Koi /cr}pv^a^ p^rfBeva OdiTTeiv <j>vXaica^ xariaTrfaep, 
^AvTiyovf) Se, pia r&v OISlttoSo^ Ovyarepoiyv, Kpv<f>a 
TO no\i;i/€t^oi;9 (T&pu KKk^aaa edayjre, fcal (fxopa- 
Oeiaa xnrh KpiovTO^ avTOv^ t& rcufxp fwcra ^ eve- 
KpvifidT).^ "Ahpaaro^ Be eh *A6riva<; a^iKopievo^ 

^ awT** R : ahr^iv A. ^ fwiro R : (w<r(w A. 

' 4vfKp64>$ri R : iptKp^ylfaro R^ in margin, G. 

was a small enclosure with pillars in it. See Pausanias, ix. 
8. 3. As the ground was split open by a thunderbolt to 
receive Amphiaraus (Pindar, Nem, ix. 24 (59) sqq., x. 8 (13) 
sq.), the enclosure with pillars in it was doubtless one of 
those little sanctuaries, marked ofif by a fence, which the 
Greeks always instituted on ground struck by lightning. See 
below, note on iii. 7. 1. 

^ Arion, the swift steed of Adrastus, is mentioned by 
Homer, who alludes briefly to the divine parentage of the 
animal (II, xxiii. 346 sq.)j without giving particulars as to 
the quaint and curious myth with which he was probably 
acquainted. That myth, one of the most savage of all the 
stories of ancient Greece, was revealed by later writers. See 
Pausanias, viii. 25. 4-10, viii. 42. 1-6 ; Tzetzes, Schol. on 
Lycophron, 153 ; compare Scholiast on Homer, IL xxiii. 346. 
The story was told at two places in the highlands of Arcadia : 
one was Thelpusa in the beautiful vale of the Ladon; the 
other was Phisalia, where the shallow cave of the goddess 
mother of the norse was shown far down the face of a cliff in 
the wild romantic gorge of the Neda. The cave still exists, 
though the goddess is gone : it has been converted into a tiny 
chapel of Christ and St. John. See my commentary on 
Pausanias, vol. iv. pp. 406 sq. According to Biodorus Siculas 
(iv. 65. 9) Adrastus returned to Argos. But Pausanias says 
(i. 43. 1) that he died at Megara of old age and grief at his son's 
death, when he was leading back his beaten army from Thebes : 


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THE LIBRARY, III. vi. 8-vii. i 

Adrastus alone was saved by his horse Arion. That 
horse Poseidon begot on Demeter, when in the like- 
ness of a Fury she consorted with him.^ 

VII. Having succeeded to the kingdom of Thebes, 
Creon cast out the Argive dead unburied, issued a 
proclamation that none should bury them, and set 
watchmen. But Antigone, one of the daughters of 
Oedipus, stole the body of Polynices, and secretly 
buried it, and having been detected by Creon him- 
self, she was interred alive in the grave. ^ Adrastus 
fled to Athens^ and took refuge at the altar of 

Fausanias informs us also that Adrastus was worshipped, 
doubtless as a hero, by the Megarians. Hyginus {Fab. 242) 
tells a strange story that Adrastus and his son Hipponou 
threw themselves into the fire in obedience to an oracle of 

^ ApoUodorns here follows the account of Antigone's 
heroism and doom as they are described by Sophocles in his 
noble tragedy, the Anttgone. Compare Aeschylus, Seven 
against Thebes, 1005 sqq, A different version of the story is 
told by Hyginus {Fab, 72). According to him, when Antigone 
was cau^t in the act of performing funeral rites for her 
brother Polynices, Creon handed her over for execution to 
his son Haemon, to whom she had been betrothed. But 
Haemon, while he pretended to put her to death, smuggled 
her out of the way, married her, and had a son by her. In 
time the son grew up and came to Thebes, where Creon 
detected him by the bodily mark which all descendants of 
the Sparti or Dragon-men bore on their bodies. In vain 
Hercules interceded for Haemon with his angry father. 
Creon was inexorable; so Haemon killed himself and his 
wife Antigone. Some have thought that in this narrative 
Hyginus followed Euripides, who wrote a tragedy Antigone, 
of which a few fragments survive. See Tragicorum Orae- 
corum Fragmenta, ed. A. Nauck^, pp. 404 sqq. 

' As to the flight of Adrastus to Athens, and the inter- 
vention of the Athenians on his behalf see Isocrates, Pane^ 
gyric, §§ 64r-58, Panathen. §§ 168-174 ; Fausanias, i. 39. 2 ; 
Plutarch, Theseus, 29 ; Statins, Theh, xii. 464 sqq. (who sub- 


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iirl TOP iXeov l3a)fiov /caT€<l>vy€, xal iKerrjpiav ffel^ 
fi^iov Odirreiv tou9 ve/cpov^. oi hk ^AOrjvaioi fjuerh 
Sfj(ria>^ (nparevaavTe^ aipovai ^rj^a^ fcaX rov^ 
v€Kpoif^ T049 ol/ceioi^ BiBoaai Odylrai, t^9 Kaira- 
i/€G)9 Sk /caiofjLevrj^ irvpa^, ISivdSvr),^ 17 Kairavito^ 
fi€V yvvf) dvyaTrjp Se "1^*09, eavrrjv ififiaXovo'a ^ 
avyfcaTexaUro .^ 

^ EitdBpfi R : tvaidvri A. 

^ ifi0a\ov<ra Heyne : fiaXovffa A, Zenobius, Cent, i. 30. 

' a'vyKar€Ka{t$fi, Zenobius, Cent, i. 30, Hercher. 

stitutes Argive matrons as suppliants instead of Adrastus). 
The story is treated by Euripides in his extant play The 
Suppliants, which, on the whole, Apollodorus follows. But 
where€is Apollodorus, like Statins, lays the scene of the 
supplication at the altar of Mercy in Athens, Euripides lays 
it at the altar of Demeter in Eleusis {Suppliants, I sq.). In 
favour of the latter version it may be said that the graves of 
the fallen leaders were shown at Eleusis, near the Flowery 
Well (Pausanias, i. 39. 1 sq. ; Plutarch, Theseu>s, 29) ; while 
the graves of the common soldiers were at Eleutherae, which 
is on the borders of Attica and Boeotia, on the direct road 
from Eleusis to Thebes (Euripides, Suppliants, 756 sq, ; 
Plutarch, 2.C.). Tradition varied also on the question how 
the Athenians obtained the permission of the Thebans to 
bury the Arcive dead. Some said that Theseus led an army 
to Thebes, defeated the Thebans, and compelled them to 
give up the dead Argives for burial. This was the version 
adopted by Euripides, Statins, and Apollodorus. Others said 
that Theseus sent an embassy and by negotiations obtained 
the voluntary consent of the Thebans to his carrjdng oflf the 
dead. This version, as the less discreditable to the Thebans, 
was very naturally adopted by them (Pausanias, i. 39. 2) and 
by the patriotic Boeotian Plutarch, who expressly rejects 
Euripides's account of the Theban defeat. Jsocrates, with 
almost incredible fatuity, adopts both versions in different 
passages of his writings and defends himself for so doing 
{Panathen. §§ 168-174). Lysias, without expressly mention- 
ing the flight of Adrastus to Athens, says that the Athenians 


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Mercy,^ and laying on it the suppliant's bough ^ he 
prayed that they would bury the dead. And the 
Athenians marched with Theseus, captured Thebes, 
and gave the dead to their kinsfolk to bury. And 
when the pyre of Capaneus was* burning, his wife 
Evadne, the daughter of Iphis, thew herself on the 
pjre, and was burned with him.^ 

first sent heralds to the Thebans with a request for leave to 
bury the Argive dead, and that when the request was 
refused, they marched asainst the Thebans, defeated them 
in battle, and carrying off the Argive dead buried them at 
Eleusis. See Lysias, li. 7-10. 

* As to the altar of Mercy at Athens see above ii. 8. 1 ; 
Pausanias, i. 17. 1, with my note (vol. ii. pp. 143 sq.); Dio- 
dorus Siculus, xiii. 22. 7 ; Statins, Theb. xii. 481-505. It is 
mentioned in a late Greek inscription found at Athens (C7or- 
pus Inacriptionum Atticarum, iii. No. 170; G. Kaibel, 
Epigrammata Oraeca ex Uipidibtia conlecta. No. 792). The 
altar, though not mentioned by early writers, was in later 
times one of the most famous spots in Athens. Philostratus 
says that the Athenians built an altar of Mercy as the 
thirteenth of the gods, and that they poured libations on it, 
not of wine, but of tears {Epist, 39). In this fancy he 
perhaps copied Statins {Theb. xii. 488, **lacrymi8 altaria 

' The branch of olive which a suppliant laid on the altar 
of a god in token that he sought the divine protection. See 
Andocides, Demyateriia^ llO^gg. ; R. C. Jebo, on Sophocles, 
Oedipus Tyrannusy 3. 

' For the death of Evadne on the pyre of her husband 
Capaneus, see Euripides, Suppliants, 1034 sqq. ; Zenobius, 
Gent. i. 30 ; Propertius, i. 15. 21 sq. ; Ovid, Tristia, v. 14. 38 ; 
id. Pont. iii. I. Ill sq.; Hyginus, Fab. 243 ; Statins, Theb. 
xii. 800 sq. with the note of Laotantius Placidus on v. 801 ; 
Martial, iv. 75. 5. Capaneus had been killed by a thunderbolt 
as he was mounting a ladder at the siege of Thebes. See Apol- 
lodorus, iii. 6. 7. Hence his body was deemed sacred and 
should have been buried, not burned, and the grave fenced off; 
whereas the other bodies were all consumed on a single pyre. 
See Euripides, Suppliants, 934-938, where o-u/iir^^as rd<l>ov 


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2 M€tA Si errf Sifca oi t&v airoXofiipav iraiSe^t 
fc\r)0€VT€9 iTriyovoi, (TTpaT€veiv iirl %riPa^ Trporf- 

refers to the fencing in of the grave. So the tomb of Semele, 
who was also killed by lightning, seems to have stood within 
a sacred enclosure. See Euripides, Bacchae, 6-11. Yet, 
inconsistently with the foregoing passage, Euripides appears 
afterwards to assume that the l>oay of Gapaneus was burnt 
on a pyre {w. 1000 aqq.). The rule that a person killed by a 
thunderbolt should be buried, not burnt, is stated by Pliny 
{Nat. Hist. ii. 145) and alluded to by TertuUian (Apolo- 
geticua, 48). An ancient Roman law, attributed to Numa, 
forbade the celebration of the usual obsequies for a man who 
had been killed by lightning. See Festus, a.v. "Occisum," 
p. 178, ed. C. 0. Miiller. It is true that these passages refer 
to the Roman usage, but the words of Euripides {Suppliants, 
934-938) seem to imply that the Greek practice was similar, 
and this is confirmed by Artemidorus, who says that the 
bodies of persons killed by lightning were not removed but 
buried on the spot {Onirocrit. ii. 9). The same writer tells 
us that a man struck by lightning was not deemed to be dis- 

g raced, nay, he was honoured as a god ; even slaves killed by 
ghtning were approached with respect, as honoured by Zeus, 
and their dead bodies were wrapt in fine garments. Such 
customs are to some extent explained by the belief that Zeus 
himself descended in the flash of lightning ; hence whatever 
the lightning struck was naturally regarded as holy. Places 
struck by lightning were sacred to Zeus the Descender (Zei>j 
Karai^dTTis) and were enclosed by a fence. Inscriptions 
marking such spots have been found in various parts of 
Greece. See Pollux, ix. 41 ; Pausanias, v. 14. 10, with my 
note (vol. iii. p. 5d5f vol. v. p. 614). Compare E. Rohde, 
Psyche^, i. 320 sq. ; H. Usener, ** Keraunos," Kleine Schrif- 
ten, iv. 477 sqq. (who quotes from Clemens Romanus and 
Cyrillus more evidence of the worship of persons killed by 
lightning) ; Chr. Blinkenberg, The Thunderweapon in Reli^ 
gion and Folklore (Cambridge, 1911), pp. 110 sq. 

Among the Ossetes of the Caucasus a man who has been 
killed by lightning is deemed very lucky, for they believe 
that he has been taken by St. Elias to himself. So the sur- 
vivors raise cries of joy and sing and dance about him. His 

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Ten years afterwards the sons of the fallen, called 
the Epigoni, purposed to march against Thebes to 

relations think it their duty to join in these dances and 
rejoicings, for any appearance of sorrow would be regarded 
as a sin against St. Elias and therefore punishable. The 
festival lasts eight days. The deceased is dressed in qew 
clothes and laid on a pillow in the exact attitude in which he 
was struck and in the same place where he died. At the 
end of the celebrations he is buried with much festivity and 
feasting, a high cairn is erected on his grave, and beside it 
they set up a tall pole with the skin of a black he-^oat 
attached to it, and another pole, on which hang the Dest 
clothes of the deceased. The grave becomes a place of pil- 
grimage. See Julius von Klaproth, Reise in den Kaukaaus 
und nach Oeorgien (Halle and Berlin, 1814), ii. 606 ; A. von 
Haxthausen, Transkaukctsia (Leipsic, 18i56), ii. 21 sq. 
Similarly the Kafirs of South Africa ** have strange notions 
respecting the lightning. They consider that it is governed 
by the umshologu, or ghost, of the greatest and most re- 
nowned of their departed chiefs, and who is emphatically 
styled the inkoai ; but they are not at all clear as to which 
of their ancestors is intended by this designation. Hence 
they allow of no lamentation being made for a person killed 
by lightning, as they say that it would be a sign of disloyalty 
to lament for one whom the inkosi had sent for, and whose 
services he consequently needed ; and it would cause him to 

Sunish them, by making the lightning again to descend and 
o them another injury." Further, rites of purification have 
to be performed by a priest at the kraal where the accident 
t<x>k place ; and till these have been performed, none of the 
inhabitants may leave the kraal or have intercourse with 
other people. Meantime their heads are shaved and they 
must abstain from drinking milk. The rites include a sacri- 
fice and the inoculation of the people with powdered char- 
coal. See **Mr. Warner's Notes," in Col. Maclean's Gom- 
pendivm of Kafir Laws and Customs (Cape Town, 1866), 
►p. 82-84. Sometimes, however, the ghosts of persons who 
lave been killed by lightning are deemed to be dangerous. 
Hence the Omahas used to slit the soles of the feet of such 
corpses to prevent their ghosts from walking about. See 
J. Owen Dorsey, "A Study of Siouan Cults," Eleventh 


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povpro, Tov T&v 7raT€p(ov Odvarov TifJLOi)pi]aa(r0ai 
fiovXofievou Kal fjuavrevo/ievoi^ avTOi^ 6 0€6<; iOi- 
(TTnae vi/crfv ^ AXKpuloavo^ r/yovfiivov. 6 fiev ovp 
^AkKfiaicov ^yeiadai tt}^ (rrpaTeia^ ov ^ovKopjevo^ 
TTpXv Ttaao'dai rrfv firjrepa, o/ico^; aTpareverai' 
Xa^ovaa yhp *Ftpi(f>v\i] iraph &€p<rdvBpov tov 
UoXweiKOV^ TOV ireirXov avviireKTe kclL tou9 ttol- 
ia^ aTpaTeveadai, oi Be ffjefiova ^KKjcfiaifova 
e\6fJL€Voi &i]l3a^ iTroXefwvv. ^aav he oi aTparevo- 
jjL€Voi oiSe* ^AX/c/xaicov Kal * Afi<f)L\oxo^ *AfKf>ia- 
pdov, AlyiaXeif^ ^ASpdaTOV, Acofii^Sr)<; TvBeto^, 
Upoftaxo^ Hapdevoiraiov, %6ev€\o^ KaTravito^, 
^epo'avopo^ UoXweiKov^, EvpvaXo^ ^ ^rjKcaTeco^, 
3 oifToi irp&Tov fiev iropOovaL tA? irepi^ Koofjia^, 
eireiTa t&v ^rj^aiaov eireXBovrtov Aaohdfiavro^ 

^ Eupt/a\o5 Heyne : "Ethp^nrvKos A. 

Annual Report of the Bwreau of Ethnology (Washington, 
1894), p. 420. For more evidence of special treatment 
accorded to the bodies of persons struck dead by lightning, 
see A. B. Ellis, The Ewe-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast 
(London, 1890), p. 39 sq, ; id. The Ycruba-speaking Peoples 
of the Slave Coast (London, 1894), p. 49 ; Rev. J. H. Weeks, 
"Notes on some customs of the Lower Congo people," Folk- 
Lore, XX. (1909), p. 476; Rendel Harris, Boanerges (Cam- 
bridge, 1913), p. 97 ; A. L. Kitching, On the backwaters of the 
Nile (London, 1912), pp. 264 sq. Among the Barundi of Central 
Africa, a man or woman who has been struck, but not killed, 
hy lightning becomes thereby a priest or priestess of the god 
Kiranga, whose name he or she henceforth bears and of whom 
he or she is deemed a bodily representative. And any place 
that has been struck by lightning is enclosed, and the trunk of 
a banana-tree or a young fig-tree is set up in it to serve as the 
temporary abode of the deity who manifested himself in the 
lightning. See H. Meyer, Die Barundi (Leipsic, 1916), 
pp. 123, 135. 


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THE LIBRARY, III. vii. 2-3 

avenge the death of their fathers ; ^ and when they 
consulted the oracle, the god predicted victory 
under the leadership of Alcmaeon. So Alcmaeon 
joined the expedition, though he was loath to lead 
the army till he had punished his mother ; for Eri- 
phyle had received the robe from Thersander, son of 
Polynices,and had persuaded her sons also^ to go to the 
war. Having chosen Alcmaeon as their leader, they 
made war on Thebes. * The men who took part in 
the expedition were these : Alcmaeon and Amphilo- 
chus, sons of Amphiaraus; Aegialeus, son of Adras- 
tus ; Diomedes, son of Tydeus ; Promachus, son of 
Parthenopaeus ; Sthenelus, son of Capaneus ; Ther- 
sander, son of Polynices ; and Euryalus, son of Mecis- 
teus. They first laid waste the surrounding villages ; 
then, when the Thebans advanced against them, led 

^ The war of the Epigoni against Thebes is narrated very 
similarly by DiodoruB Siculus (iv. 66). Compare Pausanias, ix. 
5. 1 3 sq,, ix. 8. 6, ix. 9. 4 sq. ; Hyginus, Fab, 70. There was 
an epic poem on the subject, called Epigoni, which some 
people ascribed to Homer (Herodotus, iv. 32; Biographi 
Oraeci, ed. A. Westermann, pp. 42 aq,), but others attributed 
it to Antimachus (Scholiast on Aristophanes, Peace, 1270). 
Compare Epicorum Oraecorum Fragmenta, ed. G. Kinkel, 
pp. 13 aq. Aeschylus and Sophocles both wrote tragedies on 
the same subject and with the same title, Epigoni. See 
Tragicorum Oraecorum Fragmenta, ed. A. Nauck*, pp. 19, 
173 aq. ; The Fragmenta of Sophocles^ ed. A. C. Pearson, i. 
129 aqq. 

2 The sons of Eriphyle were Alcmaeon and Amphilochus, 
as we learn immediately. The giddy and treacherous 
mother persuaded them, as she had formerly persuaded her 
husband Amphiaraus, to go to the war, the bauble of a neck- 
lace and the gewgaw of a robe being more precious in her 
sight than the lives of her kinsfolk. See above, iii. 6. 2 ; and 
as to the necklace and robe, see iii. 4. 2, iii. 6. 1 and 2 ; 
Diodorus Siculus, iv. 66. 3. 


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Tov ^EreofcXioi;^ fffovfUvov yevvaim^ /JbdYOvrai. 
KaX AaoSdfjLa^ fiev AlyiaXea kt€lv€1, AaoSa/jutirra 

Sk ^AXKflCUWV, Kol IJ£rh TOV TOVTOV OdvaTov 

Srj/Saloi avfjL<f>€vyov<nv eh ra Teixv. Teipeaiov 
hk elirovTO^ avTol^ irpo^ ficv ^Apyeiov^ tcrjpvKa irepl 
Sui\v(r€a}^ dTroariXKeiv, avrov^ hi <f)€vy€iv, irpo^ 
fi€v T0U9 iroXefiiov^ Kijpvfca Trefiirovo'tv, avrol Sc 
dvafii/3d<TavT€^ iirl rd^ dirrjva^ rexva /cat yvvai- 
#ca9 i/c TTJ^ TToXeo)? l<f>€vyov. vvKTcop Sk iirl rrjv 
Xeyofiivrjv Ti\j(f>ov<r<rav ^ Kpi]vr}v irapaycvofievav 
ain&v, Teipeaia^ diro ravrr)^ wicbv avTov tov fiiov 
KaTea-Tpeyp-e, SrjjSaioi Sk iirl voXv SieXffovre:, 

4 iroXiv 'Ea-TMiav /cTL<ravT€^ KaT^/cf)(rav. ^Apyeloi 
Bk v<TT€pov TOV hpaafjiov t&v ^r)l3ai(ov pu06vT€<; 
eiaiaaiv eh Ttfv iroXtv, fcal avvadpoi^ovai Tr)v 
\eiav, Koi /caOatpovat Td tclxv* ^V^ ^^ Xeui? 
p,epo<i eh A6X^U9 Trep^irovaiv ^AiroXKfovi koi Ttfv 
Teipeaiov BvyaTepa Mai/roi' rjv^avTo ydp avT^ 
€^i]l3a^ eXovTe^ to KdXXioTOv t&v Xa<f>vp(ov dva- 

5 MeTd Se ttiv 817^0)1/ ^ aXcoaiv alaOopjevo^; *A\ac- 

p^Uov fcal €7r* avT& h&pa ecXi]<f>vtav *Ept<f>vXi]v 

^ TiXipovtrtrap Heyne : rpa^vHav A. 
2 ^^S»v Heyne-: 0ri0ai<uv A. 

* The battle was fought at a place called Glisas, where the 

f raves of the Argive lords were shown down to the time of 
'ausanias. See Pausanias, ix. 5. 13, ix. 8. 6, ix. 9. 4, ix. 19. 2 ; 
Scholiast on Pindar, Pyth, viii. 48 (68), who refers to Hella- 
nicus as his authority. 

^ According to a different account, Kins Laodamas did 
not fall in the battle, but after his defeat led a portion of 
the Thebans away to the lUyrian tribe of the Encheleans, 
the same people among whom his ancestors Cadmus and 
Harmonia had found their last home. See Herodotus, v. 61 ; 


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THE LIBRARY, III. vii. 3-5 

by Laodamas, son of Eteocles, they fought bravely,^ 
and though Laodamas killed Aegialeus, he was him- 
self killed by Alcmaeon,^ and after his death the 
Thebans fled in a body within the walls. But as 
Tiresias told them to send a herald to treat with 
the Argives, and themselves to take to flight, they 
did send a herald to the enemy, and, mounting their 
children and women on the wagons, themselves fled 
from the city. When they had come by night to 
the spring called Tilphussa, Tiresias drank of it and 
expired.* After travelling far the Thebans built the 
city of Hestiaea and took up their abode there. But 
the Argives, on learning afterwards the flight of the 
Thebans, entered the city and collected the booty, 
and pulled down the walls. But they sent a portion 
of the booty to Apollo at Delphi and with it Manto, 
daughter of Tiresias; for they had vowed that, if 
they took Thebes, they would dedicate to him the 
fairest of the spoils.* 

After the capture of Thebes, when Alcmaeon 
learned that his mother Eriphyle had been bribed 

Pausanias, ix. 5. 13, ix. 8. 6. As to Cadmus and Harmonia 
in Illyria, see above, iii. 6. 4. 

^ See Pausanias, ix. 33. 1, who says that the grave of 
Tiresias was at the spring. But there was also a cenotaph of 
the seer on the road from Thebes to Chalcis (Pausanias, ix. 
18. 4). Diodorus Siculus (iv. 67. 1) agrees with Pausanias 
and Apollodorus in placing the death of Tiresias at Mount 
Tilphusium, which was beside the spring Tilphussa, in the 
territory of Haliartus. 

* Compare Diodorus Siculus, iv. 66. 6 (who gives the name 
of Tiresias's daughter as Daphne, not Manto) ; Pausanias, 
vii. 3. 3, ix. 33. 2 ; Scholiast on ApoUonius Rhodius, Argon. 
i. 308 


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T^v fjurirkpa fiaXKov ^yavd/crrjae, fcal XfiV^^^"^^^ 
'A7roXXft)i'09 avT^ rrjv firfripa aircfCTetvep. evioi 
fjiiv Xiyovai avv ^ Kfju^CKox^p t^ aBeXxf)^ Kretvai 
Ttfv ^¥ipi(f>v\/qv, evioi Se Sri jjlovo^. ^AXjcfuiLmva Bk 
fieTrjXJffev ipivv^ rov fiTjrp^ov <f>6vov, xal fiefirivw 
irp&Tov fiev ei^ ^Ap/caBiav irpo^ ^OiKXea ^ irapa- 
yivcTah eKeWev Bk €l<; ^axpiBa irpof; ^rjyea. KoBap- 
^€69 Bi VTT avTOV ^Apaipofjv yafiei Tr)v tovtov 
dvyarepa, fcal rov t€ opfiov teal rov weifKov eBrnxe 
tavrrf. yepofuvr)^ Be varepov t^9 yrj^ ^*' avTov 
d<f>6pov, ')(pri<ravTO^ avr^ rov Oeov irpo^ 'A^^eX^op 
airUvaL fcal irap ixetvov iraXtvBifciav Xafi^dveiv^ 
TO fikv Trp&Tov 7r/t>09 Olvea Trapaylverai eU KaXv- 
B&va Kal ^€PL^€Tai irap* avr^,^ eireira d<f>LK6fi€V0^ 
€49 %€<nrp<oTov^ Try; x^P^^ direkavveTai, Tekev- 
Tolov Be en\ 7^9 'Aj^eX^ou ir7f^a<; irapayevofievfyi 
KadaiperaL re vw avrov Kal rrjv ifceivov ffvyarepa 

^ 'OiK\4a Aegius : loK\4a A. 

^ Tap* ixtiyoy ira\iyhiKlay \afi$dv€iy Bekker : irap* iKtli^ov 
ird\iy t Bia\afifi(itf€ty Wagner : irap* ixtiyoy ir6\iy Bia\€tfifidy€tv 
Heyne, Westermann, Miiller : irap' iKtlyov irdhiy Sia\afifidy€uf 
Hercher. The MSS. (A) read iK€iyoy, Aegius changed 
irdXiv into ir6\iy. Heyne conjectured irdKiy rovy kirohafi- 
fidytiy. Perhaps we should read irap* iKtlyov KaBdpcia Xafi- 
pdyctv. Compare Pherecydes, cited by the Scholiast on Homer, 
IL xiv. 120. 

' odr^J Westermann, Miiller: avr" R: alrwy A: avrov 
Heyne, Bekker, Hercher, Wagner. 

^ That is, as well as to the undoing of his father Am- 
phiaraus. See above, iii. 6. 2. 

* Compare Thucydides, ii. 102. 7 sqq. ; Diodorns Sioulus, 
iv. 65. 7 ; Pausanias, viii. 24. 7 sqq. ; Ovid, Metamarph. ix. 
407 sqq.; Hyginus, Fab. 73. Sophocles and Euripides both 
wrote tragedies called Alcmcieon, or rather Alcmeon, for that 
appears to be the more correct spelling of the name. See 
Tragicorum Oraecorum FragmerUa, ed. A. Nauck^, pp. 153 


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to his undoing also,^ he was more incensed than 
ever, and in accordance with an oracle given to 
him by Apollo he killed his mother.^ Some say 
that he killed her in conjunction with his brother 
Amphilochus, others that he did it alone. But 
Alcmaeon was visited by the Fury of his mother's 
murder, and going mad he first repaired to Oicles ^ 
in Arcadia, and thence to Phegeus at Psophis. And 
having been purified by him he married Arsinoe, 
daughter of Phegeus,* and gave her the necklace 
and the robe. But afterwards the ground became 
barren on his account,^ and the god bade him in an 
oracle to depart to Achelous and to stand another 
trial on the river bank.* At first he repaired to 
Oeneus at Calydon and was entertained by him ; 
then he went to the Thesprotians, but was driven 
away from the country ; and finally he went to the 
springs of Achelous, and was purified by him,^ and 

8q., 379 sqq.; The Fragments of Sophoclea, ed. A. C. Pearaon, 
vol. i. pp. 68 sqq. 

^ Oicles was the father of Amphiaraus, and therefore the 
grandfather of Alcmaeon. See i. 8. 2. 

^ Pausanias (viii. 24. 8) and Propertius (i. 15. 19) call her 

* So Greece is said to have been afflicted with a dearth on 
account of a treacherous murder committed by Pelops. See 
below, iii. 12. 6. Similarly the land of Thebes was supposed 
to be visited with barrenness of the soil, of cattle, and of 
women because of the presence of Oedipus, who had slain 
his father and married his mother. See Sophocles, Oedipus 
Tyranmis, 22 sqq.^ 96 sqq. ; Hyginus, Fab. 67. The notion 
that the shedding of blood, especially the blood of a kins- 
man, is an oflFence to the earth, which consequently refuses 
to bear crops, seems to have been held by the ancient 
Hebrews, as it is still apparently held by some African 
peoples. See Folk-lore in the Old Testament, i. 82 sqq. 

• The text is here uncertain. See the Critical Note. 

"^ Achelous here seems to be conceived partly as a river 
and partly as a man, or rather a god. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


KaWipporp/ \a/j,/3dv€i, koI hv 'A%€\^09 irpoae- 
'X<o<Te TOTTOV KTiaa^ KartpKrjae. KdXXippoT)^ Se 
varepov tov t€ opfiov icdX rbv ireifkov iinOvfiovari*; 
\a0elv, fcal Xeyovai]^ ov avvoiKijaeiv avr^ el fjLtj 
XdjSoL ravTU, irapayevofievo^ eh ^axpiBa *A\k- 
fialfov ^Tjyei Xiyet TeOeairitrOai t^9 fiavia^ diraX' 
\aytfv eavT^,^ top opfiov orav eh AeX^ov^ fcofdaa^ 
dvaOfj fcai tov irerrXov. o hk iriaTewa^ SiSaxn* 
p/qvvaavTO^ Si OepdirovTO^ otl J^aWippotf Taxrra 
\a^Q)v exofu^ev, iveBpevffeh viro twv ^rjyico^ ircd- 
Sfov eTTiTd^avTO^ tov ^r)y€Oi><; dvatpeiTai. ^Apaivoijv 
Si fieful>Ofiivt]v oi tov ^r^yeta^ iraZhe^ ifi/3i/3d' 
(ravTe^ eh Xdpvaxa icofiifyvaiv eh Teyeav koI 
SiSoaai SovXtjv ^Aywrn^vopi, /cuTayfrevadfievoL avTrj^s 
6 TOV ^AXfCfiaioyvo^ (f>6vov, KaXXippot) Se ttjv 'A\#c- 
fiai(ovo<; dirdXeiav fiaOovaa, irXtjO'id^ovTO^; avTy 
TOV A£09> alTeiTai tou9 yeyevvqfievov^ iralha^ if 
* AXKfiaitovo^ axnfj yeviaffai TeXeiov^, Xva tov tov 
iraToio^ TiafovTai <f>6vov. yevofievoi Si €^ai(f>vr)^ oi 
7ra*0€9 TeXeioi iirl Tf}v €kSikUiv tov iraTpo^ i^eaav. 
xaTct TOV avTov Si Kaipbv oX re <I>i77ia)9 iraXSe^ 
Upovoo^ fcal ^Ayrjvcopy eh A€X<f>ov^ fcofU^ovTC^ 
dvadelvat tov opfwv koX tov ireirXov, KaToXvova-i 
7r/}09 ^ Ay airrivo pa, Koi ol tov ^AXfc/iaioiyvo^ iraiSe^ 

^ kavr^ Heyne : lour" R : kavrov A. 

^ Compare Thucydides, ii. 102. 7 sqq, ; Pausanias, viii. 24. 
% aq. As to the formation of new land by the deposit of 
alluvial soil at the mouth of the Achelous, compare Hero- 
dotus, ii. 10. 

^ According to Ephorus, or his son Demophilus, this oracle 
was really giyen to Alcmaeon at Delphi. See Athenaeus, 


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THE LIBRARY, III. vii. 5-6 

received Callirrhoe, his daughter, to wife. Moreover 
he colonized the land which the Achelous had formed 
by its silt, and he took up his abode fhere.^ But 
afterwards Callirrhoe coveted the necklace and robe, 
and said she would not. live with him if she did not 
get them. So away Alcmaeon hied to Psophis and 
told Phegeus how it had been predicted that he 
should be rid of his madness when he had brought 
the necklace and the robe to Delphi and dedicated 
them.* Phegeus believed him and gave them to him. 
But a servant having let out that he was taking the 
things to Callirrhoe, Phegeus commanded his sons, 
and they lay in wait and killed him.^ When Arsinoe 
upbraided them, the sons of Phegeus clapped her 
into a chest and carried her to Tegea and gave her 
as a slave to Agapenor, falsely accusing her of 
Alcmaeon's murder. Being apprized of Alcmaeon's un- 
timely end and courted by Zeus, Callirrhoe requested 
that the sons she had by Alcmaeon might be full-grown 
in order to avenge their father s murder. And being 
suddenly full-grown, the sons went forth to right 
their father's wrong.* Now Pronous and Agenor, the 
sons of Phegeus,^ carrying the necklace and robe 
to Delphi to dedicate them, turned in at the house 
of Agapenor ^t the same time as Amphoterus and 

vi. 22, p. 232 D-F, where the words of the oracle are 

' His grave was overshadowed by tall cypresses, called the 
Maidens, in the bleak upland valley of Psophis. See Pau- 
sanias, viii. 24. 7. A quiet resting-place for the matricide 
among the solemn Arcadian mountains after the long fever of 
the brain and the long weary wanderings. The valley, which 
I have visited, somewhat resembles a Yorkshire dale, but is 
far wilder and more solitary. 

* Compare Ovid, Metamorph. ix. 413 sqq. 

' Pausanias (viii. 24. 10) calls them Temenus and Axion. 


VOL. I. C C 

y Google 


*AfMl)6T€p6<; T€ teal ^Axapvdv* zeal aveXovre^ tov<; 
Tov irarpo^; diovia^, irapayevofievoi re €t9 ^(*)<f>tSa 
Koi Trap€\OovT€<; ek ret ^aaiXeia rov re ^^rjyea 
KoX Ttfv ywalfca avrov fcrdvovtrt, St(O'X0€PT€<: Se 
a')(fii Te^ea? i7nl3orf0r)a'dvTa)v Ter/earcov fcai tlvcov 
^Apyeuov iadOrfO'av, ei^ (bvyrfv r&v'VaxpiBLcop rpa- 
irhfTwv. BrjXdxr^iVTe^ Be rj} firfrpl ravra, top re 
opfiov Koi TOV iriirXop iX06vT€9 eh AeX^ov? ape- 
0€VTO KUTct irpoo'Ta^iP *A^€X©oi;. iropevdhne^ he 
eU T7JV "Hiretpop trvpadpoi^ovaip olKrjTopai koX 
icTL^ovaip ^AxappavLav, 

EvpimSrf^ 84 <f>r)aiv ^AXxfiaioopa Karh rov Trj<; 
fiavla^ Xpopop ex MavTov<; Teipealov 7ralSa<: Bvo 
yepprja-ai, *AfjL(f>iXo')(pv fcal dvyarepa Tiat>(b6prjp, 
fco/uaapra Bi el^ KopipOov Tct j3p€<l>rj oovvat 
Tpe<f>eip KoptpffioDv /ScuriXel Kpeopri, teal rifp p^p 
Ti(n<l>6pfjp Sispey/covaav evp^p^ia viro t?)9 K/oe- 
OPTO^ yvpaifco^ a'irep,TToK'q6rjpaL, BeBoiKvia^ pui) 
Kpecop avTTjp yaperrfp iroii^arjTai. top Be 'AXac- 
pLaifOpa ayopdaaPTa TavTqp exeip ou/c elBoTa ttjv 
eavTov 0vyaT€pa 0€pd7ratvap, irapayepop^pop Be 
eh K6pip0op iirl rrjp t&p Te/cpmp diraiTrjaiv fcal 
TOP vlop Kopi<Ta(T0ai» fcal ^Ap<f>i\oxo^ Karh 

1 According to Pausanias (viii. 24. 10, ix. 41. 2), it was the 
aons of Phegeus, not the sons of Alcmaeon, who dedicated 
the necklace at Delphi. The necklace, or what passed for it, 
was preserved at Delphi in the sanctuary of Forethought 
Athena as late as the Sacred War in the fourth century B.O., 
when it was carried off, with much more of the sacred 
treasures, by the unscrupulous Phocian leader, Phayllus. 
See Parthenius, Narrat. 26 (who quotes Phylarchus as his 
authority) ; Athenaeus, vi. 22, p. 232 D E (who quotes 


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THE LIBRARY, III. vii. 6-7 

Acarnan, the sons of Alcmaeon ; and the sons of 
Alcmaeon killed their father's murderers, and going 
to Psophis and entering the palace they slew both 
Phegeus and his wife. They were pursued as far as 
Tegea, but saved by the intervention of the Tegeans 
and some Argives, and the Psophidians took to flight. 
Having acquainted their mother with these things, 
they went to Delphi and dedicated the necklace and 
robe ^ according to the injunction of Achelous. 
Then they journeyed to Epirus, collected settlers, 
and colonized Acamania.^ 

But Euripides says ^ that in ihe time of his mad- 
ness Alcmaeon begat two children, Amphilochus and 
a daughter Tisiphone, by Man to, daughter of Tiresias, 
and that he brought the babes to Corinth and gave 
them to Creon, king of Corinth, to bring up ; and 
that on account of her extraordinary comeliness Tisi- 
phone was sold as a slave by Creon's spouse, who 
feared that Creon might make her his wedded wife. 
But Alcmaeon bought her and kept her as a hand- 
maid, not knowing that she was his daughter, and 
that coming to Corinth to get back his children he 
recovered his son also. And Amphilochus colonized 

the thirtieth book of the history of Ephorus as his au- 

2 Compare Thucydides, ii. 102. 9 ; Pausanias, viii. 24. 9, 
who similarly derive the name of Acaniania from Acarnan, 
son of Alcmaeon. Pausanias says that formerly the people 
were called Curates. 

* The reference is no 4oubt to one of the two lost tragedies 
which Euripides composed under the title Alcmaeon. See 
Tragicortim Chaecorum Fragmenta, ed. A. Nauck*, pp. 
479 aqq. 

y Google 


VIII. ^TS/jravdrftafKv Be vvv irdXiv inl top He- 
Xaayov, tv ^AKovaiXao^ fikv Ato9 \eyei koX N^- 
/8i79> KaOdirep vnedefiev, *H<rto5o9 Be axno'xjSova* 
TOVTov teal rry: 'Sl/eeavov ffvyarpo^ MeXiffola^, fj 
Kaddirep aXKoi Xeyovai pvfufyr)^ KvWtJvt)^, iraU 
AvKCLfov eyevero, 09 fiaaiXevcov ^ApxaBcov ifc ttoX- 
\&v yvvaiK&v irevrrjKovra iralSa^ eyevvrjae' Me- 
Xaivea ^ Seairptorov ''EKiKa NvKTifiov IlevK€TU>v, 
Kav/eaova MrfKiaria 'OirXea Ma/capea Md/ceBvov, 
'^Opov^ WoKixov ^Akovttiv Evaifiova ^ Ay Kvopa, 
^Apx^^dTTjp KaprepoDpa Aiyaiaova TldWavra 
'EvfjLova, Kdv7j0ov UpoOoov Aivov IK^opedovra^ 
Maiva\ov, TrjXefioav ^vaiov ^daaov ^0iov 
Av/ciov, 'Ald^ripov Teveropa 'BovKoKmva SwAcXea 
^ivea, EvfirjT'qv 'ApiraXia Hopdea TLXdroDva 
Aifwva, Kvpaiffov Aeopra ^ApirdXvKop 'Hpaiia 
Tirdpap, MapTipea^ KXeCropa %Tviid>aXop 'Opvo- 
fiepop, . . ovTot iraPTa^ ap&pwrrov^ virepepoKKov^ 

^ ^Kifftv Wagner (compare Tzetzes, Schol, on Lycophron, 
980, *Afi(l>l\oxos rh K\ri6hv *^Apyos *A/i^iAox<ic^y . . . Kar^Ktat^ 
where, however, some MSS. read Kar^icntre) : ^/n^tf-cy A, 
Aegius, Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, Hercher. 

* M€\aiv4a Wagiier (comparing Pausanias, viii. 3. 3, viii. 
26. 8) ; fjidWayov R^ : fieUhavvw B : naiKawov C : VialvaXw 
Aegius, Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, Hercher. 
But yialvaXos is mentioned a few lines below. 

* "Opov, Heyne conjectured 0\vvrp6v (compare Pausanias, 
viii. 3. 6). 

* 'Optff$4a Hercher (comparing Pausanias, viii. 3. 1). 

* Mavriv4a Heyne (compare Pausanias, viii. 3. 4):»ficum- 
yovv A. 

* vfr(p4$a\\op E : 6ir€p4$a\oy A, Tzetzes, Schol, on Lyco- 
phron, 481. 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY^ III. vii. 7-viii. i 

Amphilochian Argos in obedience to oracles of 

VIII. Let us now return to Pelasgus^ who, Acusi- 
laus says, was a son of Zeus and Niobe, as we have 
supposed,* but Hesiod declares him to have been 
a son of the soil. He had a son Lycaon ^ by Meliboea, 
daughter of Ocean or, as others say, by a nymph 
Cyllene ; and Lycaon, reigning over the Arcadians, 
begat by many Mdves fifty sons, to wit : Melaeneus, 
Thesprotus, Helix, Nyctimus, Peucetius, Caucon, 
Mecisteus, Hopleus, Macareus, Macednus, Horus, 
Polichus, Acontes, Evaemon, Ancyor, Archebates, 
Carteron, Aegaeon, Pallas, Eumon, Canethus, Pro- 
thous, Linus, Coretho, Maenalus, Teleboas, Physius, 
Phassus, Phthius, Lycius, Halipherus, Genetor, 
Bucolion, Socleus, Phineus, Eumetes, Harpaleus, 
Portheus, Plato, Haemo, Cynaethus, Leo, Harpalycus, 
Heraeeus, Titanas, Mantineus, Clitor, St3rmphalus, 
Orchomenus, .... These exceeded all men in pride 

^ Amphilochian Argos was a city of Aetolia, situated on 
the AmDracian Gulf. See Thucydides, ii. 68. 3, who repre- 
sents the founder Amphilochus as the son of Amphiaraus, 
and therefore as the brother, not the son, of Alcmaeon. As 
to Amphilochus, son of Amphiaraus, see above, iii. 7. 2. 

2 See above, ii. 1. 1. 

' The following passage about Lycaon and his sons, down 
to and including the notice of Deucalion's flood, is copied, to 
a great extent verbally, by Tzetzes (Schol, on Lycophron, 
481), who mentions Apolloaorus by name as his authority. 
For another and different list of Lycaon's sons, see Pausanias, 
viii. 3. 1 8qq,y who calls Nyctimus the eldest son of Lycaon, 
whereas Apollodorus calls him the youngest (see below). That 
the wife of Pelasgus and mother of Lycaon was Cyllene is 
affirmed by the Scholiast on Euripides, Orestes, 1645. 


y Google 


vir€fjr)if>avia koX aae/Seia. Zev^ Se avr&v /3ov\6- 
fi€vo^ Tr)v aae/Seiap veipaxrai elxaoffel^ dvSpl 
X^P^V'^V TrapayivcTac, ol Bi avrov iwl ^ivia^ 
KaXeaavTe^, a<l>d^avT€^ eva r&v hnx'^f^^v iraiSa, 
Tot9 Upoi^ ra TovTov airkdyx^^ awavapi^avre^ 
irapedeaav, o'vp,fiov\€va'avTO^ tov trpea^vrepov 
dhek^ov Maivakov. Z6V9 Be <p,v(rax0€l^> ^ Ttfv 

^ ^hia Hercher: ^tyiq, A, Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron, 
481, Wagner. 

^ nvaaxBtU inserted by Aegins (compare Tzetzea, Schol. 
on Lycophrov, 481). 

* With this and what follows compare Nicolans Damas- 
cenus, fr<ig, 43 {Frcigmenta Historicorum Oraecof%itn, ed. 
C. Milller, iii. 378; Suidas, s.v, AuKduv): '^Lycaon, son of 
Pelasgus and king of Arcadia, maintained his father's insti- 
tutions in righteousness. And wishing like his father to 
wean his subjects from unrighteousness he said that Zeus 
constantly visited him in the likeness of a stranger to view 
the righteous and the unrighteous. And once, as he himself 
said, being about to receive the god, he offered a sacrifice. 
But of his fifty sons, whom he had, as they say, by many ' 
women, there were some present at the sacrifice, and wishing 
to know if they were about to give hospitality to a real god, 
they sacrificed a child and mixed his flesh with that of the 
victim, in the belief that their deed would be discovered if 
the visitor was a god indeed. But they say that the deity 
caused great storms to burst and lightnings to flash, and 
that all the murderers of the child perished." A similar 
version of the story is reported by Hyginus {Fab, 176), who 
adds that Zeus in his wrath upset the table, killed the sons 
of Lycaon with a thunderbolt, and turned Lycaon himself 
into a wolf. According to this version of the legend, which 
Apollodorus apparently accepted, Lycaon was a righteous 
king, who ruled wisely like his father Pelasgus before him 
(see Pausanias, viii. 1. 4-6), but his virtuous efforts to benefit 
his subjects were frustrated by the wickedness and impiety 
of his sons, who by exciting the divine anger drew down 
destruction on themselves and on their virtuous parent, and 


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THE LIBRARY, III. viii. i 

and impiety; and Zeus, desirous of putting their 
impiety to the proof, came to them in the likeness of 
a day-labourer. They offered him hospitality and 
having slaughtered a male child of the natives, 
they mixed his bowels with the sacrifices, and 
set them before him, at the instigation of the elder 
brother Maenalus.^ But Zeus in disgust upset the 

even imperilled the existence of mankind in the great flood. 
But according to another, and perhaps more generally re- 
ceived, tradition, it was King Lycaon himself who tempted 
his divine guest by killing and dishing up to him at t-able a 
human being; ana, according to some, the victim was no 
other than the king's own son Nyctimus. See Clement of 
Alexandria, Protrept. ii. 36, p. 31, ed. Potter ; Nonnus, 
Dionys, xviii. 20 sqq, ; Amobius, Adversua NationeSy iv. 24. 
Some, however, said that the victim was not the king's son, 
but his grandson Areas,. the son of his daughter Callisto by 
Zeus. See Eratosthenes, Cataster, 8 ; Hyginus, Astronom, 
ii. 4 ; Scholia in Caesaris Oermamci ArcOea, p. 387 (in Mar- 
tianus Capella, ed. Fr. Eyssenhardt). According to Ovid 
{Metamorph. i. 218 sqq.), the victim was a Molossian hos- 
tage. OthelTs said simply that Lycaon set human flesh before 
the deity. See Lactantius Placidus, on Statins, TJieb. xi. 
128 ; Scriptorea rerum mythicarum LcUini, ed. G. H. Bode, 
vol. i. p. 5 (First Vatican Mythographer, 17). For this crime 
Zeus changed the wicked king into a wolf, according to 
Hyginus, Ovid, the Scholiast on Caesar Germanicus, and the 
First Vatican Mythographer ; but, on the other hand, Clement 
of Alexandria, Nonnus, Eratosthenes, and Arnobius say 
nothing of such a transformation. The upsetting of the 
table by the indignant deity is recorded by Eratosthenes (i.e.) 
as well as by Hyginus { and ApoUodorus. A somewhat 
different account of the tragical occurrence is given by 
Pausanias, who says (viii. 2. 3) that Lycaon brought a human 
babe to the altar of Lycaean Zeus, after which he was 
immediately turned into a wolf. 

These traditions were told to explain the savage and cruel 
rites which appear to have been performed in honour of 
Lycaean Zeus on Mount Lycaeus down to the second cen- 
tury of our era or later. It seems that a human victim 


y Google 


/A€V Tpdire^av avirpe-^ev, evOa vvv Tpawe^ow 
KaXeirai 6 totto?, AvKoova Sk /cal tou9 tovtov 
iraiBa^ ixepavv^ae, X®/>l9 rov vetOTarov ^vxrlfiov* 

was sacrificed, and that his inward parts {<nr\dyxyop), . 
mixed with that of animal victims, was partaken of at a 
sort of cannibal banquet by the worshippers, of whom he 
who chanced to taste of the human flesh was believed to 
be changed into a wolf and to continue in that shape for 
eight ^ears, but to recover his human form in the ninth 
year, if in the meantime he had abstained from eating 
human flesh. See Plato, Republic, viii. 16, p. 565 d k ; Pau- 
sanias, viii. 2. 6. According to another account, reported 
by Varro on the authority of a Greek writer Euanthes, the 
werewolf was chosen by lot, hung his clothes on an oak- 
tree, swam across a pool, and was then transformed into a 
wolf and herded with wolves for nine years, afterwards 
recovering his human shape if in the interval he had not 
tasted the flesh of man. m this account there is no mention 
of cannibalism. See Pliny, N(U, Hist. viii. 81 ; Augustine, 
De civitcUe Dei, xviii. 17. A certain Arcadian boxer, named 
Damarchus, son of Dinnytas, who won a victory at Olympia, 
is said to have been thus transformed into a wolf at the 
sacrifice of Lycaean Zeus and to have been changed back into 
a man in the tenth year afterwards. Of the historical reality 
of the boxer there can be no reasonable doubt, for his statue 
existed in the sacred precinct at Olympia, where it was seen 
by Pausanias ; but in the inscription on it, which Pausanias 
copied, there was no mention made of the man's transfor- 
mation into a wolf. See Pausanias, vi. 8. 2. However, the 
transformation was recorded by a Greek writer, Scopas, 
in his history of Olympic victors, who called the boxer 
Demaenatus, and said that his change of shape was caused 
by his partaking of the inward parts of a boy slain in 
the Arcadian sacrifice to Lycaean Zeus. Scopas also spoke 
of the restoration of the boxer to the human form in the 
tenth year, and mentioned that his victory in boxing at 
Olympia was subsequent to his experiences as a wolf. See 
Plin^, NcU, Hist, viii. 82; Augustine, De civitate Dei, 
xviii. 17. The continuance of human sacrifice in the rites of 
Lycaean Zeus on Mount Lycaeus is hinted at by Pausanias 


y Google 

THE LIBRARY, III. viii. i 

table at the place which is still called Trapezus,^ and 
blasted Lycaon and his sons by thunderbolts, all but 
Nyctimus, the youngest ; for Earth was quick enough 

(viii. 38. 7) in the second century of our era, and asserted by 
Porph3rrY {De abatinentia, ii. 27 : Eusebius, PrcieparcUio 
EvangeUit iv. 16. 6) in the third century. 

From these fragmentary notices it is hardly possible to 
piece together a connected account of the rite ; out the men- 
tion of the transformation of the cannibal into a wolf for 
eight or nine years suggests that the awful sacrifice was 
o&red at intervals either of eight or of nine years. If the 
interval was eight years, it would point to the use of that 
eight years' cycle which played so important a part in the 
ancient calendar of the Greeks, and by which there is reason 
to think that the tenure of the kingship was in some places 
regulated. Perhaps the man who was supposed to be turned 
into a wolf acted as the priest, or even as the incarnation, of 
the Wolf God for eight or nine years till he was relieved of 
his o£Bce at the next celebration of the rites. The subject 
has been learnedly discussed by Mr. A. B. Cook (Zeu«, i. 
63-99). He regaids Lycaean Zeus as a god of light rather 
than of wolves, and for this view there is much to be said. 
.See my note on Pausanias, viii. 38. 7 (vol. iv. pp. 385 sq,). 
The view would be confirmed if we were sure that the 
solemn sacrifice was octennial, for the octennial period was 
introduced in order to reconcile solar and lunar time, and 
hence the religious rites connected with it would naturally 
have reference to the great celestial luminaries. As to the 
octennial period, see the note on ii. 5. 11. But with this view 
of the festival it is difficult to reconcile the part played by 
wolves in the myth and ritual. We can hardly suppose, 
with some late Greek writers, that the ancient Greek word 
for a year, XvxdBas, was derived from A.t;Kot, **a wolf," and 
Baivcoy " to walk." See Aelian, JV(rt. Anim. x. 26 ; Artemi- 
dorus, OnirocriU ii. 12; Eustathius, on Homer, Od. xiv. 161, 
p. 1766. 

^ As to the town of Trapezus, see Pausanias, viii. 3. 3, 
viii. 5. 4, viii. 27. 4-6, viii. 29. 1, viii. 31. 5. The name is 
derived by Apollodorus from the Greek trapeza^ '* a table." 
Compare Eratosthenes, CcUaster, 8. 


y Google 


^Ocuraca^ yap rj Tri teal rrj^ Se^id^ rov Aib^ 
2 €<f>aylrafi€Vfj rrfv opytfv xareiravtre. T^vxTCfiov Se 
Trfv fiaaCKeiav wapaXafiovTo^ 6 iirl AevKoXlayvo^ 
KaTa/cXva/jLo^ iyevero, tovtov evtot Sict ttjv t&v 
AvKoovo^ iralhcDV Svaae/Seiav elirov yeyeprjaOcu. 

EvfirjXo^ Se Kai Tivei erepoi \eyovai Avxaopi 
teal dvyarepa KaWioTO) yevitrdar 'HaioSo^ fiev 
yctp avTffV fiiav eivai r&v vvfKf>&v \eyec, ^Aaio^ 
Si Nu«T€(U9, ^epeKvBrj^ Se Kr^ria)^, avrrj avp- 
07] po^ ^ApT€p,iSo<; oiaa, rrjv avrffv i/ceLvrj aroXifp 
^opova-a, &px)<T€V avr^^ fielvai irapdhfo^. Z6U9 il 
ipaaffeU aKOvay a-wevpa^cTai, elKaadei^, 0)9 fuv 
€vtOL Xeyovaiv, ^Apre/iiSi, w? Se evioi, ^AiroWmvi, 
/3ov\6p£VO<; Si '^Hpav Xadelv^ eU apKTov fiere- 
pipifxacev avTTjv, '^Hpa Se eireiaev '^Aprefivv m 
dypiov Oripiov KaraTo^evo'cu. elal Bk oi Xeyovre; 
{»9 *'A/>T€/it9 avrfjv Karero^evaev on rrjv irap- 

^ <f>$Jiffaffa E, Wagner: iivaffx^vtra A, Aegius, Heyne, 
Weatermann, Miiller, Bekker, Hercher (inserting riis x^^pw* 
from Tzetzes, Schol. on Lycophron^ 481, ri Vrj itvaaxovtra 
tAj x**P«*)- S^^ '''^^ X**"/"** is wanting in EA. 

^ av7^ Gale, Miiller, Bekker, Wagner : aifrov A. 

* XaOf^y E : \a$f7v A. 

1 See above, i. 7. 2. 

' As to the love of Zeus for Callisto, daughter of Lycaon, 
her transformation into a bear, and finally into the constella- 
tion of the Bear, see Pausanias, i. 25. 1, viii. 3. 6 sq, ; 
Eratosthenes, Cataster. 1 ; Libanius, in Westermann's Mytho- 
graphi Oraeci, Appendix Narrationum^ 34, p. 374 ; Tzetzes, 
Schol. on Lycophron, 481 ; Hyginus, Fab. 155, 176, and 177; 
Ovid, Metamorph. ii. 409-507 ; Servius on Virgil, Oeorg. i. 
138 ; Lactantius Placidus, on Statins, Theb. iii. 685 ; Scholia 
in Caesaria Oermanici Aratea, p. 381, ed. F. Eyssenhardt (in 
his edition of Martianus Capella) ; Scriptores rerum mf/thi- 
carum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 5 (First Vatican 


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THE LIBRARY, III. viii. 1-2 

to lay hold of the right hand of Zeus and so appease 
his wrath. But when Nyctimus succeeded to the 
kingdom, there occurred the flood in the age of 
Deucalion ; ^ some said that it was occasioned by the 
impiety of Lycaon's sons. 

But Eumelus and some others say that Lycaon had 
also a daughter Callisto;^ though Hesiod says she 
was one of the nymphs, Asius that she was a daughter 
of Nycteus, and Pherecydes that she was a daughter 
of Ceteus.^ She was a companion of Artemis in the 
chase, wore the same garb, and swore to her to remain 
a maid. Now Zeus loved her and, having assumed the 
likeness, as some say, of Artemis, or, as others say, 
of Apollo, he shared her bed against her will, and 
wishing to escape the notice of Hera, he turned her 
into a bear. But Hera persuaded Artemis to shoot 
her down as a wild beast. Some say, however, that 
Artemis shot her down because she did not keep her 

Mythographer, 17), vol. ii. p. 94 (Second Vatican Mytho- 
grapher, 58). The transformation of Callisto into a bear is 
variously ascribed to the amorous Zeus himself, to the jealous 
Hera, and to the indignant Artemis. The descent of the 
Arcadians from a bear-woman through a son Areas, whose 
name was popularly derived from the Greek arhtos^ "a 
bear,'' has sometimes been adduced in favour of the view 
that the Arcaulians were a totemic people with the bear for 
their totem. See Andrew Lang, Myth, Ritual and Religion 
(London, 1887), ii. 211 sqq. 

' The Tegean historian Araethus also described the mother 
of Areas as the daughter of Ceteus ; according to him she 
was the granddaughter, not the daughter, of Lycaon, and 
her name was Megisto, not Callisto. But he agreed in the 
usual tradition that the heroine had been transformed into a 
bear, and he seems to have laid the scene of the transfor- 
mation at Nonacris in northern Arcadia. See Hy^inus, 
Astronom, ii. 1. According to a Scholiast on Euripides 
{Orestes, 1646), Callisto, mother of Areas, was a daughter of 
Ceteus by Stilbe. 


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deviav ov/e i<l>v\a^v, airoXofieprf^ Se KaXXta^oik 
Zeif^ TO /3pi(f>o^ apirdaa^ iv ^AptcaSia BiSaxriv 
avaTp€<f>€iv Maia, irpoaayopevaa^ ^ApxdBa' rifv 
Be KaXXto-TO) KaTaareplca^ eKaketrev apxrov. 

IX. ^ApxdBo^ Be Koi Aeaveipa^ t^9 ^AfivxXov 
fj M^eyavelpa^^ ttj^ KpoKcovo^, d>^ Bk ESyLtiyXo? 
\eyeif vvfKJ^rj^ Xpva-OTreXela^, iyevovro iratBe^ 
"EXaro^ teal 'A<^€tSa9. oiroi rrfv yrjv i/iepia-avTO, 
TO Bk irav KpaTO^ elx^v ''EXaro?, S? etc AaoBUrj^ 
Tfj^ Kipvpov %Tvpj(f>a\ov fcai Tlepia Tefcvot, 
'A^ctSa? Be 'AXew koX XOeve/Soiav, r^v yafjuel 
npolTO^. *A\eov Be xal Neoipa? t^9 Hepeto^ 
0vydTi]p fiev Avyij, viol Bk Ki7^€V9 /cal AvKovpyo^. 
Avyrf^ fikv oiv i^' 'H/oa/fXeov? ^dapeura KaTe- 
KDv^e TO fipe^o^ iv t^ Tefievei t^9 ^AOrjvd^, fj^ 
€tx€ TTjv UpaxTvvrjp. dxapTTov Bi t^9 7179 fie- 
vovcTf^t Kfd p/qvvovTtov T&v ypriapAv elvoL Tt 
iv T^ TepAvei ttj^ *A0rjva^ BvaaejSrjfia, ^mpadeura 
vwo Tov vaTpb^ irapeBodrj Nav7r\i(p iirl OavdTtp' 
Trap' oi Tev0pa<s 6 Mvtr&v Bwdarrj^ irapaXa/Soiv 
avTfjv eyrjfie.^ to Bk j3pe(f>o<; iiCTeOev iv opei Hap- 
OevLfp OrfKijv vnoax^^^V^ iKd^ov TiyXe^o? i/c\i]di], 
/cal Tpa(f)el^ viro t&v K.opvdov^ ^ovkoXwv koX 
^r^TTJaa^ tov9 yovid^ fjKev eU AeX^ou?, koL 
fiaOwv irapd tov Oeov, irapayevofievo^ eU M.vo'iav 
tf€T09 irai<: TevdpavTO^ ylveTar Kal t€\€vt&vto<; 
avTOv BidBo^o^ T^9 BwacTeLa^ ylveTai, 

^ Merai'c/pas C. Keil, Hercher. 

* KHyn Westermann, M tiller, Bekker, Hercher, Wagner ; 
avrn A. 

' ^7ij/u« Bekker, Hercher, Wagner : t^B^ip* A. 

* Kop69ov Aegius, Heyne (comparing Diodorus Siculus, iv. 
33. liy: K6piv0oyV: K6piy0os A. 


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THE LIBRARY, III. viii. 2-ix. i 

maidenhood. When Callisto perished^ Zeus snatched 
the babe, named it Areas, and gave it to Maia to 
bring up in Arcadia ; and Callisto he turned into 
a star and called it the Bear. 

IX. Areas had two sons, £latus and Aphidas, by 
Leanira, daughter of Amyclas, or by Meganira, 
daughter of Croco, or, according to Eumelus, by a 
nymph Chrysopelia.^ These divided the land be- 
tween them, but Ellatus had all the power, and he 
begat Stymphalus and Pereus by Laodice, daughter 
of Cinyras, and Aphidas had .a son Aleus and a 
daughter Stheneboea, who was married to Proetus. 
And Aleus had a daughter Auge and two sons, Ce- 
pheus and Lycurgus, by Neaera, daughter of Pereus. 
Auge was seduced by Hercules ^ and hid her babe 
in the precinct of Athena, whose priesthood she held. 
But the land remaining barren, and the oracles de- 
claring that there was impiety in the precinct of 
Athena, she was detected and delivered by her father 
to Nauplius to be put to death, and from him Teuthras, 
prince of Mysia, received and married her. But the 
babe, being exposed on Mount Parthenius, was suckled 
by a doe and hence called Telephus. Bred by the 
neatherds of Corythus, he went to Delphi in quest of 
his parents, and on information received from the god 
he repaired to Mysia and became an adopted son of 
Teuthras, on whose death he succeeded to the 

^ As to the SODS of Areas, and the division of Arcadia 
among them, see Pausanias, viii. 4. 1 aqq. According to 
Pausanias, Areas had three sons, Azas, Aphidas, and Elatus 
by Erato, a Dryad nymph ; to Azas his father Areas assigned 
the district of Azania, to Aphidas the city of Tegea, and to 
Elatus the mountain of Cyllene. 

2 For the story of Auge and Telephus, see above, ii. 7. 4. 


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I AvKovpyov Se xal KXeo(f)v\rj^ fj EivpvpofjLtj^ 
^krfKolo^ teal "'EiTTo^^o^ xal ^Afi^iSafia^ xal ''Iao'09.^ 
*AfjL<f)iSdfiavTO^ Sk MeXavicDV Kal dvydrrfp ^Avri- 
fjid^fj, fjp Evpvadeif^ eyrjfiev. ^Idaov Se xal KXv- 
fievrjq T^9 Mipvov ^AraXdvrr) iyevero. ravri]^ 6 
Trarrjp dppevtov iraihayv eiridvfi&v i^€Or]K€V avTi]v, 
apxTO^ Be (fyocrSxra TroWdfci^ BrfKriv iBiSov, p^XP''^ 
ov €vp6vT€<; KVVTjyol Trap* iavTol^ av€Tpe<f>ov. reXeia 
Be ^AraXdvTrj yevopivq irapdevov eavrrjp €<f>v\aTT€, 
Kal dripevovaa ev iprjpia /caOcoTrXitrpAvrj BuTeXei. 
fiid^eaOai Bk avrr)v eiTL'XJ^ipovvTe^ Kipravpoi 'Pot- 
k6<:^ t€ /cal 'TXaco^ KaTaTo^evOevTe^ vtt avrrj^ 
aTreOavov, irapeyevero Bk perh t&v apiarifov kolL 
eirl TOP KaXvBcopiov tcdirpov, teal ev t^ iirl HeXLa 
T€0€VTi^ dy&vi iTrdXaiae TlffXei Kal iviKfjaev. 

^ "Icuroj Heyne, Westermann, Miiller, Bekker, Hercher, 
Wagner : iiaios A. 

^ yp. poiKos H^ P (added by the first hand in the margin) : 
\6kos ER» B : \vKovpyos G. * retf^vri E : Ti««Wi A 

^ Compare Pausauias, viii. 4. 10, who mentions only the 
first two of these four sons. 

2 For the story of Atalanta, and how her suitor won her by 
the bait of the golden apples^ see Theocritus, iii. 40-42; 
Hyginus, Fab, 185 ; Ovid, Metamorph, x. 560-680 ; Servius 
on Virgil, Aen. iii. 113; Scriptorea rerum mythicarum LcUini, 
ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 14, 91 (First Vatican Mytho- 
grapher, 39 ; Second Vatican Mythographer, 47). As Apol- 
lodorus points out, there was a difierence of opinion as to 
the name of Atalanta's father. According to Callimachus 
{Hymn to Artemis, 215) and the First and Second Vatican 
Mythographers {Scriptore8 rerum mythicarum LcUini, ed. 
G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 54, 124), he was lasius ; according to 
Aelian {Var, Hist, xiii. 1), he was lasion. Propertius (i. 1. 
10) seems to agree with ApoUodorus that her father was 
lasus, for he calls Atalanta by the patronymic lasis. But 


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Lycurgus had sons, Ancaeus, Epoch us, Amphidamas, 
and lasus,^ by Cleophyle or Eurynome. And Amphi- 
damas had a son Melanion and a daughter Antimache, 
whom Eurystheus married. And lasus had a daughter 
Atalanta^ by Clymene, daughter of Miliyas. This 
Atalanta was exposed by her father, because he de- 
sired male children ; and a she-bear came often and 
gave her suck, till hunters found her and brought her 
up among themselves. Grown to womanhood, Ata- 
lanta kept herself a virgin, and hunting in the wilder- 
ness she remained always under arms. The centaurs 
Rhoecus and Hylaeus tried to force her, but were 
shot down and killed by her. She went moreover 
with the chiefs to hunt the Calydonian boar, and at 
the games held in honour of Pelias she wrestled with 

according to Diodorus Siculus (iv. 34. 4, iv. 65. 4), Pausanias 
(viii. 35. 10), Hyginus, and Ovid, her father was Schoeneus. 
Hesiod also called him Schoeneus (see ApoUodorus, below), 
and the later writers just mentioned probably accepted the 
name on his authority. According to Euripides, as we learn 
from ApoUodorus (see below), the name of the heroine's father 
was Maenalus. The suckling of Atalanta by the bear, and 
the unsuccessful assault on her by the two centaurs, Hylaeus 
and Rhoecus, are described, with a wealth of picturesque 
detail, by Aelian {Var, Hist. xiii. 1), who does not, however, 
mention her wedding race. The suitor who won the coy 
maiden's hand by throwing down the golden apples is called 
Hippomenes by most writers (Theocritus, Hyginus, Ovid, 
Servius, First and Second Vatican Mythographers). Herein 
later writers may have followed Euripides, who, as we learn 
from ApoUodorus (see below), also called the successful suitor 
Hippomanes. But by Propertius (i. 1. 9) and Ovid {Ars 
Amat. ii. 188) the lover is called Milanion, which nearly 
agrees with the form Melanion adopted by ApoUodorus. 
Pausanias seems also to have agreed with ApoUodorus on 
this point, for he tells us (iii. 12. 9) that Parthenopaeus, who 
was a son of Atalanta (see below), had Melanion for his 


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avevpovaa Si iarepov rov^ yovia^, &^ 6 war^p 
yafieip avrijv hreidev ainovaa eh arahvaZov roirov 
zeal irrjl^aaa pA<TOV a/coXoira rpiirrj'xyp, ivrevOev 
T&v fivqirrevofihtov Toxf^ Zpop^ov^ irpoietaa ^ erpo- 
va^ls KaOfaifKiapAvri', koL icaTaXr^i^devri piv avrov^ 
udvaTO^ (o^t\€TO, pi) KaroKq^devTi Sk ydp>o^, 
^Sri Bk iroW&p diroKopevfoi^TAekavLtov aifrrj^ ipaa-- 
Oel^ fjKev iml top Spopop, ^^/oiJa-ca prjXa /eopX^tov 
Trap* *K(^pohirTjSi teal Skdkop^po^ ravra epptirrev. 
ij hk dpatpovpeptf tA piTrropepa^ top Spopop epi- 
ktiOt], eyrfpep oip axnrjp 'iAeKapitop, xai irore 
Xeyerai Otjpevopra^ avrob^ eltreKffeiP eh to t^/a€- 
po^ Aio^, KOLicel avpovaid^oPTa^ eh Xeopra^ ^ aXXa- 
yrjpac. 'HaioBo^ Se leaL ripe^ erepoi TtfP * X.rakdpTrfv 
ovK *\d<TOV aKKh Xxoivio>^ elirop, KvpiiriBrjf; Se 

* vpoXMa Heyne, Miiller, Hercher, Wagner : vptliovaa A, 
Westermann, Bekker. If the manuscript reading irpotovo-a 
were retained, the meaning would be that in the race Atalanta 
was given a start and her suitors had to overtake her; 
whereas from the express testimony of Hyeinus (Fab, 185), 
confirmed by the incident of the golden apples, we know that 
on the contrary it was the suitors who were given a start, 
while Atalanta followed after them. 

^ avrov Bekker, Hercher, Wagner : o&rf EA, Westermann, 

' ixo\ofi4¥»y Bekker, Hercher, Wagner : iiroXAv/ucVflvy £A. 

* fiimrifitva EL : jmrrou/xtva A. 
' \4ovTas E : n\4ovras A. 

^ According to Ovid {Metamorph, x. 644 sqq,) the goddess 
brought the srolden apples from her sacred field of Tamasus, 
the richest land in Cyprus ; there in the midst of the field 
grew a wondrous tree, its leaves and branches resplendent 
with crackling gold, and from its boughs Aphrodite plucked 
three golden apples. But, according to others, the apples 
came from the more familiar garden of the Hesperides. See 


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Peleus and won. Afterwards she discovered her 
parents, but when her father would have persuaded 
her to wed, she went away to a place that might 
serve as a race-course, and, having planted a stake 
three cubits high in the middle of it, she caused her 
wooers to race before her from there, and ran herself 
in arms ; and if the wooer was caught up, his due was 
death on the spot, and if he was not caught up, his 
due was marriage. When many had already perished, 
Melanion came to run for love of her, bringing golden 
apples from Aphrodite,^ and being pursued he threw 
them down, and she, picking up the dropped fruit, 
was beaten in the race. So Melanion married her. 
And once on a time it is said that out hunting they 
entered into the precinct of Zeus, and there taking 
their fill of love were changed into lions.^ But Hesiod 
and some others have said that Atalanta was not a 
daughter of lasus, but of Schoeneus ; and Euripides 

Servius on Virgil, Aen, ill. 113 ; Scriptores rerum mythicarum 
Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 14 (First Vatican Mytho- 
grapher, i. 39). 

^ The sacrilege and its punishment are recorded also by 
Hyginus {Fab, 185), Servius (on Virgil, Aen, iii. 113), and the 
First Vatican Mythographer {Scriptores rerum mythicarum 
Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. p. 14, fab. 39). The reason why 
the lovers were turned into a lion and a lioness for their im- 
piety is explained by the ancient mythographers to be that 
lions do not mate with each other, but with leopards, so that 
after their transformation the lovers could never repeat the 
sin of which they had been guilty. For this curious piece of 
natural history they refer to Pliny's Natural History ; but 
all that Pliny, in the form in which he has come down to us, 
appears to aifirm on this subject is, that when a lioness 
forgot her dignity with a leopard, her mate easily detected 
and vigorous^ punished the oflFence {Nat. Hist. viii. 43). 
What would have happened if the lion had similarly mis- 
behaved with a leopardess is not mentioned by the natural 


VOL. I. no 

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MaivaKov, Kal rov yij/uiVTa avrifv ov ^eXavltova 
dXKa ^iTTTTOfiivrjv, iyiwrftre Se ix MeXavifovo^ 
^AraXavTY} fj ''Kpeo^ Hapdevoiralov, 09 cttI &i]/3a<: 

^ See above, note on p. 399. It may have been in his lost 
tragedy, MeUager, that Euripides named the father and 
husband of Atalanta. She is named in one of the existing 
fragments (No. 530) of the play. See Tragicorum Orctecorum 
Fragmenta, ed. Nauck^, pp. 526 aqq. 


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says that she was a daughter of Maenalus, and that 
her husband was not Melanion but Hippomenes.^ 
And by Melanion, or Ares, Atalanta had a son Par- 
thenopaeus, who went to the war against Thebes.^ 

2 See above, iii. 6. 3. According to others, the father of 
Parthenopaeus was neither Melanion nor Ares, but Meleager. 
See Hyginus, Fab. 70, 99, and 270 ; Scriptores rerum mythi- 
carum Latini, ed. G. H. Bode, vol. i. pp. 54, 125 (First 
Vatican Mythographer, 174 ; Second Vatican Mythographer, 


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